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An Age of Explorations and Isolation

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1 An Age of Explorations and Isolation 1400-1800
Chapter 19 p

2 Background Renaissance encouraged a new
By 1400, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and curiosity Printing press spread ideas and new maps and charts

3 I. Causes of European Exploration
#1- New Trade Routes People want wealth; achieve that through trade Traded spices (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper) Introduced during Crusades; people still demanded goods once wars ended Demand greater than supply= high prices

4 Causes of European Exploration (cont’d)
Trade routes controlled by Italians and Muslims Muslims sold Asian goods to Italians Italian merchants resold items at increased prices to merchants throughout Europe Other traders did NOT like this and wanted new routes that bypassed Italian merchants

5 Causes of European Exploration (cont’d)
#2- Spread Christianity Crusades left hostility between Christians and Muslims Europeans believed they had a sacred duty to continue fighting Muslims and to convert non-Christians

6 Causes of European Exploration (cont’d)
Bartolomeu Dias: early Portuguese explorer “For God, Glory, and Gold” (”To serve God and His majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”)

7 Causes of European Exploration (cont’d)
#3- New Exploration Technologies Caravel: stronger, sturdier ship with triangular sails (adopted from Arabs); made it possible to sail against the wind Astrolabe: brass circle w/ carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees; used to calculate latitude (perfected by Muslims) Compass: magnetically tracked direction (Chinese invention)

8 II. Portugal leads the way
Portugal was 1st to establish trading outposts along the west coast of Africa Prince Henry: son of Portugal’s king Nation’s most enthusiastic supporter of exploration Conquered Muslim city in North Africa where he discovered exotic wealth never found in Europe (cinnamon, cloves, pepper, silver, gold, jewels.

9 Portugal leads the way (cont’d)
Henry determined to find the source of that wealth 1419 he founded a navigation school in Portugal (mapmakers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains, gathered there to perfect their trade)

10 Portugal leads the way (cont’d)
By Henry’s death, Portugal held a series of trading posts along western African shores. Traded for gold and ivory Eventually, they traded for African captives (slaves) Next, Portugal searched for a trade route to Asia

11 Portugal leads the way (cont’d)
Portugal secures a Sea Route to Asia Bartolomeu Dias 1488 Sailed down w. coast of Africa where he reached the tip Huge storm arose, battered ships Realized his ships were blown around the tip Explored SE coast but crew was exhausted so they returned home

12 Portugal leads the way (cont’d)
Vasco da Gama 1498 began exploring east African coast Reached Calicut (SW coast of India) Amazed by spices, rare silks, precious gems Filled boats with goods and returned to Portugal where they sold them for 60 times the cost of the voyage Da Gama’s voyage of 27,000 miles gave Portugal a direct sea route to India

13 III. Spain also makes claim
Christopher Columbus 1492 he convinced Spain (although he was Italian) to pay for his plan to find a trade route to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean

14 Spain also makes claim (cont’d)
October 1492: landed on a Caribbean Island which he mistook for the East Indies (AKA -Indonesia.) Immediate impact of Columbus: Increased tension between Spain and Portugal.


16 Spain also makes claim (cont’d)
Spain vs. Portugal Portugal believed Spain reached Asia and that Columbus claimed lands that the Portuguese might have reached first. Pope Alexander VI divided the land between the 2 nations

17 Spain also makes claim (cont’d)
He drew the Line of Demarcation: imaginary North/South line that gave lands on the east to Portugal (light green) and the lands on the west to Spain 1494 Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas: they agreed to honor the line.

18 IV. Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean
With new trade routes came conflict. European nations scrambled to establish profitable trading posts as they battle natives and each other

19 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d)
Portugal Built huge trading empire by capturing many Muslim owned lands (w/ help from cannons mounted on their ships) (Straits of Hormuz, Goa, Strait of Malacca, Spice Islands) By capturing these Muslim owned lands, the Portuguese broke the Italian-Muslim domination of trade and sold goods at 1/5 the cost.

20 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d)
English and Dutch 1600 they began to challenge Portugal Dutch owned the largest fleet of ships with 20,000 vessels Both formed East India Company to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Also could mint money, make treaties, and raise armies.

21 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d)
Dutch East India Company eventually drove out the English and established dominance over the region By 1700, Dutch ruled much of Indonesia, the Spice Islands, and the Cape of Good Hope

22 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean (cont’d)
French Established its own East India Company It struggled at first, faced attacks from the Dutch, eventually est. output in India *Although Europeans took control of many port cities their influence rarely spread beyond the ports.

23 V. China: Ming Dynasty Europeans had ports all over the Indian and Asian coasts and were now looking for more sources of wealth. They found it in China, then Japan. By 1514 the Chinese had driven out the Mongol rulers and had united under new leadership: the Ming Dynasty

24 China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d)
Ming Dynasty: dominant power in Asia from Hongwu: commanded a rebel army that drove out the Mongols in 1368 and became the 1st Ming Emperor Promoted reforms to restore agricultural lands destroyed by war, erase all trace of Mongols, & promote China’s power and prosperity


26 China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d)
Hongwu eventually dies, his son (Yonglo) takes over. He was very curious of the world so he launched 7 voyages of exploration. Zheng He led all 7 voyages 40 to 300 ships made the voyages: fighting ships, storage vessels, and “treasure” ships (400 ft long!) Carried soldiers, sailors, interpreters, accountants, doctors, and religious leaders.

27 China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d)
Zheng He showed superiority by leaving silver and silk as gifts More than 16 countries paid tribute to China Officials complained it was a waste and the voyages ceased after the 7th in 1433

28 China: Ming Dynasty (cont’d)
China’s trade policies reflected isolation Only government officials were allowed to conduct foreign trade through 3 coastal ports However, smuggling went on up and down the ports

29 VI. China: Qing Dynasty Manchus: people of Manchuria (west of the Great Wall) invaded China and took over the Ming (had ruled for 200 yrs) Qing Dynasty: name taken of the Manchus as they ruled for 260 yrs Expanded China’s borders to include Taiwan, Chinese central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet


31 China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d)
Rebellions Many Chinese resisted the non-Chinese Manchus and rebellions flared up for decades Improvements Manchus made frontiers safe Restored China’s prosperity While keeping Confucian beliefs and social structures

32 China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d)
Rulers Kangxi: Qing Emperor Reduced govt. expenses Lowered taxes Patron of the arts Welcomed the Jesuits who told them of science, medicine, mathematics, etc. in Europe

33 China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d)
Qian-long: Kangxi grandson China reached its greatest size and prosperity

34 China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d)
Chinese continue isolation China, center of universe If foreigners wanted to trade, they had to follow the Chinese rules Special ports & tribute Dutch followed the rules Dutch returned w/ many trade items including a new one…TEA. By 1800 tea made up 80% of shipments to Europe

35 China: Qing Dynasty (cont’d)
British also wanted to trade, but didn’t like the rules 1793 Lord Macartney of England delivered a letter from the king asking for better arrangements Qian-long declined This leads to problems later

36 VII. Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Role of Family Most farmed Agriculture improved b/c of irrigation and fertilizers This caused increase in food production Thus, an increase in population

37 Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (cont’d)
Favored sons over daughters Only son could perform religious rituals Sons raised families under parents roofs (remember that they took care of aging parents!) Women worked the fields, took care of the children's education, and managed the finances

38 Life in the Ming and Qing Dynasties (cont’d)
Cultural Developments Traditional Chinese fiction written at this time Artists painted in traditional style Experimentation in ceramics led to high-quality, including porcelain Drama very popular

39 VIII. Japan’s 3 Daimyo Background
In the 1300s Japan had developed unity under the Shoguns (military rulers). In 1467, civil war shattered Japan’s feudal system and the country slipped into chaos as violent disorder followed. AKA-”Warring States” period. Eventually powerful samurais gained control and offered protection to peasants in return for loyalty. Their new system of feudalism resembled that in Europe, with castles, small armies, and now, muskets.

40 Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d)
Daimyo: warrior chieftains who become lords in Japan Oda Nobunaga: brutal and ambitious daimyo who hoped to gain enough power to take the whole country. Seized the capital in 1568 “rule the empire by force” 1st to use muskets in Japanese battle 1582 committed seppuku (ritual of suicide of a samurai) when one of his own generals turned on him

41 Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d)
Toyotomi Hideyoshi: Nobunaga’s best general, continued his mission of destroying the daimyo that remained hostile By 1590 he controlled most of Japan Wanted to conquer China, so sent troops to Korea (allies with Ming) Hideyoshi died 1598, troops w/drew from Korea

42 Japan’s 3 Daimyo (cont’d)
Tokugawa Ieyasu: completed the unification of Japan 1600, defeated rivals Became sole ruler of Japan Tamed the daimyo at the local level by requiring them to spend every other year in the capital Founded Tokugawa Shogunate: dynasty of shoguns that ruled Japan until 1876

43 IX. Life in Japan Society Emperor (figure-head)
Very structured Emperor (figure-head) Shogun: military commander who actually held power Daimyo: powerful landholding samurai Samurai Warriors Peasants and Artisans Merchants; eventually became more important as Japan’s economy expanded

44 Life in Japan (cont’d) Confucian values influenced ideas about society
Depended on agriculture Peasants made ideal citizens, bore majority of tax burden Many left farming and tried to make it as samurais, artisans, and merchants By 1700s, Japan began to shift from rural to urban society

45 Life in Japan (cont’d) Culture Samurai attended dramas
Read tales of courage New literature, drama, and art emerge Haiku: syllable, 3-line verse poetry Presents images rather than ideas Kabuki: type of drama where music, dance, and mime are used to present stories

46 Life in Japan (cont’d) Contact between Japan and Europe
Europeans began coming to Japan in the 16th century and were welcomed Shipwrecked Portuguese washed up on their shores Brought clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, & other unfamiliar items Daimyo very interested in firearms (traditional weapon was sword). They wanted every advantage over others Many samurai kept the traditional sword and lost badly in battle

47 Life in Japan (cont’d) Christians in Japan
1549 Christian missionaries arrived in Japan Japanese accepted them b/c they associated them with goods from Europe Converted over 300,000 Japanese Tokugawa Ieyasu upset b/c these Christians scorned Japanese beliefs & involved themselves in politics Didn’t do anything b/c he didn’t want to drive off the new merchants

48 Life in Japan (cont’d) * This led to Japanese exclusion policy!
Ieyasu died in 1616 In 1637, 30,000 peasants revolted against the Shogunate. b/c so many rebels were Christian, they blamed them for the rebellion After that, they ruthlessly persecuted Christians and forced Japanese to demonstrate Buddhism * This led to Japanese exclusion policy!

49 X. Japan’s Closed Country Policy
At first, Japan welcomed new trade Over time, they realized they could safely exclude both missionaries and merchants 1639 they sealed their borders and instituted their “Closed Country Policy” Only ONE port, Nagasaki, remained open to Chinese and Dutch.

50 Japan’s Closed Country Policy (cont’d)
For 200 yrs, Japan remained basically closed to Europeans. AND Japanese were forbidden to leave! Japan went on to develop self-sufficiently, free of European attempts to colonize

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