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World History Unit 4 – “Empires and Kingdoms: Growth and Expansion”

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Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 4 – “Empires and Kingdoms: Growth and Expansion”"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History Unit 4 – “Empires and Kingdoms: Growth and Expansion”
SSWH4 The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE. Explain the relationship of the Byzantine Empire to the Roman Empire. Describe the significance of Justinian’s law code, Theodora and the role of women, and Byzantine art and architecture. Analyze the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Byzantine Empire. Analyze the role of Constantinople as a trading and religious center. Explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia, with particular attention to its impact on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev. Define the role of Orthodox Christianity and the Schism.

2 BYZANTINE EMPIRE WHAT DO YOU KNOW?
WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND THE ROMAN EMPIRE?

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4 The origins 330 A.D. Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a "new Rome" on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium NEW ROME, CONSTANTINOPLE, CAPITAL OF ERE, BE, sometimes call the 2nd Rome. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between the states of Europe and the threat of invasion from Asia and Islamic peoples The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI.

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7 A New Rome CONSTANTINOPLE, BYZANTINE EMPIRE "Byzantine" derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas Located on the European side of the Bosporus (the strait linking the Black Sea to the Mediterranean) the site of Byzantium was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia Minor In 330 A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a new Roman capital, Constantinople Five years earlier, at the Council of Nicaea, Constantine had established Christianity (once an obscure Jewish sect) as Rome's official religion Constantinople and the rest of the Eastern Roman Empire identified strongly as Romans and Christians, though many of them spoke Greek and not Latin

8 CONSTANTINOPLE

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10 THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND CHRISTIANITY
official language was Latin Greek was also widely spoken, and students received education in Greek history religion: the Council of Chalcedon in 451 division of the Christian world into five patriarchates (geographic regions), each ruled by a patriarch (religious leader) 1 Rome (where the patriarch would later call himself pope 2 Constantinople 3 Alexandria 4 Antioch 5 Jerusalem (Beginning of Roman Catholic Church ,RCC) Byzantine emperor was the patriarch of Constantinople, and the head of both church and state (After the Islamic empire absorbed Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem in the seventh century, the Byzantine emperor would become the spiritual leader of most eastern Christians.)

11 CONSTANTINOPLE CONSTANTINOPLE CITY OF CONSTANTINE
CAPITAL OF B.E. (E.R.E) AND LATER THE ISLAMIC OTTOMAN TURK EMPIRE

12 CONSTANTINOPLE built on seven hills and the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara impregnable fortress with 3 surrounding walls enclosing magnificent palaces, domes and towers The Church of Hagia Sophia palace of the emperors the hippodrome the Golden Gate

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14 HOLY WISDOM JUSTINIAN EASTERN ORTHODOX ROMAN CATHOLIC MUSLIM MOSQUE MUSEUM

15 HIPPODROME HIPPO-HORSE DROMOS-RACEWAY

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19 General Belisarius EMPEROR JUSTINIAN Justinian the Great
Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565 revived the Empire's greatness and reconquered the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire. General Belisarius

20 BELISARIUS

21 Legacy rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis Byzantine culture Hagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity

22 Plague of Justinian) in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendor
The Empire entered a period of territorial decline not to be reversed until the ninth century. Procopius, historian, provides the primary source for the history of Justinian's reign his empress, Theodora, improved role of women in empire

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24 THEODORA expanded the rights of women in divorce
and property ownership instituted the death penalty for rape forbade exposure of unwanted infants gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children and forbade the killing of a wife who committed adultery Procopius wrote that she was naturally inclined to assist women in misfortune

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26 EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY
The Eastern Orthodox Church Orthodox Catholic Church commonly referred to as the Orthodox Church second largest Christian church in the world 300 million adherents Eastern and Southeastern Europe religious denomination of the majority of the populations of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Cyprus

27 traces its development back through the Byzantine or Roman empire, to the earliest church established by St. Paul and the Apostles Icons can be found adorning the walls of Orthodox churches facing eas

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29 Cathedral of Saint Sava, Belgrade, Serbia,
the world's largest Orthodox Church

30 The East–West Schism Great Schism Division Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively Relations between East and West had long been due to theological differences

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33 11TH CENTURY: COMPARING THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, ROMAN CATHOLIC AND EASTERN ORTHODOX
RCC ROME LATIN POPE IS OVER ALL BISHOPS, KINGS, EMPERORS PRIESTS CANNOT MARRY NO DIVORCE SIMILARITIES THE GOSPEL, JESUS, BIBLE SACRAMENTS, BAPTISM PRIESTS AND BISHOPS GOAL: CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY EOC CONSTANTINOPLE GREEK PATRIARCHS/BISHOPS HEAD CHURCH AS GROUP MARRIED PRIESTS DIVORCE ALLOWED

34 Video, great schism

35 BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND RUSSIA
CONVERTS (FOLLOWERS) COMPETITION MISSIONARIES CONVERT SLAVS (RUSSIANS) TO ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY SAINT METHODIUS SAINT CYRIL DEVELOP ALPHABET FOR SLAVIC LANGUAGE, BASED ON GREEK BIBLE READING CYRILLIC ALPHABET TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIANS (KIEVAN RUSSIA, CITY OF KIEV) DIFFUSED CULTURE

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37 KIEVAN RUS KIEVAN RUSSIA

38 KIEVAN RUSSIA

39 KIEVAN RUSSIA late 9th to the mid 13th century
Vikings called Rus: FOUNDERS LEADERS Vladimir the Great (980–1015) son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054) "Golden Age" of Kiev introduction of Christianity creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda ("Justice of Rus")

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42 Ivan III (The Great) 22 January October 1505; reign, Moscow, Russia Ivan the Great Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Rus“ “gatherer of the Russian lands,“ ended the dominance of the Golden Horde (Mongol Empire of East Asia) over the Rus laid the foundations of the Russian state one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound centralized control over local rulers period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness Freedom was stamped out within the Russian lands anti-Catholic Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the west For the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived country of Western learning and civilization.“ Married a Byzantine princess

43 IVAN III, THE GREAT SUCCESSOR TO BYZANTINE EMPERORS (AFTER FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO MUSLIM OTTOMAN TURKS)

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