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1 1 Chapter 13 Westward Expansion (1820-1860). 2 2 1. Oregon Country In the spring of 1846 many people were on their way to the western frontier. As the.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 Chapter 13 Westward Expansion (1820-1860). 2 2 1. Oregon Country In the spring of 1846 many people were on their way to the western frontier. As the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1 Chapter 13 Westward Expansion ( )

2 Oregon Country In the spring of 1846 many people were on their way to the western frontier. As the nation grew many people moved west on the Oregon Trail. In doing this, the United States enlarged its borders.Oregon Trail

3 3 3 The Lure of Oregon By the 1820’s, families were in search of good farmland, so they headed westward. They were drawn to the lands far west. Americans went to Oregon Country, a huge area beyond the Rocky Mountains. Today this land includes Oregon, Washington, Idaho and much of Wyoming. White settlers found fine farmland and good temperatures in the Oregon Country. Animal trappers flocked to the Oregon Country because for beaver and other fur bearing animals. Oregon Country

4 4 4 Competing Claims Great Britain, Russia, Spain and the United States all claimed the land of the Oregon Country. Even though the land rightfully belonged to the Native Americans, the United States and other countries claimed the land in Oregon. In 1818, the United States and Britain agreed to occupy the land jointly.

5 5 5 Wagon Train West Throughout the 1840’s the settlement in Oregon grew. Farmers bragged about the great crops they harvested. Word got to the east and started “Oregon Fever.” Soon everyone was flocking to Oregon to start their own farm. Wagon trains left every spring for Oregon following the Oregon Trail.Oregon Trail

6 The Republic of Texas Americans in Mexican Texas Since the early 1800’s American farmers had looked eagerly at the vast region called Texas. At the time, Texas was part of the Spanish colony of Mexico. In 1821, Stephen Austin was given a land grant by Spain so he was able to set up a colony.Stephen Austin Texas

7 7 7 Conflicts soon erupted because most of the settlers were Protestants and they did not speak the Mexican language. In addition, the Mexicans feared that the United States wanted to make Texas part of their country. This led to fighting between the Texans and Mexicans. The Mexican leader, Santa Anna was a dictator. A dictator is a ruler with absolute power and authority. Santa Anna was determined to rid Texas of the Americans. Many Texans fled. Fewer than 200 Texans were held up in an old Spanish mission called the Alamo. At the final siege at the Alamo 183 Texans and almost 1,500 Mexicans died. The five Texan survivors, including Davy Crocket, were executed at Santa Anna’s orders. The men of the United States rushed to aid Sam Houston and the American Army. On April 21, 1836, Houston attacked Santa Anna’s army at the Battle of San Jacinto. The Texans won the battle and Texas declared their independence from Mexico. It did not become part of the United States because of differenced in antislavery feelings. Texans owned slaves.Santa Anna dictatorAlamosiege Sam Houston Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna Sam Houston

8 8 8 In battle the Texans had carried a flag with a single white star. After winning independence, they nicknamed their nation the Lone Star Republic. They wrote their own constitution using the United States Constitution as a model. People were divided on whether Texas should join, or annex the United States of America.Lone Star Republicannex I love Texas!

9 California and the Southwest The entire Southwest territory belonged to the Mexicans in the late 1840’s. This region was called the New Mexico Territory. It included most of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico, all of Nevada and Utah, and parts of Colorado. On these lands the Pueblo, Zuni and Apache Indians lived.New Mexico

10 10 Expansion: A Right and a Duty As late as the mid 1840’s, many Americans saw a Democratic government of the United States as the best in the world. They believed that the United States had the right and the duty to spread its rule all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In the 1840’s, a New York newspaper coined a phrase for the belief. The phrase was called Manifest Destiny. Manifest means clear or obvious. Destiny means something that is sure to happen. Manifest Destiny

11 11 Americans who believed in Manifest Destiny thought the United States was clearly meant to expand the Pacific. Many Americans believed that they were better than the Native Americans and Mexicans. For these Americans, racism justified taking over lands belonging to the Indians and Mexicans only considered inferior. In 1844, James K. Polk was elected president because he favored the expansion of the United States.Manifest Destinyracism James Polk

12 12 4. The Mexican War President Polk President Polk was determined to add Texas to the United States. To fulfill his dream, he led the United States into a bloody war with Mexico. Annexing Texas In 1844, Sam Houston, the press of Texas, signed a treaty of annexation with the United States. The Senate refused to ratify the treaty because they feared that this would cause a war with Mexico.Sam Houston Sam Houston tricked the Senate by telling them that Texas would become an ally of Britain. When the Senate heard this, they feared a war with Britain so they added Texas to the United States. Sam Houston Texas is part of the U.S.A.

13 13 Fighting in Mexico On June 14, 1846 rebels declared California an independent nation. They called it the Bear Flag Republic. In February of 1847 General Zachary Taylor met the Mexican General Santa Anna in the Battle of Buena Vista. The final battle of the Mexican was offered in Chapultepec. The Americans were successful in winning the war against the Mexicans. The Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Under the treaty the Mexicans hade to cede, or give up, all of California and New Mexico to the United States. These lands were called the Mexican Cession. A few years later in 1853, the United States paid Mexico for a strip of land we call today, Arizona and New Mexico. This land was called the Gadsden Purchase.Bear Flag RepublicGeneral Zachary Taylor General Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista ChapultepecTreaty of Guadalupe-HidalgoMexican CessionGadsden Purchase General Zachary Taylor

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15 15 5. Americans Rush West The largest group of settlers to move into the Mexican cession were the Mormons. Mormons belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith in The Mormons moved to Ohio. They set up a community called Nauvoo. Soon afterwards, the Mormons had trouble with their neighbors. The Mormons needed to seek refuge, or a place were they would be safe from persecution. The Mormons made a difficult journey to the land we call Utah today. In this land they settled.

16 16 The California Gold Rush While the Mormons were moving to Utah, thousands of Americans were racing farther west to California. The great attraction there was gold. In 1848 Gold was found in Sutter’s Mill. Everybody rushed to the Sutter Mill in Sacramento, California. They hoped to find gold and become rich. Newspapers spread the word of the great gold strike at Sutter’s Mill. Soon more than 80,000 people made the long journey to California in They became known as the Forty-niners.Sutter’s MillForty-niners Sutter’s MillSutter’s Mill in 1850Forty-niners

17 17 Frederick Douglass

18 18 1. Industry in the North By the 1840's cotton was the South's major crop. Cotton plantations and slavery spread throughout the East Coast to the Mississippi River and beyond. In the North, new inventions and machines triggered the growth of factories and cities.cotton

19 19 Farming Inventions Several inventions made work easier of the farmers. John Deere and that their light weight plow made of steel. A horse pulling a steel plow could prepare a field for planting much faster. John Deere light weight plow Plowing is back breaking work! Please speak for yourself!

20 20 In 1847, Cyrus McCormick opened a factory in Chicago that manufactured mechanical reapers. A reaper was a horse-drawn machine that mowed wheat and other grains.Cyrus McCormick

21 21 Many inventions were discovered in the 1800's. Here are the most important inventions that shaped the early 19th century: 1. The sewing machine invented by Elias Howe.sewing machine 2. The telegraph invented by Samuel F. B. Morse.telegraph sewing machine telegraph

22 22 The First Railroads The first railroads were built in the 1800's. The Rocket was the first steam powered engine to pull railroad cars in People called the engines, “iron horses.” In 1830, a crowd gathered in Baltimore to watch a horse-drawn rail car race the Tom Thumb, a steam powered engine. The Tom Thumb broke down and the horse drawn cars won the race. Soon engineers designed better steam-powered engines and rails. Companies began to build railroads with the help from state governments. As the railroads developed, trade between nations also improved. People traded lumber, tobacco, cotton, wheat, and furs with other countries.RocketTom Thumb Rocket

23 23 Millions of Americans By the late 1840's many new workers in the factories were immigrants. An immigrant is a person who enters a new country to settle there. Immigrants often left their home country in the hopes find a new life in the United States. Here are examples of two cultures and their reasons for immigrating to the United States.immigrant

24 24 The Irish people came to America because a disease that destroyed their potato crops and caused a famine or a severe food shortage. The German people came to America in the 1850's 's to escape a revolution that was going on in their country. These and other new comers helped the American economy grow and prosper. Irish immigrants German Immigrants

25 25 3.Cotton Kingdom in the South The North and the South had different ideas about the slavery issue. The North built bigger factories while the South built larger farms. This led to different styles in living up North and down South. Their differences of opinion on slavery led to sectionalism, an interest in only one section of the country.sectionalism

26 26 The Cotton Gin In 1793 Eli Whitney, a schoolteacher from Connecticut invented a machine to clean cotton. He called his invention the Cotton Gin.Eli WhitneyCotton Gin Because of his machine, the planters could grow more cotton at a huge profit. Large businessmen from the South invested their money in farming rather than factories and machines. In the South there were not enough people to buy manufactured products. Most of the people were slaves and did not have money to buy things, so the South remained poorer than the North. Cotton Gin

27 27 4. Life In the South African Americans in the South Enslaved African Americans made up 1/3 of the South's population in Most worked on the cotton plantations. They worked hours a day. Some Africans were skilled workers such as carpenters, but their wages belonged to their owners. Older slaves worked as house servants. They cooked, cleaned and took care of the children. Wealthy people were known as the “cottonocracy.” The idea of an extended family came from African American life.extended family

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29 29 African Americans in the South were considered property with no rights under our Constitution. If an African American resisted slavery by fighting back or running away, they were hung, severely punished or sold to another plantation. Remember the Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott Decision

30 30 The Fight for Freedom They were many slave rebellions in the South. In 1831, an African American preacher named Nat Turner, led a major revolt. Turner led his followers through Virginia from plantation to plantation, killing more than 57 white people. Nat Turner and his 19 followers were arrested, tried and hanged. In all, 57 whites and 100 slaves have been killed as a result of Turner's actions. Nat Turner

31 31 Southern states passed laws known as slave codes. Under the codes, enslaved African Americans were:slave codes 1. Forbidden to gather in-groups more than three. 2. Not able to leave their owners land without a pass. 3. Not allowed to own guns. 4. Not allowed to learn to read or write.

32 Chapter 15 Newgate Prison had terrible conditions 32

33 1. Reforming the Spirit Social Reform Social Reform is an organized to attempt to improve what is unjust in society. Their was a political and religious movement toward social reform. Reformers wanted to change the conditions of the United States. During the colonial era, many American Protestants believed in predestination. According to this idea, God decided in advance who would attain salvation after death. The Second Great Awakening occurred in the late 1800’spredestinationsalvationSecond Great Awakening Methodist camp meeting

34 During the Second Great Awakening, leaders stressed free will rather predestination to stir religious feelings. Preachers held revivals or huge outdoor meetings.Second Great Awakening free will predestination revivals 34

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36 Hospitals and prisons were reformed by Dorothea Dix worked hard to reform conditions in mental hospitals and prisons. Five out of six people in northerners in prisons were debtors, or people who could not pay the money they owed. Soon cruel punishments were banned and debtors were not placed in prison. Dorothea Dix debtors Dorothea Dix 36

37 2. Opposing Slavery Religious beliefs led some Americans to oppose slavery in the United States. The American Colonization Society proposed to end slavery by setting up an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves.American Colonization Society 37

38 A growing number of reformers, known as abolitionists, wanted to end slavery in the United States. abolitionists 38

39 Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass was the best known abolitionist. Douglas was born into slavery and became a free man. He became very famous as a public speaker against slavery. Douglass wrote a newspaper called the North Star.abolitionistNorth Star 39

40 William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison wrote The Liberator, the most influential antislavery newspaper.The Liberator 40 William Lloyd Garrison

41 The Underground Railroad was a network of black and white abolitionists who secretly helped black slaves to freedom. Harriet Tubman escaped to freedom and returned back down south nineteen times to help others escape to freedom.Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman 41

42 3. A Call for Women’s Rights Women had few political rights in the 1800’s. Women could not own property. They lacked social and political rights. 42

43 Sojourner Truth Sojourner Truth was born a slave was a great public speaker against slavery. 43

44 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton took up the fight against slavery. At the Seneca Falls Convention women demanded equality with men at work, school and church. This convention led to the women’s right movement, led by Susan B. Anthony. Together they fought for the woman’s right to vote.Seneca Falls ConventionSusan B. Anthony. 44 Susan B. Anthony


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