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ROME FROM Republic TO empire. Roman Law of Nations System of laws developed in order to govern a growing empire Based on natural (universal) law – –Standards.

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Presentation on theme: "ROME FROM Republic TO empire. Roman Law of Nations System of laws developed in order to govern a growing empire Based on natural (universal) law – –Standards."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROME FROM Republic TO empire

2 Roman Law of Nations System of laws developed in order to govern a growing empire Based on natural (universal) law – –Standards of justice that applied to all people – –Based on reason   Due Process   Property Rights   Recognition of cruelty of slavery

3 The Institution of Slavery Common form of labor in ancient Rome – –Slaves were prisoners of war – –Came from all parts of the empire What did slaves do? – –Built public works (roads, buildings, etc.) – –Worked private lands of wealthy – – Household workers (cooks, waiters, etc.) – –Shop assistants, craftsmen – –Gladiators – –Greek slaves   Tutors, artists, musicians, doctors

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5 Slavery, cntd. Tough conditions – particularly laborers – –Cheaper to work them to death Revolts – –Spartacus (73-71 B.C.)   Defeats several Roman armies with force of 70,000 slaves   He and 6,000 followers crucified

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7 Roman Literature Golden Age of literature – Augustan Age – –Virgil writes the Aeneid   Poem meant to honor Rome   Portrays Aeneas as the ideal Roman – –Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness   Symbolizes Romans divine mission to rule world

8 Roman Art Adopted Greek style of sculpture – –Embraced realism   Did not constantly pursue perfection like the Greeks

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10 Roman Architecture Embrace Greek architecture – –Columns and square buildings Introduce curved lines – –Arches, vaults and domes Use concrete on massive scale New methods in architecture allow them to create larger structures than Greeks Build networks of roads, bridges, aqueducts

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14 Christianity Spreads in Mid East region of empire due to: – –Preaching of Jesus – –Word that he had arisen from death Spreads through empire – –Preaching by apostles   St. Peter establishes Christian communities in Asia Minor (Turkey) and Greece   Writing of the Gospels ( AD) – –Teachings of Jesus – –Disciples’ letters

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16 Christianity, cntd. By 100 AD – –Churches in most cities of eastern Empire   Mostly of Jewish or Greek origin By 200 AD – –Latin-speaking peoples being converted   Western section of the Empire

17 Persecution of Christians Romans thought Christians were harmful – –Refused to worship Roman gods   Seen as treason – punishable by death Began under Nero (54-68 AD) – –Blamed them for fire that ravaged the city   Cruel deaths (Coliseum) Persecution lessens during second century – –By 180 AD Christians are strong minority of empire

18 Acceptance of Christianity Rise of the clergy (Church leaders) – –Bishops assert more control over communities – –Increased organization means rapid spread Why rapid growth? – –Appealing message to Roman masses   Individual worth under God   Sense of belonging (strong communities)   Spiritual equality (eternal life)

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20 Constantine Edict of Milan (313 AD) – –Officially proclaims tolerance for Christianity   Recognizes its growing strength Constantine baptizes – –Becomes first Christian emperor   Does so right before his death Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity official religion of Roman empire

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22 The Division Belief that empire had grown too large – –Emperor Diocletian divides it into 2 (293 AD)   Each region Diocletian rules West and ultimate influence in East – –Eventually reunited under Constantine in 324   Creates new capital city in Greek city of Byzantium   Renamed Constantinople – –Will soon become center of Byzantine Empire

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24 Weakening of Rome Diocletian and Constantine govern over large bureaucracy – –Large public servants (civil service) – –Standing army of 500,000 men   Draining most public funds No increase in population – –Means no increase in tax base – –Rome’s economic strength dwindling

25 The Fall Empire divided for a second time – –Rome capital of West – –Constantinople capital of East The Visigoths sack Rome (410) – –Germanic tribe pushed South and West by the Huns The Vandals sack Rome (455) – –Roaming tribe from Spain via Africa

26 Visigoths Vandals

27 476 AD Western Emperor Romulus Augusts deposed by Germanic head of army – –Splits into series of kingdoms Eastern empire continues as the Byzantine Empire


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