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FROM Republic TO empire

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Presentation on theme: "FROM Republic TO empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 FROM Republic TO empire
ROME FROM Republic TO empire

2 Roman Law of Nations System of laws developed in order to govern a growing empire Based on natural (universal) law Standards of justice that applied to all people Based on reason Due Process Property Rights Recognition of cruelty of slavery

3 The Institution of Slavery
Common form of labor in ancient Rome Slaves were prisoners of war Came from all parts of the empire What did slaves do? Built public works (roads, buildings, etc.) Worked private lands of wealthy Household workers (cooks, waiters, etc.) Shop assistants, craftsmen Gladiators Greek slaves Tutors, artists, musicians, doctors


5 Slavery, cntd. Tough conditions – particularly laborers Revolts
Cheaper to work them to death Revolts Spartacus (73-71 B.C.) Defeats several Roman armies with force of 70,000 slaves He and 6,000 followers crucified


7 Roman Literature Golden Age of literature – Augustan Age
Virgil writes the Aeneid Poem meant to honor Rome Portrays Aeneas as the ideal Roman Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness Symbolizes Romans divine mission to rule world

8 Roman Art Adopted Greek style of sculpture Embraced realism
Did not constantly pursue perfection like the Greeks

9 A Bronze piece from the Etruscans
A Bronze piece from the Etruscans.  Legend has it that Rome was founded by twin boys Romulus and Remus.  The details vary but the basic story is that the boys father was king, their uncle overthrew him, and then ordered the boys to be killed.  They were abandoned by the river, adopted by a wolf who raised them as her cubs.  They were then discovered by a shepherd who had no children of his own and so he and his wife raised the boys.  They learned of their royal birth, attacked their uncle, restored their father to his kingdom, and then set out to make their own kingdoms.  The twins settled in on the Palatine Hills and here there are several stories, but basically, as with their father and uncle before them,  they were not capable of sharing and so contest and battles ensue leaving Romulus the victor and Remus dead.  Romulus then goes on to found the city of Rome.

10 Roman Architecture Embrace Greek architecture Introduce curved lines
Columns and square buildings Introduce curved lines Arches, vaults and domes Use concrete on massive scale New methods in architecture allow them to create larger structures than Greeks Build networks of roads, bridges, aqueducts




14 Christianity Spreads in Mid East region of empire due to:
Preaching of Jesus Word that he had arisen from death Spreads through empire Preaching by apostles St. Peter establishes Christian communities in Asia Minor (Turkey) and Greece Writing of the Gospels ( AD) Teachings of Jesus Disciples’ letters


16 Christianity, cntd. By 100 AD By 200 AD
Churches in most cities of eastern Empire Mostly of Jewish or Greek origin By 200 AD Latin-speaking peoples being converted Western section of the Empire

17 Persecution of Christians
Romans thought Christians were harmful Refused to worship Roman gods Seen as treason – punishable by death Began under Nero (54-68 AD) Blamed them for fire that ravaged the city Cruel deaths (Coliseum) Persecution lessens during second century By 180 AD Christians are strong minority of empire

18 Acceptance of Christianity
Rise of the clergy (Church leaders) Bishops assert more control over communities Increased organization means rapid spread Why rapid growth? Appealing message to Roman masses Individual worth under God Sense of belonging (strong communities) Spiritual equality (eternal life)


20 Constantine Edict of Milan (313 AD) Constantine baptizes
Officially proclaims tolerance for Christianity Recognizes its growing strength Constantine baptizes Becomes first Christian emperor Does so right before his death Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity official religion of Roman empire

21 The Emperor Theodosius (about ) - in armour and a laurel wreath - is prevented from entering Milan Cathedral by Saint Ambrose (about ), bishop of the city. The saint had banned Theodosius from the cathedral after the massacre of a subject population in Thessalonica. Van Dyck has identified one of Theodosius's companions as Ruffinus, whose shameless arrogance Saint Ambrose compared to a dog (which is at his feet). The story of Saint Ambrose is related in 'The Golden Legend'.

22 The Division Belief that empire had grown too large
Emperor Diocletian divides it into 2 (293 AD) Each region Diocletian rules West and ultimate influence in East Eventually reunited under Constantine in 324 Creates new capital city in Greek city of Byzantium Renamed Constantinople Will soon become center of Byzantine Empire Then in AD 293 Diocletian took another huge step into the unknown by founding the 'Tetrarchy', the rule of four. This entirely new idea of imperial government, meant that four emperors should rule the empire. Two Augusti would rule as major emperors, one in teh east, the other in the west. Each Augustus would adopt as his son a junior emperor, a Caesar, who would help rule his half of the empire with him and who be his appointed successor.


24 Weakening of Rome Diocletian and Constantine govern over large bureaucracy Large public servants (civil service) Standing army of 500,000 men Draining most public funds No increase in population Means no increase in tax base Rome’s economic strength dwindling

25 The Fall Empire divided for a second time
Rome capital of West Constantinople capital of East The Visigoths sack Rome (410) Germanic tribe pushed South and West by the Huns The Vandals sack Rome (455) Roaming tribe from Spain via Africa

26 Visigoths Vandals

27 476 AD Western Emperor Romulus Augusts deposed by Germanic head of army Splits into series of kingdoms Eastern empire continues as the Byzantine Empire

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