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Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers

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1 Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825
Sections 1 &2 The Industrial Revolution Americans Move Westward

2 Objectives Identify the Industrial Revolution and its effects on the United States Describe early factories with focus on Lowell, Massachusetts Describe how settlers traveled west Explain new developments in transportation

3 I. The Industrial Revolution
A. New Technology 1. Begins in Britain mid 1700s 2. New machines for textile industry 3. James Hargreaves invented Spinning jenny – could spin several threads at once 4. Water powered loom – Edmund Cartwright 5. Produced more cloth in a day than was possible before

4 Spinning Jenny

5 B. The Factory System 1. New inventions required new systems of production 2. Capitalist- a person who invests in a business in order to make a profit 3. Factory system- brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods

6 Spinning Jenny Slater’s Mill

7 II. A Revolution Crosses the Atlantic
A. Slater Breaks the Law 1. British law forbid anyone to take plans for new machinery out of the country Slater left Britain 3. Memorized the plans so he wouldn’t get caught with them B. The First American Mill Slater built the first successful textile mill in the US powered by water 2. Pawtucket, RI

8 C. Interchangeable parts- all machine made parts are identical to each other
1. Eli Whitney 2. Earlier, everything made one at a time 3. Saves time and money 4. Idea spread rapidly

9 III. Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town
A. Had to produce more goods because of the blockade of ports during War of 1812 B. The Lowell Mills 1. Francis Cabot Lowell 2. Combine spinning and weaving under one roof 3. Built a whole town of factories as a model of efficiency

10 Lowell and Lowell Girls

11 C. The Lowell Girls 1. Young women from nearby farms 2. Most sent wages home 3. Boarding houses 4. Rules 5. Independence

12 IV. Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution
A. Child Labor 1. As young as seven 2. Not seen as cruel because farm work was just as hard or harder 3. Child’s wages needed to support the family B. Long Hours 1. 12 hour days, 6 days a week 2. Conditions better than in Europe 3. As competition increases, owners grew less interested in welfare of workers

13 C. Changes in Home Life 1. More family members left home to earn a living 2. Affected ideas about the role of women 3. Poor women had to work

14 V. Growing Cities A. Many people left farms to work in factories
B. Urbanization-movement of population from farms to cities 1. Steady but gradual process 2. Early cities were small but growing

15 Pros and Cons of Urban Living
C. Hazards 1. Dirt streets turned to mud in rain 2. No sewers, garbage in streets 3. Disease spread easily D. Attractions 1. Theaters, museums, circuses 2. Latest fashions, shopping

16 Americans Move Westward

17 VI. Traveling West A. “West” -referred to the lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River B. Population of some of 13 colonies declines as people move west C. Need to improve transportation to the west is obvious

18 D. Western Routes 1. Great Wagon Road through Pennsylvania 2. Wilderness Road south and west by Daniel Boone’s route, led through Cumberland Gap 3. Flatboats down Ohio River 4. People from GA and SC followed routes to AL and MS 5. People from NE pushed into NW territory

19 Flatboats

20 New States Enter the Union
E. New States 1792 Kentucky 1796 Tennessee 1803 Ohio 1812 Louisiana 1816 Indiana 1817 Mississippi 1818 Illinois 1819 Alabama

21 VII. Improvements to Roads
A. Turnpikes and Corduroy Roads 1. Roads built by private companies 2. Turnpikes for tolls 3. Lancaster Turnpike the best of its time, linked Lancaster and Philadelphia 4.Corduroy roads of logs 5. Covered bridges lasted longer than plain wood

22 B. The National Road 1. 1806 Congress sets aside funds
2. Road to run from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling in western VA 3. Work begins 1811 and is completed in 1818 4. Road later extended as needed

23 VIII. Steam Transport A. Fitch and Fulton
1. Fitch showed how a steam engine could power a boat (Constitutional Convention 1787) 2. Few people used his ferry service 3. Fulton launched a steamboat - the Clermont on the Hudson River mile trip in 62 hours - record

24 What would be some of the advantages of the steamships?
B. The Age of Steamboats 1. Revolutionized travel in the west 2. Gave farmers and merchants a cheap way to move goods 3. Dangerous at times as sparks can explode high pressure boilers

25 IX. The Canal Boom A. Building the Erie Canal
1. Let farmers ship goods to port of New York 2. Links Great Lakes with Hudson River 3. DeWitt Clinton, governor of NY, instrumental in getting it built 4. “Clinton’s Ditch”


27 The Big Ditch This painting shows the "Seneca Chief," the flagship of a flotilla making the maiden voyage down the Erie Canal. The 363-mile-long, $7 million canal opened the shortest thoroughfare between the Atlantic Coast's factories and the natural bounty of the Great Lakes, helping to position New York City as America's leading metropolis. The Canal did not greatly affect business for stagecoach companies, which were faster, and not limited by road capacity or ice, but it did bankrupt the Conestoga wagon freight carriers. By 1841, however, the railroads had put stagecoach companies out of business. The Erie Canal still operates today.

28 The Erie Canal I've got a mule, Her name is Sal, Fifteen years on the Erie Canal. She's a good old worker And a good old pal, Fifteen years on the Erie Canal. We've hauled some barges in our day Filled with lumber, coal and hay And ev'ry inch of the way I know From Albany to Buffalo. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal.   We better get along On our way, old gal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. Cause you bet your life I'd never part with Sal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. Git up there, mule, here comes a lock, We'll make Rome 'bout six o'clock. One more trip and back we'll go Right back home to Buffalo. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal.

29 Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825
Sections 3 & 4 Unity and Division New Nations in the Americas

30 Objectives Discuss the role played by sectionalism in the Era of Good Feelings Explain how the Latin American nations won independence and became republics Describe how the United States gained Florida from Spain Discuss the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine

31 Era of Good Feelings James Monroe: (Republican) easily won the Presidency in 1816. After inauguration, he toured the country and was well received even in New England.

32 I. Three Sectional Leaders
A. Calhoun of the South 1. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina 2. Supported War of 1812 and slavery 3. Opposed policies that would strengthen the power of the federal government

33 B. Daniel Webster of the North
1. New Hampshire 2. Most skillful public speakers 3. Opposed War of 1812 and slavery 4. Wanted government to take a larger role in building the nation’s economy

34 C. Henry Clay of the West 1. Leader of War Hawks in War of 1812 2. VA- KY 3. Favored a more active role for central government in promoting the country’s growth

35 National Bank The National Bank was re-chartered in Americans wanted a central bank to loan money.

36 Flood of British Goods After the War of 1812 the American Market was flooded with cheaper British Goods This threatened the new Industrial USA.

37 Congress Passes Protective Tariff
To even the playing field with Great Britain, the US congress passed the Protective Tariff.

38 The American System D. Sectionalism – loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the country as a whole E. Internal improvements – improvements for roads, bridges, and canals

39 Henry Clay’s American System
Clay wanted economic growth for regions of the country. High taxes on imports= more $ for north to buy southern and western goods.

40 American System: Definition
What is Henry Clay’s American System? “the policy of promoting industry in the U.S. by adoption of a high protective tariff and of developing internal improvements by the federal government (as advocated by Henry Clay from 1816 to 1828)” House Speaker, Henry Clay coined the term “American System” in 1815, after President Madison created a plan to unite the Northern and Southern economies.

41 North Economy: +/- Northern Economy: Strengths
1. The north had just experienced an Industrial Revolution, and was producing manufactured goods. 2. New methods of transportation that brought goods to and from the manufacturing north. 3. A new, national currency that enabled the north to trade with the south and west. Northern Economy: Weaknesses 1. Poor soil, low crop production, few livestock.

42 Southern/Western Economy: +/-
Southern/Western Economy: Strengths 1. Good and rich soil for plantation farming. 2. Increased slavery, increased productivity. 3. Use of the Mississippi River for transportation of goods between the north and south economies. Southern/Western Economy: Weaknesses 1. No factories for manufacturing goods. 2. Heavy, intense labor needed to run the plantations smoothly in the south.

43 The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power
Chief Justice John Marshall Under John Marshall, the Supreme Court would increase the power of the Federal governement.

44 McCulloch v. Maryland In 1819, Maryland levied heavy taxes on a local branch of the National Bank to make it fail. It was declared unconstitutional.

45 Gibbons v. Ogden Interstate Trade-trade between different states.
This case upheld the federal governments right to regulate trade between states.

46 New Nations in the Americas

47 Revolution in Latin America
By 1810 the people of the Spanish American colonies were eager for independence.

48 Mexican Independence 1821 Mexican independence gained.
The leaders Hidalgo and Morelos were killed. Even creoles-Latin born people of Spanish parents, joined the fight

49 The Liberator A Venezuelan creole
Lead attack that defeated Spanish forces in 1819 Became President of Rep. of Great Columbia-Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama

50 Other New Nations In 1821 the people of Central American formed the United Provinces of Central American Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala

51 The US gains Florida Since the 1700s Spain protected runaway slaves.
Seminole Indians shared their lands Andrew Jackson ordered the fort to be destroyed.

52 The US gains Florida 1818 Jackson returns to FL with 3,000 soldiers
Spain cannot risk war with U. S, Spain agreed to give U. S. Florida in exchange for 5 million dollars

53 The United States Gains Florida
Adams-Onis Treaty- an agreement between the US and Spain in which Spain gave all it claims in Florida up to the US.


55 III. Monroe Doctrine A. United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations or existing colonies of the European nations B. European nations are not to attempt to gain control of the new independent nations of Latin America

56 Monroe Doctrine C. Stated that the U.S. would oppose any attempt to build new colonies in the Americas D. Showed that the U.S. is determined to keep European powers out of the Western Hemisphere E. England supported Monroe Doctrine with its navy F. Has shaped U. S. foreign policy even now

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