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Chapter 12: GDP and Growth PART I: THE GDP. Welcome to the world of Macroeconomics!

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: GDP and Growth PART I: THE GDP. Welcome to the world of Macroeconomics!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12: GDP and Growth PART I: THE GDP

2 Welcome to the world of Macroeconomics!

3 Examine the economy of the nation from quarter to quarter To measure growth To formulate policies

4 THE BIG FOUR: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Consumer Price Index (CPI) Unemployment Leading Economic Indicators


6 Leading Indicators: Predict the future of the Business Cycle Coincident Indicators: Parallel Indicators (happening right now!) Lagging Indicators: Tell the past

7 Gross: Total Domestic: Within our country Product: Goods & Services The total market value of all final goods & services produced within a countrys borders during a Fiscal Year.


9 All durable goods (stoves; cars; etc) All nondurable goods (pencils; Taco Bell; etc) All final sales (the whole car; not the tires) All exports sold abroad Spending by foreigners in the USA

10 Intermediate Goods (the tires on the car you bought) Used/Second Hand Goods Stocks/Bonds Transfer Payments (Welfare; Food Stamps; SS) Imports Nonmarket Activity Illegal Goods Bartered Goods

11 The Expenditures Approach: GDP=C + Ig + G + Xn

12 Durable goods (autos/stoves) Non-durable goods (food/gas) Services (doctors/mechanics) Ex: You buy a movie ticket. Ex: You buy a new refrigerator. Ex: You buy a coffee on your way to school.

13 Has to do with BUSINESS Construction New machinery, equipment Current inventories (even if not sold!) Ex: Starbucks buys new espresso machines Ex: Wal-Mart repaves their parking lot

14 Local/State/Federal Purchases Ex: Lawrence builds an addition on LHS Ex: NJ builds a new bridge for Rt. 195 Ex: The USA purchases more fighter jets

15 Xn=Net Exports Exports-Imports=Net Exports EX: A German man purchases a US- made Ford truck EX: You purchase an airline ticket on Air France (import)

16 May underestimate the GDP Does not measure economic welfare Doesnt take inflation into account Double counting

17 REALNOMINAL Expresses the actual # of $ being spent regardless of how many items each dollar can purchase Expressed in constant dollars Expresses the value of dollars in terms of what they can purchase rather than the actual # of $ spent Expressed in current dollars

18 Q: How do we accurately measure the GDP from year to year if the value of the dollar keeps changing? A: Current Dollars do not take inflation into account (year to year) Comparisons of the GDP can be misleading if we use current dollars

19 GDP figures that are adjusted mathematically for inflation have current dollars Each years GDP is converted to dollars before they are compared another year

20 Per Capita (per person) GDP used to compare the output of 2 or more nations in order to estimate standard of living A nations GDP is divided by all of its inhabitants to calculate the Per Capita GDP…$43,600 in 2006



23 Measuring the Economy by Looking at Price Change

24 What is it and how many kinds are there? Inflation: When price, in general, increase This means that the purchasing value of the dollar decreases 50% IR means that the purchasing value of the dollar is cut in half

25 PRODUCER PRICE INDEX (PPI) CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI) Measures prices paid by the consumer Measure a market basket of goods from year to year

26 Increase in cost of raw materials and labor force sellers/producers to raise price of goods/services Rise in key commodities often signal rise in inflation Wage-price Spiral: (a real danger); wage and price controls are sometimes used to combat cost-push inflation

27 Debtors: The money they pay back is worth less than the money they borrowed 25 years ago

28 Savings Account – if the cost of living is higher than your rate of interest Retired Persons and People on Fixed Incomes (with no cola) Lenders

29 STAGNATION + INFLATION Worst of all possible economic worlds 0% economic growth High Inflation Double Digit Inflation Double Digit Unemployment Double Digit Interest Rates 1970s Oil Crisis

30 Another measure of the economic health of the country

31 Goal: 5% Unemployment 5% Unemployment = Full Employment?? Why??? - Seasonal Unemployment - Frictional Unemployment - Structural Unemployment - Cyclical Unemployment (Only serious one)

32 Over 16 an looking for a job during the last month Measured by the BLS (Dept of Labor Statistics) which scientifically selects 60,000 people to ask


34 Not unemployed, but will begetting a job soon

35 A mismatch between worker and skills needed or location Requires new training

36 More workers are being laid- off?? Signals a downturn in the economy

37 Can the official unemployment numbers be misleading?

38 Underemployment often leads to discouraged worker syndrome Will unemployment #s be inflated or deflated? Deflated – there are really more people unemployed

39 Bartering Services Under the Counter Illegal Gambling Prostitution Drug Dealing

40 Underground workers are employed…just not officially Official unemployment statistics may actually be inflated

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