Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 4 – “Empires and Kingdoms: Growth and Expansion”"— Presentation transcript:
1World History Unit 4 – “Empires and Kingdoms: Growth and Expansion” SSWH4 The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE.Explain the relationship of the Byzantine Empire to the Roman Empire.Describe the significance of Justinian’s law code, Theodora and the role of women, and Byzantine art and architecture.Analyze the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Byzantine Empire.Analyze the role of Constantinople as a trading and religious center.Explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia, with particular attention to its impact on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev.Define the role of Orthodox Christianity and the Schism.
2BYZANTINE EMPIRE WHAT DO YOU KNOW? WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND THE ROMAN EMPIRE?
4The origins330 A.D.Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a "new Rome" on the site of the ancient Greek colony of ByzantiumNEW ROME, CONSTANTINOPLE, CAPITAL OF ERE, BE, sometimes call the 2nd Rome.Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between the states of Europe and the threat of invasion from Asia and Islamic peoplesThe Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI.
7A New RomeCONSTANTINOPLE, BYZANTINE EMPIRE"Byzantine" derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named ByzasLocated on the European side of the Bosporus (the strait linking the Black Sea to the Mediterranean)the site of Byzantium was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia MinorIn 330 A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a new Roman capital, ConstantinopleFive years earlier, at the Council of Nicaea, Constantine had established Christianity (once an obscure Jewish sect) as Rome's official religionConstantinople and the rest of the Eastern Roman Empire identified strongly as Romans and Christians, though many of them spoke Greek and not Latin
10THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND CHRISTIANITY official language was LatinGreek was also widely spoken, and students received education in Greek historyreligion: the Council of Chalcedon in 451division of the Christian world into five patriarchates (geographic regions), each ruled by a patriarch (religious leader)1 Rome (where the patriarch would later call himself pope2 Constantinople3 Alexandria4 Antioch5 Jerusalem(Beginning of Roman Catholic Church ,RCC)Byzantine emperor was the patriarch of Constantinople, and the head of both church and state(After the Islamic empire absorbed Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem in the seventh century, the Byzantine emperor would become the spiritual leader of most eastern Christians.)
11CONSTANTINOPLE CONSTANTINOPLE CITY OF CONSTANTINE CAPITAL OF B.E. (E.R.E)AND LATER THE ISLAMICOTTOMAN TURK EMPIRE
12CONSTANTINOPLEbuilt on seven hills and the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmaraimpregnable fortress with 3 surrounding walls enclosing magnificent palaces, domes and towersThe Church of Hagia Sophiapalace of the emperorsthe hippodromethe Golden Gate
19General Belisarius EMPEROR JUSTINIAN Justinian the Great Byzantine Emperor from 527to 565revived the Empire's greatnessand reconquered the lostwestern half of the classicalRoman Empire.General Belisarius
21Legacyrewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris CivilisByzantine cultureHagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity
22Plague of Justinian) in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendor The Empire entered a period of territorial decline not to be reversed until the ninth century.Procopius, historian, provides the primary source for the history of Justinian's reignhis empress, Theodora, improved role of women in empire
24THEODORA expanded the rights of women in divorce and property ownershipinstituted the death penaltyfor rapeforbade exposure of unwantedinfantsgave mothers some guardianshiprights over their childrenand forbade the killing of a wifewho committed adulteryProcopius wrote that shewas naturally inclined to assistwomen in misfortune
26EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY The Eastern Orthodox ChurchOrthodox Catholic Churchcommonly referred to as the Orthodox Churchsecond largest Christian church in the world300 million adherentsEastern and Southeastern Europereligious denomination of the majority of the populations of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Cyprus
27traces its development back through the Byzantine or Roman empire, to the earliest church established by St. Paul and the ApostlesIcons can be found adorning the walls of Orthodox churches facing eas
29Cathedral of Saint Sava, Belgrade, Serbia, the world's largest Orthodox Church
30The East–West SchismGreat SchismDivision Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectivelyRelations between East and West had long been due to theological differences
3311TH CENTURY: COMPARING THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, ROMAN CATHOLIC AND EASTERN ORTHODOX RCCROMELATINPOPE IS OVER ALL BISHOPS, KINGS, EMPERORSPRIESTS CANNOT MARRYNO DIVORCESIMILARITIESTHE GOSPEL, JESUS, BIBLESACRAMENTS, BAPTISMPRIESTS AND BISHOPSGOAL: CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITYEOCCONSTANTINOPLEGREEKPATRIARCHS/BISHOPS HEAD CHURCH AS GROUPMARRIED PRIESTSDIVORCE ALLOWED
35BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND RUSSIA CONVERTS (FOLLOWERS) COMPETITIONMISSIONARIES CONVERT SLAVS (RUSSIANS) TO ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITYSAINT METHODIUSSAINT CYRILDEVELOP ALPHABET FOR SLAVIC LANGUAGE, BASED ON GREEKBIBLE READINGCYRILLIC ALPHABETTRADE BETWEEN RUSSIANS (KIEVAN RUSSIA, CITY OF KIEV) DIFFUSED CULTURE
39KIEVAN RUSSIA late 9th to the mid 13th century Vikings called Rus: FOUNDERSLEADERSVladimir the Great (980–1015)son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054)"Golden Age" of Kievintroduction of Christianitycreation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda ("Justice of Rus")
42Ivan III (The Great)22 January October 1505; reign,Moscow, RussiaIvan the GreatGrand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Rus““gatherer of the Russian lands,“ended the dominance of the Golden Horde (Mongol Empire of East Asia) over the Ruslaid the foundations of the Russian stateone of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in historyreign was "militarily glorious and economically soundcentralized control over local rulersperiod of cultural depression and spiritual barrennessFreedom was stamped out within the Russian landsanti-Catholic Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the westFor the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived country of Western learning and civilization.“Married a Byzantine princess
43IVAN III, THE GREATSUCCESSOR TO BYZANTINE EMPERORS (AFTER FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO MUSLIM OTTOMAN TURKS)