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Linked Open Data in the Humanities An Open and Shut Case? Elton Barker & Leif Isaksen 4 July, 2012 | DHOXSS, Oxford.

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Presentation on theme: "Linked Open Data in the Humanities An Open and Shut Case? Elton Barker & Leif Isaksen 4 July, 2012 | DHOXSS, Oxford."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linked Open Data in the Humanities An Open and Shut Case? Elton Barker & Leif Isaksen 4 July, 2012 | DHOXSS, Oxford

2 ‘going through in detail towns of men both small and great alike: for of the places that were once great, most have now become small, while those that were great in my time were small before’ ( ὁ μο ί ως σμικρ ὰ κα ὶ μεγ ά λα ἄ στεα ἀ νθρ ώ πων ἐ πεξι ώ ν· τ ὰ γ ὰ ρ τ ὸ π ά λαι μεγ ά λα ἦ ν, τ ὰ πολλ ὰ σμικρ ὰ α ὐ τ ῶ ν γ έ γονε· τ ὰ δ ὲ ἐ π ᾿ ἐ με ῦ ἦ ν μεγ ά λα, πρ ό τερον ἦ ν σμικρ ά, Herodotus 1.5) Origins| The Hestia Project

3 The Digital Text| Repurposing Perseus

4 Web technologies | Google Earth

5 Web technologies | The Narrative Timeline

6 Scaling up| The Google Ancient Places project

7 GapVis | The Reading View

8 GapVis | The Snapshot

9 GapVis | The Place View

10 10 …or any other online resource that bears a relation to a particular ancient place! Connecting Ancient World Research Resources through the Places they refer to Inscriptions Texts Archaeological Finds Museum Objects Archaeological Sites Pelagios| Linking data, openly

11 The‘Semantic Web’ ‘Linked Open Data’ Digital Semantics| Two Visions

12 Source: Google Trends Digital Semantics| Ups and Downs

13 Source: Google Trends Digital Semantics| Ups and Downs

14 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so people can look them up 3. Provide information as RDF 4. Link to other URIs Digital Semantics| The 4 Linked Data Rules

15 VariableFixed TermOpen EndedDifference OWL70%30%40 CIDOC CRM65%30%35 Conversion by Humanist60%25%35 Restricted Target Group50%15%35 External Consumption20%50%30 Public Access45%75%30 Resolvable URIs45%75%30 Persistent URIs35%80%45 Digital Semantics| MSKR vs. Linked Open Data

16  Ot yesa eeennsct isht dear snit  Isht eeennsct snit yesa ot dear  To easy sentence this read isn’t  This sentence isn’t easy to read Digital Semantics| References vs. Properties

17 The glue | Pleiades Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)

18 Using Pleiades| Don’t Unify the Model – Annotate! 18 pleiades: (Athenae) pleiades: (Sparta)

19 Pleiades Ancient World Resources Pelagios

20 20  Data aggregation  Federated search  Standardization of data representation  Schema alignment & interoperability on a metadata level Connectivity through common references rather than common properties One ring to rule them all| What Pelagios is NOT about

21 The Partners| The growing Pelagios Community 21  The Open University  University of Southampton  Austrian Institute of Technology  Pleiades  Arachne  CLAROS  Fasti Online  GAP  nomisma.org  Open Context  Perseus Digital Library  Ptolemy Machine  SPQR  Ure Museum AND the British Museum, Inscriptions of Israel / Palestine, Papyri.info, Ports Antiques, ORACC, Regnum Francorum…

22 Why is this Useful? | Three easy wins 22  Context – obtain links to online data that may be relevant to your own  Discovery – users can find your data by following links on other partners’ sites  Reuse – the Pelagios API provides machine-readable representations (JSON, RDF) to enable mashups and other forms of 3 rd party re-use

23 Pelagios API in the Wild | Open Context 23 A free, open access resource for the electronic publication of primary field research from archaeology and related disciplines Result pages for Pleiades places show small sidebar boxes with references from the Pelagios API

24 Pelagios API in the Wild | awld.js 24 A JavaScript library for Ancient World Linked Data, developed by Nick Rabinowitz and Sebastian Heath, awld.js adds functionality and visual elements based on links to stable URIs. Pop-ups for Pleiades places link to Pelagios references

25 Pelagios API Tools | Widgets 25 Pop-up elements you can embed on your own Web pages to display data from the Pelagios partners

26 Pelagios API Tools | Graph Explorer 26 Exploring Relations between Places through Data Exploring Relations between Data through Place

27 Pelagios API Tools | Mapping Annotations (Heat maps) 27

28 Joining up | Three steps to heaven 28 1.Make your data available over the Web with stable URIs 2.Map your place references to the Pleiades Gazetteer of the Ancient World 1 3. Publish place references as RDF  Pelagios considers place references to be “annotations” on your data – use the Open Annotation 2 RDF vocabulary  Use Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) 3 for dataset metadata Warning: that‘s the tough part! Remember: this is separate from your data!

29 Challenges| Issues identified so far…  No two datasets are the same (and we’re only collecting place references…)  RDF dumps – 1 dumpfile vs s of dumpfiles vs. SPARQL  How to label appropriately? (references, data containing the reference)  Dataset partitions – no subsets vs subsets & multiple levels of hierarchy  Dataset versioning?  Typing – how to express the kind of relation between data and place  Find spot vs. origin, “depicts”, etc.  Uncertain references ( probably made in…, from the vicinity of… )  Granularity & vague references ( South Italy, Greek Islands )  Pelagios has been taking an (extreme?) “Keep it Simple” approach  “We should grow the Web of Data, not build it” 29

30 Possibilities| Scholarly linking 30

31 Conferre| To bring together 31 “Classicists have always been concerned with ‘parallels’ – with what goes after the magic word ‘cf.’... What has not been clear with the traditional citation of parallel passages is what the point of the activity is, how the parallels affect the interpretation of the text.” Don Fowler, “On the Shoulders of Giants,” in Roman Constructions (Oxford, 2000) 116

32 Thanks to the HESTIA, GAP and Pelagios partnerships - for the Pelagios “cookbook” 32


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