Presentation on theme: "FROM Republic TO empire"— Presentation transcript:
1FROM Republic TO empire ROMEFROM Republic TO empire
2Roman Law of NationsSystem of laws developed in order to govern a growing empireBased on natural (universal) lawStandards of justice that applied to all peopleBased on reasonDue ProcessProperty RightsRecognition of cruelty of slavery
3The Institution of Slavery Common form of labor in ancient RomeSlaves were prisoners of warCame from all parts of the empireWhat did slaves do?Built public works (roads, buildings, etc.)Worked private lands of wealthyHousehold workers (cooks, waiters, etc.)Shop assistants, craftsmenGladiatorsGreek slavesTutors, artists, musicians, doctors
5Slavery, cntd. Tough conditions – particularly laborers Revolts Cheaper to work them to deathRevoltsSpartacus (73-71 B.C.)Defeats several Roman armies with force of 70,000 slavesHe and 6,000 followers crucified
7Roman Literature Golden Age of literature – Augustan Age Virgil writes the AeneidPoem meant to honor RomePortrays Aeneas as the ideal RomanVirtues of duty, piety, and faithfulnessSymbolizes Romans divine mission to rule world
8Roman Art Adopted Greek style of sculpture Embraced realism Did not constantly pursue perfection like the Greeks
9A Bronze piece from the Etruscans A Bronze piece from the Etruscans. Legend has it that Rome was founded by twin boys Romulus and Remus. The details vary but the basic story is that the boys father was king, their uncle overthrew him, and then ordered the boys to be killed. They were abandoned by the river, adopted by a wolf who raised them as her cubs. They were then discovered by a shepherd who had no children of his own and so he and his wife raised the boys. They learned of their royal birth, attacked their uncle, restored their father to his kingdom, and then set out to make their own kingdoms. The twins settled in on the Palatine Hills and here there are several stories, but basically, as with their father and uncle before them, they were not capable of sharing and so contest and battles ensue leaving Romulus the victor and Remus dead. Romulus then goes on to found the city of Rome.
10Roman Architecture Embrace Greek architecture Introduce curved lines Columns and square buildingsIntroduce curved linesArches, vaults and domesUse concrete on massive scaleNew methods in architecture allow them to create larger structures than GreeksBuild networks of roads, bridges, aqueducts
14Christianity Spreads in Mid East region of empire due to: Preaching of JesusWord that he had arisen from deathSpreads through empirePreaching by apostlesSt. Peter establishes Christian communities in Asia Minor (Turkey) and GreeceWriting of the Gospels ( AD)Teachings of JesusDisciples’ letters
16Christianity, cntd. By 100 AD By 200 AD Churches in most cities of eastern EmpireMostly of Jewish or Greek originBy 200 ADLatin-speaking peoples being convertedWestern section of the Empire
17Persecution of Christians Romans thought Christians were harmfulRefused to worship Roman godsSeen as treason – punishable by deathBegan under Nero (54-68 AD)Blamed them for fire that ravaged the cityCruel deaths (Coliseum)Persecution lessens during second centuryBy 180 AD Christians are strong minority of empire
18Acceptance of Christianity Rise of the clergy (Church leaders)Bishops assert more control over communitiesIncreased organization means rapid spreadWhy rapid growth?Appealing message to Roman massesIndividual worth under GodSense of belonging (strong communities)Spiritual equality (eternal life)
20Constantine Edict of Milan (313 AD) Constantine baptizes Officially proclaims tolerance for ChristianityRecognizes its growing strengthConstantine baptizesBecomes first Christian emperorDoes so right before his deathEmperor Theodosius makes Christianity official religion of Roman empire
21The Emperor Theodosius (about ) - in armour and a laurel wreath - is prevented from entering Milan Cathedral by Saint Ambrose (about ), bishop of the city. The saint had banned Theodosius from the cathedral after the massacre of a subject population in Thessalonica. Van Dyck has identified one of Theodosius's companions as Ruffinus, whose shameless arrogance Saint Ambrose compared to a dog (which is at his feet). The story of Saint Ambrose is related in 'The Golden Legend'.
22The Division Belief that empire had grown too large Emperor Diocletian divides it into 2 (293 AD)Each region Diocletian rules West and ultimate influence in EastEventually reunited under Constantine in 324Creates new capital city in Greek city of ByzantiumRenamed ConstantinopleWill soon become center of Byzantine EmpireThen in AD 293 Diocletian took another huge step into the unknown by founding the 'Tetrarchy', the rule of four. This entirely new idea of imperial government, meant that four emperors should rule the empire. Two Augusti would rule as major emperors, one in teh east, the other in the west. Each Augustus would adopt as his son a junior emperor, a Caesar, who would help rule his half of the empire with him and who be his appointed successor.
24Weakening of RomeDiocletian and Constantine govern over large bureaucracyLarge public servants (civil service)Standing army of 500,000 menDraining most public fundsNo increase in populationMeans no increase in tax baseRome’s economic strength dwindling
25The Fall Empire divided for a second time Rome capital of WestConstantinople capital of EastThe Visigoths sack Rome (410)Germanic tribe pushed South and West by the HunsThe Vandals sack Rome (455)Roaming tribe from Spain via Africa