Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Section A: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1.Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics 2. By."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Section A: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1.Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics 2. By the law of segregation, the two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes 3. By the law of independent assortment, each pair of alleles segregates into gametes independently 4. Mendelian inheritance reflects rules of probability 5. Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review 生物醫學暨環境生物學系 張學偉 助理教授
1.“blending” hypothesis appear incorrect. Parental materials mix (like blue & yellow green) 2. “particulate” hypothesis of inheritance– Gene idea (correct) Genes can be sorted and passed on, generation after generation, in undiluted form. transmission mechanism
The rule of addition also applies to genetic problems. Under the rule of addition, the probability of an event that can occur two or more different ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of those ways. The probability = chance + chance
We can combine the rules of multiplication and addition to solve complex problems in Mendelian genetics. The probability of producing a ppyyRr offspring: The probability of producing pp = 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4. The probability of producing yy = 1/2 x 1 = 1/2. The probability of producing Rr = 1/2 x 1 = 1/2. Therefore, the probability of all three being present (ppyyRr) in one offspring is 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16. For ppYyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16. For Ppyyrr: 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 2/16 for PPyyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 for ppyyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 Therefore, the chance of at least two recessive traits is 6/16. Example: PpYyRr x Ppyyrr
In fact, Mendel had the good fortune to choose a system that was relatively simple genetically. one character is controlled by a single gene. Each gene has only two alleles, one of which is completely dominant to the other. 1. The relationship between genotype and phenotype is rarely simple However, some alleles show incomplete dominance where heterozygotes show a distinct intermediate phenotype, not seen in homozygotes. Offspring of a cross between heterozygotes will show three phenotypes: both parentals and the heterozygote. The phenotypic and genotypic ratios are identical, 1:2:1.
Complete dominance Described by Mendel. (phenotype of heterozygote & dominant homozygote are indistinguished.) codominance in which two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways. People of group M (genotype MM) people of group N (genotype NN) people of group MN (genotype MN) have both molecules present.
For example, wrinkled seeds (2 recessive allele) accumulation of monosaccharides and excess water in seeds because of the lack of a key enzyme. seeds wrinkle when they dry. Both homozygous dominants and heterozygotes produce enough enzyme to convert all the monosaccharides into starch and form smooth seeds when they dry. Dominant alleles do not somehow subdue a recessive allele. Because an allele is dominant does not necessarily mean that it is more common in a population than the recessive allele.
1. They range from complete dominance, though various degrees of incomplete dominance, to codominance. Dominance/recessiveness relationships have three important points. (summary) 2. They reflect the mechanisms by which specific alleles are expressed in the phenotype and do not involve the ability of one allele to subdue another at the level of DNA. 3. They do not determine or correlate with the relative abundance of alleles in a population.
pedigree analysis collected from as many individuals in a family as possible and across generations. 1. Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance Dominant trait recessive trait Fig
simple recessive traits-e.g. albinismare and cystic fibrosis. The recessive behavior of the alleles occurs because the allele codes for either a malfunctioning protein or no protein at all. 2. Many human disorders follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance While heterozygotes may have no clear phenotypic effects, they are carriers who may transmit a recessive allele to their offspring. Genetic disorders are not evenly distributed among all groups of humans.
cystic fibrosis (CF) The normal allele codes for a membrane protein that transports Cl - between cells and the environment. favors bacterial infections. Tay-Sachs disease is another lethal recessive disorder. The most common inherited disease among blacks is sickle-cell disease. caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in hemoglobin. When oxygen levels in the blood of an affected individual are low, sickle-cell hemoglobin crystallizes into long rods.
At the organismal level, the non-sickle allele is incompletely dominant to the sickle-cell allele. Carriers are said to have the sickle-cell trait. These individuals are usually healthy, although some suffer some symptoms of sickle-cell disease under blood oxygen stress. At the molecule level, the two alleles are codominant as both normal and abnormal hemoglobins are synthesized. malaria, a parasite that spends part of its life cycle in RBC. Homozygous normal individuals die of malaria, homozygous recessive individuals die of sickle-cell disease, and carriers are relatively free of both.