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CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Section A: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1.Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics 2. By.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Section A: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1.Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics 2. By."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Section A: Gregor Mendel’s Discoveries 1.Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics 2. By the law of segregation, the two alleles for a character are packaged into separate gametes 3. By the law of independent assortment, each pair of alleles segregates into gametes independently 4. Mendelian inheritance reflects rules of probability 5. Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review 生物醫學暨環境生物學系 張學偉 助理教授

2 heritable variations (eyes of brown, green, blue, or gray) Introduction Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  These traits are transmitted from parents to offspring.

3 1.“blending” hypothesis appear incorrect.  Parental materials mix (like blue & yellow  green) 2. “particulate” hypothesis of inheritance– Gene idea (correct) Genes can be sorted and passed on, generation after generation, in undiluted form. transmission mechanism

4 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Modern genetics  began in an abbey garden, where a monk names Gregor Mendel documented the particulate mechanism of inheritance.

5 Birth in small farm of Czech Republic. 1. Mendel brought an experimental and quantitative approach to genetics Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pea plants have several advantages for genetics. 1. Pea plants are available in many varieties with distinct heritable features (characters) with different variants (traits). 2. Mendel had strict control over which plants mated with which.

6 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 14.1

7 In nature, pea plants typically self-fertilize  all offspring are of the same variety (True- breeding) Mendel  cross-pollinate Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.1 The result is the same for reciprocal cross.

8 In a typical breeding experiment, Mendel would cross-pollinate or mate (hybridize) two contrasting, true-breeding pea varieties. The true-breeding parents are the P generation and their hybrid offspring are the F 1 generation. Mendel would then allow the F 1 hybrids to self-pollinate to produce an F 2 generation. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

9 2. By the law of segregation, the two alleles for a characters are packaged into separate gametes Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.2 dominant recessive  Heritable factor (Gene) indicated that heritable factor for the white trait was not diluted or “blended” with the purple-flower factor in F 1 hybrids.

10 Mendel’s hypothesis to explain these results: 1. Alternative version of genes (now called different alleles) account for variations in inherited characters. Fig. 14.3

11 2. For each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. (diploid) Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 3. If two alleles differ, then one, the dominant allele, is fully expressed in the the organism’s appearance. The other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance.

12 4. The two alleles for each character segregate (separate) during gamete production (meiosis). Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings If an organism has identical allele for a particular character, then that allele exists as a single copy in all gametes. If different alleles are present, then 50% of the gametes will receive one allele and 50% will receive the other.

13 A Punnett square predicts the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known genotype. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.4 Mondel’s law of segregation Capital letter = dominant allele Lowercase letter = recessive allele Random combination of the gametes

14 An organism with two identical alleles for a character is homozygous for that character. (homozygotes) Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organisms with two different alleles for a character is heterozygous for that character. (heterozygotes are not true-breeding)

15 Fig. 14.5 description of an organism’s traits description of its genetic makeup

16 A test cross, breeding a homozygous recessive with dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype, can determine the identity of the unknown allele. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.6

17 Mendel’s experiments that followed the inheritance of flower color or other characters focused on only a single character via monohybrid crosses. 3. By the law of independent assortment, each pair of alleles segregates into gametes independently Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings He conduced other experiments in which he followed the inheritance of two different characters, a dihybrid cross.

18 transmitted from parents to offspring as a package. = The Y and R alleles and y and r alleles stay together. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.7a This was not consistent with Mendel’s results. dihybrid cross experiment

19 This was consistent with Mendel’s results. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.7b

20 Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the same laws of probability that apply to tossing coins or rolling dice. 4. Mendelian inheritance reflects rule of probability Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings no impact on the outcome of the next toss. Each toss is an independent event, just like the distribution of alleles into gametes.

21 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings We can use the rule of multiplication to determine the chance that two or more independent events will occur together in some specific combination.  The probability = chance X chance The rule of multiplication also applies to dihybrid crosses.

22 The rule of addition also applies to genetic problems. Under the rule of addition, the probability of an event that can occur two or more different ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of those ways.  The probability = chance + chance

23 We can combine the rules of multiplication and addition to solve complex problems in Mendelian genetics. The probability of producing a ppyyRr offspring: The probability of producing pp = 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4. The probability of producing yy = 1/2 x 1 = 1/2. The probability of producing Rr = 1/2 x 1 = 1/2. Therefore, the probability of all three being present (ppyyRr) in one offspring is 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16. For ppYyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16. For Ppyyrr: 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 2/16 for PPyyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 for ppyyrr: 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 Therefore, the chance of at least two recessive traits is 6/16. Example: PpYyRr x Ppyyrr

24 we cannot predict with certainty we can predict the probabilities that it will fit a specific genotype of phenotype. 5. Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mendel’s laws of independent assortment and segregation  explain heritable variation in terms of alternative forms of genes that are passed along according to simple rule of probability.

25 CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B: Extending Mendelian Genetics  Not reported by Mendel

26 In fact, Mendel had the good fortune to choose a system that was relatively simple genetically. one character is controlled by a single gene. Each gene has only two alleles, one of which is completely dominant to the other. 1. The relationship between genotype and phenotype is rarely simple However, some alleles show incomplete dominance where heterozygotes show a distinct intermediate phenotype, not seen in homozygotes. Offspring of a cross between heterozygotes will show three phenotypes: both parentals and the heterozygote. The phenotypic and genotypic ratios are identical, 1:2:1.

27 example of incomplete dominance. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.9

28 Complete dominance  Described by Mendel. (phenotype of heterozygote & dominant homozygote are indistinguished.) codominance in which two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways. People of group M (genotype MM) people of group N (genotype NN) people of group MN (genotype MN) have both molecules present.

29 Heterozygotes with one working allele and homozygotes with two working alleles are “normal” at the organismal level, but heterozygotes produce less functional enzyme. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings humans with Tay-Sachs disease (recessive) lack a functioning enzyme to metabolize gangliosides (a lipid)  accumulate in brain  harming brain cells  death. However, both the Tay-Sachs alllele and functional alleles produce equal numbers of enzyme molecules, codominant at the molecular level.

30 For example, wrinkled seeds (2 recessive allele)  accumulation of monosaccharides and excess water in seeds because of the lack of a key enzyme.  seeds wrinkle when they dry. Both homozygous dominants and heterozygotes produce enough enzyme to convert all the monosaccharides into starch and form smooth seeds when they dry. Dominant alleles do not somehow subdue a recessive allele. Because an allele is dominant does not necessarily mean that it is more common in a population than the recessive allele.

31 1. They range from complete dominance, though various degrees of incomplete dominance, to codominance. Dominance/recessiveness relationships have three important points. (summary) 2. They reflect the mechanisms by which specific alleles are expressed in the phenotype and do not involve the ability of one allele to subdue another at the level of DNA. 3. They do not determine or correlate with the relative abundance of alleles in a population.

32 Most genes have more than two alleles in a population. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Multiple alleles The ABO blood groups in humans are determined by three alleles, I A, I B, and I. Both the I A and I B alleles are dominant to the i allele The I A and I B alleles are codominant to each other.

33 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.10 Carbohydrates on the surface of RBC

34 The genes that we have covered so far affect only one phenotypic character. However, most genes are pleiotropic, affecting more than one phenotypic character. For example, the wide-ranging symptoms of sickle-cell disease are due to a single gene. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

35 In epistasis, a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus. One, the epistatic gene, determines whether pigment will be present in hair (C)[dominant] or absent (c). The second determines whether the pigment to be deposited is black (B) [dominant] or brown (b). An individual that is cc has a white (albino) coat regardless of the genotype of the second gene.  C/c gene (first) is epistatic to the B/b gene second). Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

36 Fig. 14.11 Not Medel 9:3:3:1

37 Quantitative characters vary in a population along a continuum (in gradation) These are usually due to polygenic inheritance, the additive effects of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character. For example, skin color. each gene has two alleles, one light and one dark, that demonstrate incomplete dominance (intermediate phenotype). Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

38 Fig. 14.12 An AABBCC individual is dark and aabbcc is light. incomplete dominance (intermediate phenotype).

39 The product of a genotype is generally not a rigidly defined phenotype, but a range of phenotypic possibilities, the norm of reaction (phenotypic range), that are determined by the environment. Norms of reactions are broadest for polygenic characters by multifactorial characters in environment. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.13

40 CHAPTER 14 MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEA Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section C: Mendelian Inheritance in Humans 1.Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance 2. Many human disorders follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance 3. Technology is providing news tools for genetic testing and counseling

41 pedigree analysis collected from as many individuals in a family as possible and across generations. 1. Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance Dominant trait recessive trait Fig. 14.14

42 simple recessive traits-e.g. albinismare and cystic fibrosis. The recessive behavior of the alleles occurs because the allele codes for either a malfunctioning protein or no protein at all. 2. Many human disorders follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance While heterozygotes may have no clear phenotypic effects, they are carriers who may transmit a recessive allele to their offspring. Genetic disorders are not evenly distributed among all groups of humans.

43 cystic fibrosis (CF) The normal allele codes for a membrane protein that transports Cl - between cells and the environment. favors bacterial infections. Tay-Sachs disease is another lethal recessive disorder. The most common inherited disease among blacks is sickle-cell disease.  caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in hemoglobin. When oxygen levels in the blood of an affected individual are low, sickle-cell hemoglobin crystallizes into long rods.

44 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.15 Pleiotropic effect in the sickle-cell allele in a Homozygote.

45 At the organismal level, the non-sickle allele is incompletely dominant to the sickle-cell allele. Carriers are said to have the sickle-cell trait. These individuals are usually healthy, although some suffer some symptoms of sickle-cell disease under blood oxygen stress. At the molecule level, the two alleles are codominant as both normal and abnormal hemoglobins are synthesized. malaria, a parasite that spends part of its life cycle in RBC. Homozygous normal individuals die of malaria, homozygous recessive individuals die of sickle-cell disease, and carriers are relatively free of both.

46 Although most harmful alleles are recessive, many human disorders are due to dominant alleles. (e.g., achondroplasia, a form of dwarfism) Heterozygous individuals have the dwarf phenotype. Lethal dominant alleles are much less common than lethal recessives because if a lethal dominant kills an offspring before it can mature and reproduce, the allele will not be passed on to future generations. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

47 A lethal dominant allele can escape elimination if it causes death at a relatively advanced age, after the individual has already passed on the lethal allele to his or her children. One example is Huntington’s disease, a degenerative disease of the nervous system. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

48 Any child born to a parent who has the allele for Huntington’s disease has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease and the disorder. (Aa X aa) A = Dominant allele that cause Huntington’s Dx. Huntington’s allele to a locus near the tip of chromosomes 4. (CAG repeat) Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 14.15

49 Fig. 14.17a 3. Technology is providing new tools for genetic testing and counseling

50 Other techniques, ultrasound and fetoscopy, allow fetal health to be assessed visually in uterus. Both fetoscopy and amniocentesis cause complications in about 1% of cases. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings recessively inherited disorder, phenyketonuria (PKU).  accumulate phenylalanine and its derivative phenypyruvate in the blood to toxic levels. This leads to mental retardation.


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