Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825 Sections 1 &2The Industrial RevolutionAmericans Move Westward
2ObjectivesIdentify the Industrial Revolution and its effects on the United StatesDescribe early factories with focus on Lowell, MassachusettsDescribe how settlers traveled westExplain new developments in transportation
3I. The Industrial Revolution A. New Technology1. Begins in Britain mid 1700s2. New machines for textile industry3. James Hargreaves invented Spinning jenny – could spin several threads at once4. Water powered loom – Edmund Cartwright5. Produced more cloth in a day than was possible before
5B. The Factory System1. New inventions required new systems of production2. Capitalist- a person who invests in a business in order to make a profit3. Factory system- brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods
7II. A Revolution Crosses the Atlantic A. Slater Breaks the Law1. British law forbid anyone to take plans for new machinery out of the countrySlater left Britain3. Memorized the plans so he wouldn’t get caught with themB. The First American MillSlater built the first successful textile mill in the US powered by water2. Pawtucket, RI
8C. Interchangeable parts- all machine made parts are identical to each other 1. Eli Whitney2. Earlier, everything made one at a time3. Saves time and money4. Idea spread rapidly
9III. Lowell, Massachusetts: A Model Factory Town A. Had to produce more goods because of the blockade of ports during War of 1812B. The Lowell Mills1. Francis Cabot Lowell2. Combine spinning and weaving under one roof3. Built a whole town of factories as a model of efficiency
11C. The Lowell Girls1. Young women from nearby farms2. Most sent wages home3. Boarding houses4. Rules5. Independence
12IV. Daily Life During the Industrial Revolution A. Child Labor1. As young as seven2. Not seen as cruel because farm work was just as hard or harder3. Child’s wages needed to support the familyB. Long Hours1. 12 hour days, 6 days a week2. Conditions better than in Europe3. As competition increases, owners grew less interested in welfare of workers
13C. Changes in Home Life1. More family members left home to earn a living2. Affected ideas about the role of women3. Poor women had to work
14V. Growing Cities A. Many people left farms to work in factories B. Urbanization-movement of population from farms to cities1. Steady but gradual process2. Early cities were small but growing
15Pros and Cons of Urban Living C. Hazards1. Dirt streets turned to mud in rain2. No sewers, garbage in streets3. Disease spread easilyD. Attractions1. Theaters, museums, circuses2. Latest fashions, shopping
17VI. Traveling WestA. “West” -referred to the lands between the Appalachians and the Mississippi RiverB. Population of some of 13 colonies declines as people move westC. Need to improve transportation to the west is obvious
18D. Western Routes1. Great Wagon Road through Pennsylvania2. Wilderness Road south and west by Daniel Boone’s route, led through Cumberland Gap3. Flatboats down Ohio River4. People from GA and SC followed routes to AL and MS5. People from NE pushed into NW territory
20New States Enter the Union E. New States1792 Kentucky1796 Tennessee1803 Ohio1812 Louisiana1816 Indiana1817 Mississippi1818 Illinois1819 Alabama
21VII. Improvements to Roads A. Turnpikes and Corduroy Roads1. Roads built by private companies2. Turnpikes for tolls3. Lancaster Turnpike the best of its time, linked Lancaster and Philadelphia4.Corduroy roads of logs5. Covered bridges lasted longer than plain wood
22B. The National Road 1. 1806 Congress sets aside funds 2. Road to run from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling in western VA3. Work begins 1811 and is completed in 18184. Road later extended as needed
23VIII. Steam Transport A. Fitch and Fulton 1. Fitch showed how a steam engine could power a boat (Constitutional Convention 1787)2. Few people used his ferry service3. Fulton launched a steamboat - the Clermont on the Hudson Rivermile trip in 62 hours - record
24What would be some of the advantages of the steamships? B. The Age of Steamboats1. Revolutionized travel in the west2. Gave farmers and merchants a cheap way to move goods3. Dangerous at times as sparks can explode high pressure boilers
25IX. The Canal Boom A. Building the Erie Canal 1. Let farmers ship goods to port of New York2. Links Great Lakes with Hudson River3. DeWitt Clinton, governor of NY, instrumental in getting it built4. “Clinton’s Ditch”
27The Big DitchThis painting shows the "Seneca Chief," the flagship of a flotilla making the maiden voyage down the Erie Canal. The 363-mile-long, $7 million canal opened the shortest thoroughfare between the Atlantic Coast's factories and the natural bounty of the Great Lakes, helping to position New York City as America's leading metropolis.The Canal did not greatly affect business for stagecoach companies, which were faster, and not limited by road capacity or ice, but it did bankrupt the Conestoga wagon freight carriers. By 1841, however, the railroads had put stagecoach companies out of business. The Erie Canal still operates today.
28The Erie CanalI've got a mule, Her name is Sal, Fifteen years on the Erie Canal. She's a good old worker And a good old pal, Fifteen years on the Erie Canal. We've hauled some barges in our day Filled with lumber, coal and hay And ev'ry inch of the way I know From Albany to Buffalo. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. We better get along On our way, old gal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. Cause you bet your life I'd never part with Sal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. Git up there, mule, here comes a lock, We'll make Rome 'bout six o'clock. One more trip and back we'll go Right back home to Buffalo. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal. Low Bridge, ev'rybody down, For it's Low Bridge, We're coming to a town! You can always tell your neighbor, You can always tell your pal, If you've ever navigated On the Erie Canal.
29Chapter 11 The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790- 1825 Sections 3 & 4Unity and DivisionNew Nations in the Americas
30ObjectivesDiscuss the role played by sectionalism in the Era of Good FeelingsExplain how the Latin American nations won independence and became republicsDescribe how the United States gained Florida from SpainDiscuss the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine
31Era of Good FeelingsJames Monroe: (Republican) easily won the Presidency in 1816.After inauguration, he toured the country and was well received even in New England.
32I. Three Sectional Leaders A. Calhoun of the South1. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina2. Supported War of 1812 and slavery3. Opposed policies that would strengthen the power of the federal government
33B. Daniel Webster of the North 1. New Hampshire2. Most skillful public speakers3. Opposed War of 1812 and slavery4. Wanted government to take a larger role in building the nation’s economy
34C. Henry Clay of the West1. Leader of War Hawks in War of 18122. VA- KY3. Favored a more active role for central government in promoting the country’s growth
35National BankThe National Bank was re-chartered in Americans wanted a central bank to loan money.
36Flood of British GoodsAfter the War of 1812 the American Market was flooded with cheaper British GoodsThis threatened the new Industrial USA.
37Congress Passes Protective Tariff To even the playing field with Great Britain, the US congress passed the Protective Tariff.
38The American SystemD. Sectionalism – loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the country as a wholeE. Internal improvements – improvements for roads, bridges, and canals
39Henry Clay’s American System Clay wanted economic growth for regions of the country.High taxes on imports= more $ for north to buy southern and western goods.
40American System: Definition What is Henry Clay’s American System?“the policy of promoting industry in the U.S. by adoption of a high protective tariff and of developing internal improvements by the federal government (as advocated by Henry Clay from 1816 to 1828)”House Speaker, Henry Clay coined the term “American System” in 1815, after President Madison created a plan to unite the Northern and Southern economies.
41North Economy: +/- Northern Economy: Strengths 1. The north had just experienced an Industrial Revolution, and was producing manufactured goods.2. New methods of transportation that brought goods to and from the manufacturing north.3. A new, national currency that enabled the north to trade with the south and west.Northern Economy: Weaknesses1. Poor soil, low crop production, few livestock.
42Southern/Western Economy: +/- Southern/Western Economy: Strengths1. Good and rich soil for plantation farming.2. Increased slavery, increased productivity.3. Use of the Mississippi River for transportation of goods between the north and south economies.Southern/Western Economy: Weaknesses1. No factories for manufacturing goods.2. Heavy, intense labor needed to run the plantations smoothly in the south.
43The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power Chief Justice John MarshallUnder John Marshall, the Supreme Court would increase the power of the Federal governement.
44McCulloch v. MarylandIn 1819, Maryland levied heavy taxes on a local branch of the National Bank to make it fail. It was declared unconstitutional.
45Gibbons v. Ogden Interstate Trade-trade between different states. This case upheld the federal governments right to regulate trade between states.
55III. Monroe DoctrineA. United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations or existing colonies of the European nationsB. European nations are not to attempt to gain control of the new independent nations of Latin America
56Monroe DoctrineC. Stated that the U.S. would oppose any attempt to build new colonies in the AmericasD. Showed that the U.S. is determined to keep European powers out of the Western HemisphereE. England supported Monroe Doctrine with its navyF. Has shaped U. S. foreign policy even now