Presentation on theme: "An Age of Explorations and Isolation"— Presentation transcript:
1An Age of Explorations and Isolation 1400-1800 Chapter 19p
2Background Renaissance encouraged a new By 1400, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their bordersRenaissance encouraged a newspirit of adventure and curiosityPrinting press spread ideas andnew maps and charts
3I. Causes of European Exploration #1- New Trade RoutesPeople want wealth; achieve that through tradeTraded spices (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper)Introduced during Crusades; people still demanded goods once wars endedDemand greater than supply= high prices
4Causes of European Exploration (cont’d) Trade routes controlled by Italians and MuslimsMuslims sold Asian goods to ItaliansItalian merchants resold items at increased prices to merchants throughout EuropeOther traders did NOT like this and wanted new routes that bypassed Italian merchants
5Causes of European Exploration (cont’d) #2- Spread ChristianityCrusades left hostility between Christians and MuslimsEuropeans believed theyhad a sacred duty tocontinue fighting Muslimsand to convert non-Christians
6Causes of European Exploration (cont’d) Bartolomeu Dias: early Portuguese explorer“For God, Glory, and Gold”(”To serve God and His majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”)
7Causes of European Exploration (cont’d) #3- New Exploration TechnologiesCaravel: stronger, sturdier ship with triangular sails (adopted from Arabs); made it possible to sail against the windAstrolabe: brass circle w/ carefullyadjusted rings marked off indegrees; used to calculate latitude(perfected by Muslims)Compass: magnetically trackeddirection (Chinese invention)
8II. Portugal leads the way Portugal was 1st to establish trading outposts along the west coast of AfricaPrince Henry: son of Portugal’s kingNation’s most enthusiastic supporter of explorationConquered Muslim city in North Africa where he discovered exotic wealth never found in Europe (cinnamon, cloves, pepper, silver, gold, jewels.
9Portugal leads the way (cont’d) Henry determined to find the source of that wealth1419 he founded a navigation school in Portugal(mapmakers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains, gathered there to perfect their trade)
10Portugal leads the way (cont’d) By Henry’s death, Portugal held a series of trading posts along western African shores.Traded for gold and ivoryEventually, they traded for African captives (slaves)Next, Portugal searched for a trade route to Asia
11Portugal leads the way (cont’d) Portugal secures a Sea Route to AsiaBartolomeu Dias1488 Sailed down w. coast of Africawhere he reached the tipHuge storm arose, battered shipsRealized his ships were blown around the tipExplored SE coast but crew was exhausted so they returned home
12Portugal leads the way (cont’d) Vasco da Gama1498 began exploring east African coastReached Calicut (SW coast of India)Amazed by spices, rare silks, precious gemsFilled boats with goods and returned to Portugal where they sold them for 60 times the cost of the voyageDa Gama’s voyage of 27,000 miles gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
13III. Spain also makes claim Christopher Columbus1492 he convinced Spain (although he was Italian) to pay for his plan to find a trade route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
14Spain also makes claim (cont’d) October 1492: landed on a Caribbean Island which he mistook for the East Indies (AKA -Indonesia.)Immediate impact of Columbus: Increased tension between Spain and Portugal.
16Spain also makes claim (cont’d) Spain vs. PortugalPortugal believed Spain reached Asia and that Columbus claimed lands that the Portuguese might have reached first.Pope Alexander VI divided the land between the 2 nations
17Spain also makes claim (cont’d) He drew the Line of Demarcation: imaginary North/South line that gave lands on the east to Portugal (light green) and the lands on the west to Spain1494 Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas: they agreed to honor the line.
18IV. Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean With new trade routes came conflict. European nations scrambled to establish profitable trading posts as they battle natives and each other
19Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d) PortugalBuilt huge trading empire by capturing many Muslim owned lands (w/ help from cannons mounted on their ships)(Straits of Hormuz, Goa, Strait of Malacca, Spice Islands)By capturing these Muslim owned lands, the Portuguese broke the Italian-Muslim domination of trade and sold goods at 1/5 the cost.
20Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d) English and Dutch1600 they began to challenge PortugalDutch owned the largest fleet of ships with 20,000 vesselsBoth formed East India Company to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Also could mint money, make treaties, and raise armies.
21Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d) Dutch East India Company eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the regionBy 1700, Dutch ruled much of Indonesia, the Spice Islands, and the Cape of Good Hope
22Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d) FrenchEstablished its own East India CompanyIt struggled at first, faced attacks from the Dutch, eventually est. output in India*Although Europeans took control of many port cities their influence rarely spread beyond the ports.
23V. China: Ming DynastyEuropeans had ports all over the Indian and Asian coasts and were now looking for more sources of wealth.They found it in China, then Japan.By 1514 the Chinese had driven out the Mongol rulers and had united under new leadership: the Ming Dynasty
24China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d) Ming Dynasty: dominant power in Asia fromHongwu: commanded a rebel army that drove out the Mongols in 1368 and became the 1st Ming EmperorPromoted reforms to restore agricultural lands destroyed by war, erase all trace of Mongols, & promote China’s power and prosperity
26China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d) Hongwu eventually dies, his son (Yonglo) takes over. He was very curious of the world so he launched 7 voyages of exploration.Zheng He led all 7 voyages40 to 300 ships made the voyages: fighting ships, storage vessels, and “treasure” ships (400 ft long!)Carried soldiers, sailors, interpreters, accountants, doctors, and religious leaders.
27China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d) Zheng He showed superiority by leaving silver and silk as giftsMore than 16 countries paid tribute to ChinaOfficials complained it was a waste and the voyages ceased after the 7th in 1433
28China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d) China’s trade policies reflected isolationOnly government officials were allowed to conduct foreign trade through 3 coastal portsHowever, smuggling went on up and down the ports
29VI. China: Qing DynastyManchus: people of Manchuria (west of the Great Wall) invaded China and took over the Ming (had ruled for 200 yrs)Qing Dynasty: name taken of the Manchus as they ruled for 260 yrsExpanded China’s borders to include Taiwan, Chinese central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet
31China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d) RebellionsMany Chinese resisted the non-Chinese Manchus and rebellions flared up for decadesImprovementsManchus made frontiers safeRestored China’s prosperityWhile keeping Confucian beliefs and social structures
32China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d) RulersKangxi: Qing EmperorReduced govt.expensesLowered taxesPatron of the artsWelcomed the Jesuits who told them of science, medicine, mathematics, etc. in Europe
33China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d) Qian-long:Kangxi grandsonChina reached its greatest size and prosperity
34China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d) Chinese continue isolationChina, center of universeIf foreigners wanted to trade, they had to follow the Chinese rulesSpecial ports & tributeDutch followed the rulesDutch returned w/ manytrade items including a newone…TEA.By 1800 tea made up 80% of shipments to Europe
35China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d) British also wanted to trade, but didn’t like the rules1793 Lord Macartney of England delivered a letter from the king asking for better arrangementsQian-long declinedThis leads to problems later
36VII. Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties Role of FamilyMost farmedAgriculture improved b/c of irrigation and fertilizersThis caused increase in food productionThus, an increase in population
37Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (cont’d) Favored sons over daughtersOnly son could perform religious ritualsSons raised families under parents roofs(remember that they took care of aging parents!)Women worked the fields, took care of the children's education, and managed the finances
38Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (cont’d) Cultural DevelopmentsTraditional Chinese fictionwritten at this timeArtists painted in traditionalstyleExperimentation in ceramicsled to high-quality, includingporcelainDrama very popular
39VIII. Japan’s 3 Daimyo Background In the 1300s Japan had developed unity under the Shoguns (military rulers). In 1467, civil war shattered Japan’s feudal system and the country slipped into chaos as violent disorder followed. AKA-”Warring States” period. Eventually powerful samurais gained control and offered protection to peasants in return for loyalty. Their new system of feudalism resembled that in Europe, with castles, small armies, and now, muskets.
40Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d) Daimyo: warrior chieftains who become lords in JapanOda Nobunaga: brutal and ambitious daimyo who hoped to gain enough power to take the whole country.Seized the capital in 1568“rule the empire by force”1st to use muskets in Japanese battle1582 committed seppuku (ritual ofsuicide of a samurai) when one of hisown generals turned on him
41Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d) Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Nobunaga’s best general, continued his mission of destroying the daimyo that remained hostileBy 1590 he controlled most of JapanWanted to conquer China, so sent troops to Korea (allies with Ming)Hideyoshi died 1598, troops w/drew from Korea
42Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d) Tokugawa Ieyasu:completed the unificationof Japan1600, defeated rivalsBecame sole ruler of JapanTamed the daimyo at the local level by requiring them to spend every other year in the capitalFounded Tokugawa Shogunate: dynasty of shoguns that ruled Japan until 1876
43IX. Life in Japan Society Emperor (figure-head) Very structuredEmperor (figure-head)Shogun: military commander who actually held powerDaimyo: powerful landholding samuraiSamurai WarriorsPeasants and ArtisansMerchants; eventually became more important as Japan’s economy expanded
44Life in Japan (cont’d) Confucian values influenced ideas about society Depended on agriculturePeasants made ideal citizens, bore majority of tax burdenMany left farming and tried to make it as samurais, artisans, and merchantsBy 1700s, Japan began to shift from rural to urban society
45Life in Japan (cont’d) Culture Samurai attended dramas Read tales of courageNew literature, drama, and art emergeHaiku: syllable, 3-line verse poetryPresents images rather than ideasKabuki: type of drama where music, dance, and mime are used to present stories
46Life in Japan (cont’d) Contact between Japan and Europe Europeans began coming to Japan in the 16th century and were welcomedShipwrecked Portuguese washed up on their shoresBrought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, & other unfamiliar itemsDaimyo very interested in firearms (traditional weapon was sword). They wanted every advantage over othersMany samurai kept the traditional sword and lost badly in battle
47Life in Japan (cont’d) Christians in Japan 1549 Christian missionaries arrived in JapanJapanese accepted them b/c they associated them with goods from EuropeConverted over 300,000 JapaneseTokugawa Ieyasu upset b/c these Christians scorned Japanese beliefs & involved themselves in politicsDidn’t do anything b/c he didn’t want to drive off the new merchants
48Life in Japan (cont’d) * This led to Japanese exclusion policy! Ieyasu died in 1616In 1637, 30,000 peasants revolted against the Shogunate.b/c so many rebels were Christian, they blamed them for the rebellionAfter that, they ruthlessly persecuted Christians and forced Japanese to demonstrate Buddhism* This led to Japanese exclusion policy!
49X. Japan’s Closed Country Policy At first, Japan welcomed new tradeOver time, they realized they could safely exclude both missionaries and merchants1639 they sealed their borders and instituted their “Closed Country Policy”Only ONE port, Nagasaki, remained open to Chinese and Dutch.
50Japan’s Closed Country Policy (cont’d) For 200 yrs, Japan remained basically closed to Europeans.AND Japanese were forbidden to leave!Japan went on to develop self-sufficiently, free of European attempts to colonize