21. Oregon CountryIn the spring of 1846 many people were on their way to the western frontier. As the nation grew many people moved west on the Oregon Trail. In doing this, the United States enlarged its borders.2
3The Lure of OregonBy the 1820’s, families were in search of good farmland, so they headed westward. They were drawn to the lands far west. Americans went to Oregon Country, a huge area beyond the Rocky Mountains. Today this land includes Oregon, Washington, Idaho and much of Wyoming. White settlers found fine farmland and good temperatures in the Oregon Country. Animal trappers flocked to the Oregon Country because for beaver and other fur bearing animals.3
4Competing ClaimsGreat Britain, Russia, Spain and the United States all claimed the land of the Oregon Country. Even though the land rightfully belonged to the Native Americans, the United States and other countries claimed the land in Oregon. In 1818, the United States and Britain agreed to occupy the land jointly.4
5Wagon Train WestThroughout the 1840’s the settlement in Oregon grew. Farmers bragged about the great crops they harvested. Word got to the east and started “Oregon Fever.” Soon everyone was flocking to Oregon to start their own farm. Wagon trains left every spring for Oregon following the Oregon Trail.5
6Americans in Mexican Texas 2. The Republic of TexasAmericans in Mexican TexasSince the early 1800’s American farmers had looked eagerly at the vast region called Texas. At the time, Texas was part of the Spanish colony of Mexico. In 1821, Stephen Austin was given a land grant by Spain so he was able to set up a colony.Texas6
7Conflicts soon erupted because most of the settlers were Protestants and they did not speak the Mexican language. In addition, the Mexicans feared that the United States wanted to make Texas part of their country. This led to fighting between the Texans and Mexicans. The Mexican leader, Santa Anna was a dictator. A dictator is a ruler with absolute power and authority. Santa Anna was determined to rid Texas of the Americans. Many Texans fled. Fewer than 200 Texans were held up in an old Spanish mission called the Alamo. At the final siege at the Alamo 183 Texans and almost 1,500 Mexicans died. The five Texan survivors, including Davy Crocket, were executed at Santa Anna’s orders. The men of the United States rushed to aid Sam Houston and the American Army. On April 21, 1836, Houston attacked Santa Anna’s army at the Battle of San Jacinto. The Texans won the battle and Texas declared their independence from Mexico. It did not become part of the United States because of differenced in antislavery feelings. Texans owned slaves.Santa Anna7Sam Houston
8In battle the Texans had carried a flag with a single white star In battle the Texans had carried a flag with a single white star. After winning independence, they nicknamed their nation the Lone Star Republic. They wrote their own constitution using the United States Constitution as a model. People were divided on whether Texas should join, or annex the United States of America.I loveTexas!8
93. California and the Southwest The entire Southwest territory belonged to the Mexicans in the late 1840’s. This region was called the New Mexico Territory. It included most of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico, all of Nevada and Utah, and parts of Colorado. On these lands the Pueblo, Zuni and Apache Indians lived.9
10Expansion: A Right and a Duty As late as the mid 1840’s, many Americans saw a Democratic government of the United States as the best in the world. They believed that the United States had the right and the duty to spread its rule all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In the 1840’s, a New York newspaper coined a phrase for the belief. The phrase was called Manifest Destiny. Manifest means clear or obvious. Destiny means something that is sure to happen.10
11James PolkAmericans who believed in Manifest Destiny thought the United States was clearly meant to expand the Pacific. Many Americans believed that they were better than the Native Americans and Mexicans. For these Americans, racism justified taking over lands belonging to the Indians and Mexicans only considered inferior. In 1844, James K. Polk was elected president because he favored the expansion of the United States.11
124. The Mexican War Annexing Texas President Polk was determined to add Texas to the United States. To fulfill his dream, he led the United States into a bloody war with Mexico.Annexing TexasIn 1844, Sam Houston, the press of Texas, signed a treaty of annexation with the United States. The Senate refused to ratify the treaty because they feared that this would cause a war with Mexico.Sam Houston tricked the Senate by telling them that Texas would become an ally of Britain. When the Senate heard this, they feared a war with Britain so they added Texas to the United States.Texas is part of the U.S.A.Sam Houston12
13General Zachary Taylor Fighting in MexicoOn June 14, 1846 rebels declared California an independent nation. They called it the Bear Flag Republic. In February of 1847 General Zachary Taylor met the Mexican General Santa Anna in the Battle of Buena Vista. The final battle of the Mexican was offered in Chapultepec. The Americans were successful in winning the war against the Mexicans. The Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Under the treaty the Mexicans hade to cede, or give up, all of California and New Mexico to the United States. These lands were called the Mexican Cession. A few years later in 1853, the United States paid Mexico for a strip of land we call today, Arizona and New Mexico. This land was called the Gadsden Purchase.General Zachary Taylor
155. Americans Rush WestThe largest group of settlers to move into the Mexican cession were the Mormons. Mormons belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith in The Mormons moved to Ohio. They set up a community called Nauvoo. Soon afterwards, the Mormons had trouble with their neighbors. The Mormons needed to seek refuge, or a place were they would be safe from persecution. The Mormons made a difficult journey to the land we call Utah today. In this land they settled.
16The California Gold Rush While the Mormons were moving to Utah, thousands of Americans were racing farther west to California. The great attraction there was gold. In 1848 Gold was found in Sutter’s Mill. Everybody rushed to the Sutter Mill in Sacramento, California. They hoped to find gold and become rich. Newspapers spread the word of the great gold strike at Sutter’s Mill. Soon more than 80,000 people made the long journey to California in They became known as the Forty-niners.Sutter’s Mill in 1850Forty-niners
181. Industry in the NorthBy the 1840's cotton was the South's major crop. Cotton plantations and slavery spread throughout the East Coast to the Mississippi River and beyond. In the North, new inventions and machines triggered the growth of factories and cities.cotton
19Farming InventionsSeveral inventions made work easier of the farmers. John Deere and that their light weight plow made of steel. A horse pulling a steel plow could prepare a field for planting much faster.Plowing is back breaking work!Please speak for yourself!
20In 1847, Cyrus McCormick opened a factory in Chicago that manufactured mechanical reapers. A reaper was a horse-drawn machine that mowed wheat and other grains.
211. The sewing machine invented by Elias Howe. Many inventions were discovered in the 1800's. Here are the most important inventions that shaped the early 19th century:1. The sewing machine invented by Elias Howe.2. The telegraph invented by Samuel F. B. Morse.telegraphsewing machine
22The First RailroadsThe first railroads were built in the 1800's. The Rocket was the first steam powered engine to pull railroad cars in People called the engines, “iron horses.” In 1830, a crowd gathered in Baltimore to watch a horse-drawn rail car race the Tom Thumb, a steam powered engine. The Tom Thumb broke down and the horse drawn cars won the race. Soon engineers designed better steam-powered engines and rails. Companies began to build railroads with the help from state governments. As the railroads developed, trade between nations also improved. People traded lumber, tobacco, cotton, wheat, and furs with other countries.RocketTom Thumb
23Millions of AmericansBy the late 1840's many new workers in the factories were immigrants. An immigrant is a person who enters a new country to settle there. Immigrants often left their home country in the hopes find a new life in the United States. Here are examples of two cultures and their reasons for immigrating to the United States.
24The Irish people came to America because a disease that destroyed their potato crops and caused a famine or a severe food shortage.The German people came to America in the 1850's -1860's to escape a revolution that was going on in their country.These and other new comers helped the American economy grow and prosper.Irish immigrantsGerman Immigrants
253.Cotton Kingdom in the South The North and the South had different ideas about the slavery issue. The North built bigger factories while the South built larger farms. This led to different styles in living up North and down South. Their differences of opinion on slavery led to sectionalism, an interest in only one section of the country.
26The Cotton GinIn 1793 Eli Whitney, a schoolteacher from Connecticut invented a machine to clean cotton. He called his invention the Cotton Gin.Because of his machine, the planters could grow more cotton at a huge profit. Large businessmen from the South invested their money in farming rather than factories and machines. In the South there were not enough people to buy manufactured products. Most of the people were slaves and did not have money to buy things, so the South remained poorer than the North.Cotton Gin
27African Americans in the South 4. Life In the SouthAfrican Americans in the SouthEnslaved African Americans made up 1/3 of the South's population in Most worked on the cotton plantations. They worked hours a day. Some Africans were skilled workers such as carpenters, but their wages belonged to their owners. Older slaves worked as house servants. They cooked, cleaned and took care of the children. Wealthy people were known as the “cottonocracy.” The idea of an extended family came from African American life.
29African Americans in the South were considered property with no rights under our Constitution. If an African American resisted slavery by fighting back or running away, they were hung, severely punished or sold to another plantation.Remember the Dred Scott Decision
30The Fight for FreedomThey were many slave rebellions in the South. In 1831, an African American preacher named Nat Turner, led a major revolt. Turner led his followers through Virginia from plantation to plantation, killing more than 57 white people. Nat Turner and his 19 followers were arrested, tried and hanged. In all, 57 whites and 100 slaves have been killed as a result of Turner's actions.Nat Turner
31Southern states passed laws known as slave codes Southern states passed laws known as slave codes. Under the codes, enslaved African Americans were:1. Forbidden to gather in-groups more than three.2. Not able to leave their owners land without a pass.3. Not allowed to own guns.4. Not allowed to learn to read or write.
32Reform and the Amerian Culture Chapter 15Reform and theAmerian CultureNewgate Prison had terrible conditions
331. Reforming the SpiritSocial Reform is an organized to attempt to improve what is unjust in society. Their was a political and religious movement toward social reform. Reformers wanted to change the conditions of the United States. During the colonial era, many American Protestants believed in predestination. According to this idea, God decided in advance who would attain salvation after death. The Second Great Awakening occurred in the late 1800’s1839 Methodist camp meeting
34During the Second Great Awakening , leaders stressed free will rather predestination to stir religious feelings. Preachers held revivals or huge outdoor meetings.
36Hospitals and prisons were reformed by Dorothea Dix worked hard to reform conditions in mental hospitals and prisons. Five out of six people in northerners in prisons were debtors, or people who could not pay the money they owed. Soon cruel punishments were banned and debtors were not placed in prison.Dorothea Dix
372. Opposing SlaveryReligious beliefs led some Americans to oppose slavery in the United States. The American Colonization Society proposed to end slavery by setting up an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves.
38A growing number of reformers, known as abolitionists, wanted to end slavery in the United States.
39Frederick Douglass was the best known abolitionist Frederick Douglass was the best known abolitionist. Douglas was born into slavery and became a free man. He became very famous as a public speaker against slavery. Douglass wrote a newspaper called the North Star.
40William Lloyd Garrison wrote The Liberator, the most influential antislavery newspaper.
41The Underground Railroad was a network of black and white abolitionists who secretly helped black slaves to freedom. Harriet Tubman escaped to freedom and returned back down south nineteen times to help others escape to freedom.
423. A Call for Women’s Rights Women had few political rights in the 1800’s. Women could not own property. They lacked social and political rights.
43Sojourner Truth was born a slave was a great public speaker against slavery.
44Susan B. AnthonyElizabeth Cady Stanton took up the fight against slavery. At the Seneca Falls Convention women demanded equality with men at work, school and church. This convention led to the women’s right movement, led by Susan B. Anthony. Together they fought for the woman’s right to vote.