Presentation on theme: "1 Foundation Course Transmitters & Receivers EKRS Karl Davies."— Presentation transcript:
1 Foundation Course Transmitters & Receivers EKRS Karl Davies
Tuned Circuits 2 Radios depend on the concept of tuned circuits. Tuned circuits are built from combinations of Inductors and Capacitors which have a self-resonant frequency. Tuned circuits are thus able to selectively pass or block frequencies in transmitters and receivers. They are the basis of tuners, filters, oscillators, ATUs etc.
Transmitters 3 Transmitter concept is in the block diagram below:- Foundation Licence only permits use of commercial equipment to minimise the risk of interference and/or out-of-band operation. Avoid over-deviating, and operating PAs into poor matches !! 1 - Audio Stage 2 - Modulator e.g. AM, FM, SSB 3 - RF Frequency Generator 4 - RF Power Amplifier Mic
Receivers 4 Receiver concept is in the block diagram below:- RF Front-end is critical to performance. Inductors and capacitors create selectively tuned circuits. RF Amplifier stage dominates the Noise performance Detection circuits for decoding AM, FM etc are different 1 - Tuning and RF Amplifier3 - Audio Amplifier 2 - Detection 4 - Loudspeaker
Modulation 5 Modulation (or Mode) refers to how audio or data information is superimposed onto an RF ‘Carrier’ frequency Remember - the RF Carrier is a sine wave:- v m/s f Hertz metres v f
AM Modulation 6 Note if Audio is too strong, clipping and distortion occurs Simple AM gives carrier with lower and upper sidebands AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) - The audio signal varies the amplitude of the RF Carrier RF Carrier Audio Input AM Signal
FM Modulation 7 Actual amount of variation is small & called Deviation Signal Amplitude is constant and doesn't carry info. It’s therefore less prone to interference FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) - The audio signal varies the Frequency of the RF Carrier - its Amplitude stays constant FM Signal RF Carrier Audio Input
CW & FSK Modulation 8 Poor Edges can give ringing or key clicks Don't overdrive if TNCs used for Packet Data Data rates are limited by available Bandwidth Morse, also called CW, is the simplest form of digital mode. FSK, Frequency Shift Keying, is used for higher speed ‘Packet’ data FSK Signal CW Signal Keyer /Data
Earthing/EMC 9 Good reception especially on HF, as well as EMC performance, depends on good earthing. Ensure shack equipment is run from a common mains earth to prevent earth loops - use filtered mains boards and ferrite rings correctly. RF Earths for antennas are often separate - consider earth stakes etc. Modern Gas & Water Pipes can give high resistance earth. AM/SSB can be rectified/detected easily, so is most prone to cause interference - Operate in a responsible manner!
Operating Precautions 10 Ensure Transmitter frequencies/modes are setup correctly so emissions are always in band, and conform to band plans. RF power amplifier outputs must be connected to a correctly matched antenna to work properly. Use of the wrong antenna can result in damage to the transmitter. Excessive AM modulation or FM deviation will cause distorted outputs, and interference on adjacent channels Ensure that Microphone Gain (where fitted) is correctly adjusted
Extras 11 Coils/Inductors pass DC but block AC Capacitors block DC but pass AC Units mH = milli Henry’s f micro-Farads Tuned Circuits are circuits with mixtures of coils and capacitors
Extras – Tuned Circuits 12 Parallel RLC Circuit notations: V - the voltage of the power source (measured in volts V)volts I - the current in the circuit (measured in amperes A)amperes R - the resistance of the resistor (measured in ohms = V/A);resistanceohms L - the inductance of the inductor (measured in henrys = H = V·s/A)inductancehenryss C - the capacitance of the capacitor (measured in farads = F = C/V = A·s/V)capacitancefaradsC Series RLC Circuit notations: V - the voltage of the power source (measured in volts V)volts I - the current in the circuit (measured in amperes A)amperes R - the resistance of the resistor (measured in ohms = V/A);resistanceohms L - the inductance of the inductor (measured in henrys = H = V·s/A)inductancehenryss C - the capacitance of the capacitor (measured in farads = F = C/V = A·s/V)capacitancefaradsC q - the charge across the capacitor (measured in coulombs C)coulombs