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Key Terms for Chapter 6 Sec. 1

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1 Key Terms for Chapter 6 Sec. 1
Olive Branch Petition Green Mountain Boys Continental Army Patriots Loyalist The Battle of Bunker Hill Blockade Mercenaries

2 First Continental Congress
Carpenter's Hall: In 1774, 56 deputies representing almost every American colony convened at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia to address their many grievances against the British. This First Continental Congress included George Washington and John Adams. (Photo Credit: Dave G. Houser/Corbis

3 Second Continental Congress
Here at Independence Hall In Philadelphia, the Second Continental Congress still had hopes of a peaceful resolution. The delegates passed the Olive Branch Petition, in hopes of repealing the Intolerable Act.

4 Prev King George III Olive Branch Petition: When King George learned of the petition he was enraged. He blamed the colonist for trying to begin a war “for the purpose of establishing an independent empire.” He vowed to bring the rebels to justice, and ordered 20,000 troops to be deployed.

5 Advantages of the Opposing Sides
Colonial Forces British Forces Many Patriots not only owned rifles, but were also good shots. George Washington, a brilliant and experienced Commander, was named the leader of the forces. Patriots were determined to defend THEIR homes and property. Highly trained and experience troops. The world’s strongest Navy. Heavily supplied with weapons and ammunition. The British Army had the advantage in numbers by leaps and bounds.

6 Disadvantages of Opposing Sides
Colonial Forces British Forces They were poorly organized and untrained. They had very little gun powder, few cannons, and no NAVY. Many colonist were unwilling to enlist in the federal army, choosing to defend their home British armies were now 3000 miles away from home. It could take months for supplies to reach. The British Troops were unfamiliar with the terrain.

7 Rebels Take Fort Ticonderoga
In may of 1775, Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys at Fort Ticonderoga demanding that the British commander surrender.

8 . Green Mountain Boys Who in fact are the Green Mountain Boys? Just a group of back country Vermont boys raising havoc. In fact the Green Mountain Boys were a group of a few hundred American patriots in the early American Revolutionary years that would later be considered the founding fathers of the state of Vermont.

9 Battle of Bunker Hill The first major battle of the Revolution, which proved the American’s could fight bravely. Although the British eventually took Bunker Hill there losses were costly. Over 1000 casualties to the US forces 400.


11 General George Washington
Prior to the attack on Bunker Hill, Gen. Washington reached Boston to discover 16,000 Troops camped out along the City’s edge.

12 Washington’s Good Fortune
In January of 1776, Washington had a stroke of good luck. After the Green Mountain Boys had taken Fort Ticonderoga they had dragged the cannons they captured over the Mountains. Washington then placed them on Dorchester Heights overlooking the Harbor. Once General Howe saw the cannons he knew that they could not hold Boston.

13 The Kings Response Although the British left New England, they did not give up. King George III ordered a blockade (the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out). The King also used mercenaries (hired troops) from Germany to help fight the colonist.

14 Key Terms For Chapter 6 Sec. 2
The Colonies Independence: In this section we will describe the impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, list steps that congress took to declare independence, and summarize the main ideas of the Declaration. Common Sense, by Thomas Paine Traitor Declaration of Independence Preamble Natural Rights

15 Thomas Paine “In England a King Hath little more to do than to make war and give away; which in plain terms, is to impoverish the nation.” Common Sense 1776.

16 A call for Independence
Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” was a one of the most influential pamphlets of the era. Although most printers were reluctant to put such an unflattering portrait of the King, it non the less sold over 500,000 copies and became the rallying cry many supporters of Independence. “Common Sense” also sold many colonist who were unsure on the idea of Independence.

17 Richard Henry Lee, VA “Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.” Lee’s Resolution at the Second Continental Congress

18 Making the Break The Delegates were faced with a momentous decision. Once a declaration was signed there was no turning back. The members of the Continental Congress knew that if they were ever to fall into British hands they would be hanged as a “traitor”. Traitor- is a person who betrays his or her country.

19 Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was tapped as the main author of the Declaration of Independence along with Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson would also serve as the third President of the United States.

20 Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence, by John Trumbull : On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. (Photo Credit: Mayer/CORBIS)

21 “Show me you john hancock”
“There”, he said, “I guess the King will be able to read that.”

22 “We Hold these truths……Preamble”
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” The first part of the Declaration was to establish natural right, or rights that belong to all people from birth. Preamble- Introduction

23 Addressing British Wrongs
The second part of the Declaration list the wrongs that led the Americans to break away from Britain. Jefferson condemned King George III for disbanding colonial legislature and for sending troops to the colonies during peacetime. See page 178. Classwork: On the index cards, write, in your words, what the particular wrong written by Jefferson means. Each Paragraph is a particular wrong. Your # indicates which one to do. Example 1 is first paragraph, 2 is second, etc…

24 Struggles in the Middle States
In this section we will list and discuss the battles fought in New York and New Jersey, Discuss the turning points of the War, and describe the conditions at Valley Forge. Key Terms Battle of Long Island Nathan Hale Battle of Trenton General John Burgoyne Battle of Saratoga Marquis de Lafayette Thaddeus Kosciusko Valley Forge Ally Cavalry Deserter

25 Battle of long island This illustration show the vast majority of British troops. They outnumbered the Continental Army by 2 to 1.

26 American Hero Nathan Hale was captured and hanged for his role in helping Washington learn more about his enemies army.


Battle of trenton After Washington was forced out of New York and crossed the frozen Delaware, the Continental Army of New Jersey saw great strides in the advancement of the Colonial cause Times were bleak, and the morale was low after multiple defeats at the hands of the Redcoats. BUT NEW JERSEY WOULD PREVAIL!

29 Washington’s Doubts The campaign of December 1776 tested the will of the great leader. Gen. Washington unsure if his men were up to the challenges ahead of them. Washington stated that his soldiers were “so thinly clad, they were unfit for service.” Washington also had a major issue dealing with deserters(soldiers who leave their ranks without permission). He even wrote in a letter to his brother, “I am wearied to death. I think the game is pretty near up.”

30 The iconic picture of Washington crossing the Delaware
TRENTon In a bold, and possible desperate move, Washington lead troops on an early morning raid the day after Christmas in The Battle of Trenton was won with little resistance by the Hessians, German mercenaries (hired soldiers) and took most of them prisoner. The iconic picture of Washington crossing the Delaware

31 General Charles Cornwallis
“At last we have run down the old fox and we will bag him in the morning” Speaking of George Washington

32 British General john burgoyne

33 Burgoyne’s Plan General Burgoyne’s plan- cut off New England from the other colonies by controlling the Hudson river and end the war for the Americans Burgoyne wanted three armies to march on Albany, but the King wanted to retake Philadelphia first. Although Howe was successful in Philadelphia at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, he had decided to stay there for the winter which would prove costly to not only Burgoyne’s plan but the British effort overall

34 Surrender at Saratoga Burgoyne Surrenders to Gates: At the Battle of Saratoga (1777), British general John Burgoyne ( , on the left) surrendered to American general Horatio Gates ( ). The battle is often considered a turning point in the war. (Photo Credit: PoodlesRock/CORBIS

35 The victory at Saratoga
Turning Point The victory at Saratoga

36 Keys to Victory Colonial Forces cut down trees and damned up streams to slow the already slowly moving British Forces. The Redcoats and Burgoyne were able to re-capture Fort Ticonderoga, but at a cost. With no reinforcements, Burgoyne was forced to send troops to Vermont for horses and supplies. There, his soldiers were defeated in the Battle of Bennington. With the British already low on troops, the Green Mountain Boys came to the aid of the Colonial forces in New York and trapped Burgoyne who was forced to surrender his army to the Americans.

37 European Aid The Victory at Saratoga proved to the world that the Americans could win.

38 King louis XVI The King did not want to send troops to the US until he was sure they could win.

39 Marquis de Lafayette Lafayette had brought trained soldiers from France to fight and also help train. He became one of Washington’s most trusted advisors and friend.

40 Friedrich von Steuben Von Steuben was a Prussian army officer, considered to be the best army in the world, he train soldiers how to drill and march.

41 Thaddeus kosciusko Along with Casimir Pulaski, these Polish soldiers and engineers help train CAVALRY(troops on horseback)

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