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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.11: World War II: The U.S. Navy in the Pacific, 1941-1945.

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Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.11: World War II: The U.S. Navy in the Pacific, 1941-1945."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.11: World War II: The U.S. Navy in the Pacific,

2 Enabling Objectives EXPLAIN the political and economic forces that led Japan to strike at Pearl Harbor and colonial possessions of the U.S. and Britain.EXPLAIN the political and economic forces that led Japan to strike at Pearl Harbor and colonial possessions of the U.S. and Britain. DEFINE the Japanese strategy for an early victory and their concept of the postwar Pacific power balance.DEFINE the Japanese strategy for an early victory and their concept of the postwar Pacific power balance. EXPLAIN the impact of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent Battles of Coral Sea and Midway on the transformation of the aircraft carrier's role in Naval Warfare.EXPLAIN the impact of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent Battles of Coral Sea and Midway on the transformation of the aircraft carrier's role in Naval Warfare.

3 Enabling Objectives LIST the significant highlights of the evolution of U.S. operational strategy in the Pacific, including major battles or campaigns and instances where strategy was flawed or ambiguous.LIST the significant highlights of the evolution of U.S. operational strategy in the Pacific, including major battles or campaigns and instances where strategy was flawed or ambiguous. RECOGNIZE the geopolitical and military implications of President Trumans decision to utilize atomic weapons in ending the war in the Pacific.RECOGNIZE the geopolitical and military implications of President Trumans decision to utilize atomic weapons in ending the war in the Pacific.

4 Background Information Japanese-American relations tense throughout 1930s.Japanese-American relations tense throughout 1930s. –Japan challenged Americas Open Door policy by attacking Manchuria in 1931 –In 1937, Japanese expansion in China resulted in attack on American gunboat, the Panay, by Japanese aircraft Roosevelt adopted economic sanctions leading to an oil embargo by Americans, British and Dutch (July 1941)Roosevelt adopted economic sanctions leading to an oil embargo by Americans, British and Dutch (July 1941)

5 Background Information The Japanese home islands were not rich in natural resources.The Japanese home islands were not rich in natural resources. –Japanese struck for the oil-rich Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), Singapore, and the surrounding British-owned Malaya, Thailand, the Philippines, and Hong Kong. The Japanese camouflaged their plans with diplomatic negotiations in Washington.The Japanese camouflaged their plans with diplomatic negotiations in Washington. The United States expected an assault somewhere in the Pacific because cryptanalysts, in a technique called Magic, had broken the Japanese Diplomatic Code.The United States expected an assault somewhere in the Pacific because cryptanalysts, in a technique called Magic, had broken the Japanese Diplomatic Code.

6 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Commander in ChiefCommander in Chief – Japanese Combined Fleet Lived in the United StatesLived in the United States – Boston - Studied English – Washington D.C. - Naval Attaché Against war with the U.S.Against war with the U.S. Demanded Pearl Harbor AttackDemanded Pearl Harbor Attack – Destruction of U.S. Pacific Fleet September 1940: If I am told to fight regardless of the consequences, I shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third year.

7 Japanese Strategic Assessment Attack on Pearl Harbor:Attack on Pearl Harbor: –Great risk: U.S. would surely enter the war –Greater potential gain: U.S. Pacific Fleet would be knocked out of the war –Japan would buy time after Pearl Harbor- then consolidate gains throughout China and the Pacific –Possibility of U.S. agreeing to Japanese territorial gains to make peace –Good possibility that U.S. involvement in Europe will drain naval resources from Pacific Ocean.

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9 A Day That Will Live in Infamy The attack on Pearl Harbor surprised the U.S., who had not anticipated a strike so far east or one mounted solely by carrier-born aircraft.The attack on Pearl Harbor surprised the U.S., who had not anticipated a strike so far east or one mounted solely by carrier-born aircraft.

10 The Attack Six newest and largest Japanese carriers at core of striking forceSix newest and largest Japanese carriers at core of striking force Sortie from Kuriles, rendezvous 7 Dec, 200 miles N of Pearl HarborSortie from Kuriles, rendezvous 7 Dec, 200 miles N of Pearl Harbor Japanese fleet traveled across entire Pacific Ocean without being detected.Japanese fleet traveled across entire Pacific Ocean without being detected. Launched 183 aircraft at 0600, strike 0755Launched 183 aircraft at 0600, strike % of damage inflicted by % of damage inflicted by 0825

11 U.S. Pacific Fleet - Pearl Harbor No clear warning from WashingtonNo clear warning from Washington –Intercepts did not identify Pearl Harbor as a target –Slow communications between Washington and Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Husband E. Kimmel dismissed after attack.Admiral Husband E. Kimmel dismissed after attack. Battleships in berths at Pearl for weekend libertyBattleships in berths at Pearl for weekend liberty –Battleship Row Carriers Lexington and Enterprise delivering aircraft to Midway and Wake IslandsCarriers Lexington and Enterprise delivering aircraft to Midway and Wake Islands Yamamoto - Climb Mount Niitaka message to Vice Admiral Nagumo to commence attackYamamoto - Climb Mount Niitaka message to Vice Admiral Nagumo to commence attack

12 Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941


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