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AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra National approach and experience on disposal of ILW France Vienna, 9 September 2013
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra National Waste and Radioactive Material Inventory (Andra 2012) 2 DP/ Total volumes of wastes in 2010 (m 3 ) Foreseen total volumes of wastes in 2020 and 2030 (m 3 ) The French waste classification takes into account both activity level and half life. High level Intermediate level and long lived Low level and long lived Intermediate/low level and short lived Very low level N/A
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra 3 Today French low and intermediate level-short lived waste are being disposed of at the industrial scale in near surface “Centre de stockage de l’Aube” (CSA) Opened in: 1992 Capacity: 1,000,000 m 3 Average annual volume: 12,000 m 3 The 2006 waste act provides for disposal projects for: Low level-long lived waste Intermediate level-long lived waste and High level waste
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Intermediate level and long-lived waste Cigéo Project 4
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra IL-LLW and HLW are planned to be co-disposed in the deep geological repository project (Cigéo) The 1991 Waste Act Creation of « Andra » as a public independant body 3 research areas for High Level Long-lived Waste: P/T; long term storage; geologic disposal 1996: Licence application for 3 URLs (clay; granite) 1998: Government decision to licence the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL 2001: Intermediate Clay report, first NEA peer review… 2005: Feasibility /safety assessment of safe geological disposal in Meuse/Haute-Marne clay layer, reviewed The 2006 Programme Act: Reduce/avoid the burden on future generations Reduce volume and harmfulness of wastes Reference option for final waste that can no longer be treated: geological repository with respect to reversibility (100 y at least) Continue research on P/T (CEA) and interim storage (Andra) on a complementary basis. 2009: Safety, reversibility and design options, reviewed : Launch of the design phase 2013: Public debate 2015: Licence application Around 2016: Law defining reversibility conditions 2025: Operation 5
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Cigéo Inventoryend 2010 Primary waste packages Relating volume (m 3 ) Volume already produced (m 3 ) Ratio HLW58 487* % ILW % 6 Cigéo Waste Inventory By law only end waste can be disposed of (no recyclable material) Cigeo is designed for the waste generated by existing nuclear facilities, under operation (50 years for PWR) or licensed Reserves to manage the industrial uncertainties Vitrified HLWClads, endsSolidified effluents Maintenance waste Activated waste and ITER IL-LLW (MAVL) * dont verres issus du traitement des CU MOX aujourd’hui entreposés
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Cigéo Project requirements The results of 20 years of R&D since 1991 have made it possible to issue detailed project technical requirements. Postclosure Safety Protect humans and the environment from radioactivity and toxicity of waste Oppose groundwater flow Limit the release of radionuclides and immobilize them whithin repository Delay and mitigate the migration of radionuclides Preservation of the favorable properties of host clay Nuclear safety and security in operation Contain radioactive substances, protect people against exposure to ionizing radiation, control of nuclear criticality, remove the thermal power, vent gases Failures and internal and external hazards risk management Waste emplacement and retrievability Receive, prepare and emplace waste packages Close the repository Allow retrieval of the waste packages Control, monitor, observe Sustainable development, corporate and social responsibility Project governance 7
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Cigéo Project HLW Repository Cells ILW Repository Cells U/G Facility Vent and Service Shafts Surface Facilities Waste Transfer Ramp Waste Transfer ILW Emplacement HLW Emplacement 8
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Before emplacement, ILW will be grouped into precast concrete rectangular robust containers: IL-LLW Disposal Packages 9 Mechanical assembly cover-body Prototype Manufacturing
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra ILW Disposal Cells ILW disposal cells are horizontal tunnels located at the median of the host clay layer: Concrete Lining 10 ILW Disposal Package Thick concrete lining to limit long term deformations; Ventilation of ILW repository cells as long as they are not closed. Emplacement/retrieval processes and equipments are beeing developed and prototyped: Pre Stacking Technique Trolley Stacker Technique
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Opening of the cell Retrieving the waste packge Transfer to surface Reversibility issues The reversibility conditions shall be set forth by a new Act. The reversibility of the repository should be granted, as a precaution, for at least 100 years (2006 Act). Reversibility shall not jeopardize safety. Based on an analysis of the various motivations for reversibility, Andra proposes an approach relying on: Technical measures to enhance the retrievability of waste packages. Stepwise decision-making to control the disposal process. 11
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Project requirements Preliminary and basic design Detailed design Phase 1 construction/tests Cigéo Phase 1 operation URL Operation Public debate Preparation of license application Instruction of license application New Act on reversibility conditions Cigéo project: Time schedule
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Low level and long-lived waste 13
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Low level and long-lived waste 14 Graphite waste: 23,000t 36 Cl is the main contributor to the long-term radiological impact of disposed graphite waste 14 C (5,530 y) is the main long-lived radionuclide in graphite waste 3 H (12,3 a) is the main short-lived radionuclide Radium bearing waste: 50,000t Other (bituminous waste; Th/U/Ra contaminated objects; Disused RSS…)
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Examples of management options under study for graphite waste Partial decontamination of graphite waste allows either Co-disposal of decontaminated graphite with Ra-bearing waste in near surface repository; Complete destruction (gasification) of graphite Concentrated residues can be disposed of with intermediate level - long lived waste (deep geological repository). Graphite waste Treatment radionuclides selective extraction Extracted radionuclides 36 Cl, 14 C, 3 H … Extracted radionuclides 36 Cl, 14 C, 3 H … Cigeo (with ILW-LL) Decontaminated graphite Shallow repository Project Conditioning/ packaging Immobilisation and packaging Gasification Concentrated residues packaging Direct packaging after dismantling Cigeo (with ILW-LL) Specific repository Sorting Cigeo (with ILW-LL) Shallow repository project Packaging Piles Sleeves and others Packaging 15
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra … The acceptability of graphite waste in a shallow repository depends in particular on: the inventory of 36 Cl and 14 C (on the inventory of 241 Am, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and on 94 Nb as well as), on the leaching rate of 36 Cl and on the fraction of organic 14 C, on site characteristics. 16
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Shallow disposal concept The shallow disposal consists of a repository implementation within a low permeability clay formation at a depth of about 15 meters provided the host formation is outcropping. Once completed, the pits are covered with a layer of compacted clay excavated from the site and stored prior to its reuse. The waste isolation capability is available as long as the geodynamic site evolution does not significantly modify the repository configuration (i.e. via erosion). With regard to its depth and the expected geological conditions, the stability of the repository is estimated to be about 50,000 to 100,000 years. 17
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra The repository is designed for long-lived waste containing: Radionuclides with a low mobility and a radioactive period such that sufficiently low activities have been reached by decay in less than 50,000 years. The preservation of physical, chemical and hydraulic conditions limiting radionuclide mobility should be insured. The foreseen radionuclides are the ones with a period lower or equal to that of Carbon-14 (5,700 years). It covers in particular Radium-226 (1,600 years); Restricted activity of Plutonium and Americium; Restricted activity of radionuclides that do not decay sufficiently within 50,000 to 100,000 years such as Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 and Uranium-235; Restricted activity of long-lived, potentially highly mobile radionuclides. Waste acceptance criteria will be adapted to site performance. Design of disposal pits will be adapted to waste characteristics. Waste packaging to be defined in relation with repository design. Site characteristics are needed to advance the repository design 18 Shallow disposal concept
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Next steps for LL-LLW Geological survey was launched mid-2013 for the implementation of a shallow repository, along with dialogue with stakeholders. Andra will issue a report in 2015 with proposals for an industrial strategy for the management of the different kinds of low level long lived wastes, particularly on the base of : R&D results Site investigations data LL-LLW management scenarios conclusions 19
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