Presentation on theme: "MoDA IV Business Etiquette and Rapport Building (in Afghanistan)"— Presentation transcript:
1 MoDA IV Business Etiquette and Rapport Building (in Afghanistan) Instructors:Leonard R. Hawley, former DAS StateTim Hollifield, U.S. Army LTC Ret’dThis presentation is unclassified
2 Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objective UNCLASSIFIEDLearning ObjectivesTerminal Learning ObjectiveParticipants will be able to describe key challenges and imperatives of working with the Afghanistan National Security Forces (ANSF) as a bi-lateral advisorEnabling Learning ObjectivesDescribe and discuss history and culture of Afghanistan and ANSF in particularDescribe and discuss overarching challenges and current organizational culture of CSTC-A and the ANSFIdentify and discuss techniques and procedures that American advisors to the ANSF can use to establish and build rapport with their bi-lateral partnersIdentify and discuss techniques and procedures that American advisors to the ANSF can use to avoid being manipulated and outmaneuvered by their bi-lateral partnersModule DurationEstimated TimeExercise ObjectiveRequired MaterialsInstructor NotesTalking PointsUNCLASSIFIED
3 AGENDA Introduction (and Caveats) Social Customs and Values Etiquette National CharacterHospitality, Honor and ShameCycles of LifeEtiquetteMeetings and IntroductionsPublic Protocol and CommunicationHome Visitation and Social InteractionRapport-building and NegotiationTools you can useLeveraging Cultural Narratives
4 Another True Story…In a remote part of Afghanistan, a PRT Commander and his Political Advisor stopped at a small road side tea house to talk to the villagers gathered there. The Commander didn’t want to drink and politely turned down the offered tea. Turning to the locals, the tea house owner said in Dari, “These foreigners think what we eat and drink is dirty.” The POLAD understood and quietly told the Commander to accept the tea,…The American Military Advisor: Dealing with SeniorForeign Officials in the Islamic World, Michael J. Metrinko (2008)
5 Caveats and Disclaimers Impossible to cover every aspect of AFG Social Customs and EtiquetteEveryone will have a different experience (please share!)Disconnect between ideal values or norms and actual practice (especially living at subsistence level)Contradictions and exceptions to every rule and generalization (individual and collective behavior)“Only constant is change,…only absolute is complexity”
6 The Cultural IcebergBecause its so interesting, --- we often focus almost exclusively on the tip of the cultural iceberg. Whenever you are about to experience a new culture or interact with someone from a culture differently than your own, the first questions that naturally pop into your head are usually about “What does it look like over there?” or What’s the food like?” Our curiosity and attention are naturally drawn to the visible aspects of other cultures.However, just as approximately 90% of the iceberg’s mass is underwater, nearly 90% of the most important aspects of any culture are to be found below the surface, hidden in the realm of the subconscious...which again reflects Hofstede’s description of culture as the “software of the mind.”In order to improve your CQ (cultural intelligence quotient), its important to observe and learn about cultural traits at the tip of the iceberg, --- the sort of things you learn about during the Culture and Customs Blocks of Instruction in this course or perhaps have already encountered during previous overseas assignments and deployments, --- but we also need to try to understand what’s below the waterline.The under-the-water part of the iceberg represents what we can’t perceive with the five senses, --- for example you can’t “see” or “smell” concepts of time or “taste” methods of conflict resolution. The deeper you go toward the bottom of the iceberg, the more important the items are. For example, we may be able to change an opinion over the course of a five-minute conversation, but a value, or conviction, or belief is far more deeply entrenched,…and much longer lasting.There are two main reasons for this…First, the bottom of the iceberg is the foundation for what you see at the top. If you understand the underlying causes of why people behave the way they do, you are at least a little more likely to be able to anticipate how they may act or react in a variety of situations.For example, someone from a country where people prefer stronger leaders and more direction from superiors might react better to clearer direction and closer supervision (as in Iraq or Afghanistan).Conversely, someone from a culture which tends towards less structured leadership or a more relaxed supervisory style might want to be left alone to complete an assignment as they see fit rather than be micromanaged. How many times have you heard Americans say something like, “Just give me the egg, don’t tell me how to suck it!”? This doesn’t mean that micro-management doesn’t happen in American, --- unfortunately, we all know that’s not the case, --- it just means that overall, Americans are more likely to resent close supervision as unnecessary or overbearing whereas in other cultures clear direction and heavy supervision is accepted as the norm, and in some cases, even preferred.The second reason for the importance of studying the lower four-fifths of the iceberg is that these principles apply to all the cultures on our planet. In effect, it gives you an analytical framework with which you can begin to anticipate the actions of your adversary or bi-lateral partner with greater accuracy and perhaps even begin to understand them.When you study and try to memorize a long list of facts and figures about Country X (which is tip-of-the-iceberg information), you usually can’t apply this information on your TDY or deployment to Country Z. However, the more you consider and study the bottom of the iceberg, you’ll often be amazed at how many of the general principles you learn can be applied to the Saudi iceberg, or the Japanese iceberg, or wherever you may travel next, --- even though these countries are drastically and dramatically different.
7 Values Influence Customs and Etiquette American values are individualist:Life, (Human Rights and Equality)Liberty, (Inherent Personal Choice)…and pursuit of Happiness (An Abstraction)Afghans values are collectivist:Blood, (Lineage and Descent)Patronage, (Security and Econ Provision)…and pursuit of Honor (An Abstraction)must acquire and prevent loss
8 Multiple Centers of Power and Influence WarlordTribal JirgaReligious ShuraISAFCSTC-AVillage MullahDruglordZamindarBadmashi“Ahmad, Mamood, Kalbi, Maqsud…”Tribal MalikTaliban CommanderInstructor Talking Points/Notes:“Ahmad, Mamood, Kalbi, Maqsud…” is the Afghan equivalent of the Anglo-American expression, “Every Tom, Dick, and Harry…”This graphic represents the many centers of power and influence that often impact the lives of ordinary Afghans, especially in the tribal and rural areas of the East and South. You’ll note that ISAF and NGOs are placed outside the first circle of influence and this placement is indicative of their relative daily impact compared to the other actors and organizations in the first circle of influence. As a representative of the Coalition, it is important to remember that any initiative or program --- esp. those related to long-term stability or reconstruction efforts --- will only succeed if you have the “buy-in” or “blessing” of some of these other centers of power.Background Information:Badmashi = Persian/Dari term for an “outlaw”, criminal, or thug, --- this circle is intended to represent criminal elements other than narcotics trafficking i.e. black-market smuggling, etc.Zamindar = Local landowner (zamin = “land”, dar = “owner” or possessor); in role and function, the zamindar’s power and influence is similar to that of a feudal lord (knight or baron) in Medieval Europe. A zamindar may or may not be the local khan or malik (tribal elder/chieftan)Tribal KinsmenTaliban Shadow GovernorProvincial Gov’tGIRoA
9 Afghan National Character Weak national identity; sub-national (local, regional, ethnic) identity strongerHonor (and shame) serves as a form of social currencyPast is important: long memories, focus on genealogy and lineageStrong social emphasis; customs reinforce collaboration/communal harmonyNot a disposable culture; everything recycled or repaired when possibleAfghan ingenuity: tree trunk used as water pipe; tooth-paste box used to make remote airplaneInstructor Notes:First, let’s discuss some characteristics that all Afghans share in common. We might think of these things as comprising Afghan national Character --- though there are still many debates as to whether or not such a thing is truly possible in Afghanistan given all the friction and tension that exists throughout the country between various sub-national or local, tribal, and ethnic interests.As you may recall from the history block of instruction, it actually wasn’t until very late in the 19th or early 20th centuries that Afghanistan became anything that remotely resembled our definition of a modern nation-state. While there are certainly pockets of cooperation throughout the country --- especially in the urban areas, --- the lack of infrastructure and rugged or remote geography results in a limited regard for central authority and a strong national identity. In fact, Afghan national identity is probably strongest amongst the Afghan Diaspora or expat community,…which is often the cased with many nations. For example, if you ask an American where he is from inside of America, he’ll likely tell you his hometown or state, but ask the same question abroad or overseas, and unless there’s a security concern or some other reason, --- he’ll likely tell you he’s an American. Same for a Pakistani or Indian,…We will talk about the importance of honor and hospitality in some detail momentarily, so let’s focus on some of these other characteristics for now……such as the strong social emphasis and customs, courtesies, and superstitions that reinforce communal harmony.Some examples are ---After accidently clipping feet:Must shake hands or you’ll become enemiesAfter apologizing for giving someone your back:“A flower has no back or front” (or between friends: a turnip)To someone whose relative/loved one has returned from a journey:“May your eyes be bright”Because collectivism (versus individualism) is so strong in Afghanistan, there is little sense of personal space or privacy and many Afghans have no real concept of the westerner’s need for “me time” or desire to be alone and away from “the maddening crowd.”
10 Afghan National Character Weak national identity; sub-national (local, regional, ethnic) identity strongerHonor (and shame) serves as a form of social currencyPast is important: long memories, focus on genealogy and lineageStrong social emphasis; customs reinforce collaboration/communal harmonyNot a disposable culture; everything recycled or repaired when possibleAfghan ingenuity: tree trunk used as water pipe; tooth-paste box used to make remote airplaneInstructor Notes:First, let’s discuss some characteristics that all Afghans share in common. We might think of these things as comprising Afghan national Character --- though there are still many debates as to whether or not such a thing is truly possible in Afghanistan given all the friction and tension that exists throughout the country between various sub-national or local, tribal, and ethnic interests.As you may recall from the history block of instruction, it actually wasn’t until very late in the 19th or early 20th centuries that Afghanistan became anything that remotely resembled our definition of a modern nation-state. While there are certainly pockets of cooperation throughout the country --- especially in the urban areas, --- the lack of infrastructure and rugged or remote geography results in a limited regard for central authority and a strong national identity. In fact, Afghan national identity is probably strongest amongst the Afghan Diaspora or expat community,…which is often the cased with many nations. For example, if you ask an American where he is from inside of America, he’ll likely tell you his hometown or state, but ask the same question abroad or overseas, and unless there’s a security concern or some other reason, --- he’ll likely tell you he’s an American. Same for a Pakistani or Indian,…We will talk about the importance of honor and hospitality in some detail momentarily, so let’s focus on some of these other characteristics for now……such as the strong social emphasis and customs, courtesies, and superstitions that reinforce communal harmony.Some examples are ---After accidently clipping feet:Must shake hands or you’ll become enemiesAfter apologizing for giving someone your back:“A flower has no back or front” (or between friends: a turnip)To someone whose relative/loved one has returned from a journey:“May your eyes be bright”Because collectivism (versus individualism) is so strong in Afghanistan, there is little sense of personal space or privacy and many Afghans have no real concept of the westerner’s need for “me time” or desire to be alone and away from “the maddening crowd.”
11 Honor (and Shame)ghayrat wa namus (pride and honor the safe-guarding of personal, family, women’s honor as well as property)bey-ghayrat - without prideben-namus - without honortauba tauba - “shame, shame (on you)”izzat (honor, “face” -- as in “saving face,” or reputationIn Afghan society, women are the ultimate repositories of honor for each family, clan, lineage honor --- why?Sadaqat wa Imandari (honesty and integrity)Ghayrat wa Namus (pride and the safe-guarding of personal/family honor as well as property);Izzat (variably interpreted as “honor,” “face” (as in “saving face”), or “reputation”Wafadari (loyalty and fidelity to family and friends and keeping one’s pledges)Adab; respect or deference shown to Rish-e-safeyd /speen-gireh (elders, lit. “white beards”) often the head of villages, families, and communities
12 HospitalityCornerstone of Afghan culture; a matter of social obligation and honor/prideMehman Nawazi (Dari) or Melmastia (Pashto): extending hospitality and invitation to friends or strangersSaleh Samarkandi:Insincere hospitality
13 Morals and Valueswafadari - loyalty and fidelity to family and friends and keeping one’s pledgesqawmparasti - Ethnic/tribal fidelityadab - respect or deference shown to rish-e-safeyd / speen-gireh (elders, lit “white beards”) or key leaderssadaqat wa imandari - honesty and integrityrishwat - Corruption, briberywasita - Connections, social or political ` influenceInstructor Notes: Here are some additional words or phrases which express important cultural values…(review each)Discuss importance of cation in applying term “jihadi” to Taliban, AQ, and other Insurgent/Militant networksBackground Info:Other terms: rish safid/mohasen safid- Literally “white beard”- Respected elder but not necessarily tribal leaderImportant Distinction: Use of the word jihadi▪ Synonymous with mujahidin or veteran not terrorism▪ Use “dushman” instead (or takfiri, munafiq,…etc.)▪ Even serves as M.O.S in ANSFConsidered immoral but unavoidable
14 Afghan CourtesyGreat courtesy given to acquaintances and guests (in private or official spaces)No longer extends to public space i.e. waiting in line, getting on a bus, etc.Still many formulaic expressions of politeness:Response to expression of thanks --- “qabli ta-shakur nast”Response when someone apologizes for turning their back to you --- “gul pusht-eh ruh nadareh”When receiving a compliment --- “chesm makhbool ast”After labor/physical task --- “khasteh nabsheed” or “dast-e shoma dard nakoneh”
15 Courtesy and Good Manners mu’adab(polite, courteous)Adab-etch-tim-mah-e(“possessing social graces, charisma”)aklak (Dari) or khoost bar-khord (Farsi)(“Good Manners”)Note: These qualities are cultivated by observing proper etiquette and protocol
16 Politeness as a “Lost” Cultural Value Most Afghans now lament loss of former gentile and polite societyMany complain that their countrymen have become greedy and rudeConflict society: Social norms and processes subordinate to competition for scarce resources / subsistenceSarah Chayes: “The whole of Afghan society suffers from PTSD”Instructor Notes:“I don’t recognize my people anymore!” is an often heard lament in Afghanistan and amongst the Afghan diaspora who have returned to their native country. As exiles returning home, one of the first shocks they often encounter is that Afghan society does not exist in the same form that it once did…and the often overly-idealistic image that comes with the revere and longing for one’s native country only makes that shock so much greater.As the old expression goes, familiarity breeds contempt and we often tend to idealize or gloss of the negative aspects of something the longer we are away from it.The important thing for both American advisors and returning expats to remember, however, is that --- after near 30 years of constant civil war, ethnic conflict, destitution, and displacement not to mention all the atrocities and human rights violations which occur during this kind of environment, the normal fabric of Afghan society has been ripped and torn.There are still shreds of the older gentile and polite society that existed in Afghanistan during Zahir Shah’s day, when there was a stylish and chivalrous “cawcaw” (“Uncle”) on every street corner willing and eager to assist the elderly in crossing the street or the accompany lost tourist to their destination.But now, most of these shreds twist around the pole of neo-patrimonialism that has long ago replaced the older social order of more peaceful if not necessarily affluent times. Writer Anatol Lieven once observed that “Medieval is Afghanistan on a good day.” And while there has been improvement in some sectors (the ANSF and increased availability of basic Health Care for example), this remains true in most other ways especially as regards the social, political-economic, and legislative sectors. What is left of Afghanistan’s social order is perhaps best described as neo-patrimonialism.Patrimonialism, as some may remember from their Political Science studies, is exactly the same system that existed in Medieval Europe in which petty Kings and Princes, Robber Barons, and other feudal Lords existed and strove more or less for their own sakes and largely outside of any sort of broader legal or political authority. Power was concentrated regionally (as with Afghanistan’s Warlords) and spiritual authority was largely co-opted with acts of piety and or largesse.(Note: The above is an extract from a book on the Afghanistan by Tim Hollifield, forthcoming. Please give attribution if used or re-quoted.)Background Information:Neo-patrimonialism (full definition): Unregulated accumulation and redistribution of material and social resources,…to establish, maintain or increase a ruler’s social power, as well as his mercy and grace.pg. 58, Geller, Armando. “The Political Economy of Normlessness in Afghanistan,” Beyond the Wild Tribes: Understanding Modern Afghanistan and Its Diaspora, Ceri Oeppen and Angela Schlenkhoff (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.Neo-patrimonialism: Unregulated accumulation and redistribution of resources to establish, maintain or increase a ruler’s power, mercy and grace“Afghans will never surrender in war or give up in a fight,...but they will always surrender to kindness.” Joseph David Osman
17 Hospitality: An Undervalued Practice For Afghans, hospitality is:A social obligation and cornerstone of culture and identity (should be reciprocated)Both etiquette and part of negotiations (process as important as content)A means of winning honor or patronageSomething to be reciprocated“A guest is God’s friend!”Instructor Speaking Notes:Hospitality, is an important part of negotiations and business etiquette that is, regrettably, often ignored by Westerners and Americans in particular.In some countries and cultures, --- especially those in which the process of the negotiations are as important as the actual content (or put another way, the “sizzle as well as the steak”), --- hospitality is seen as an important investment (even if negotiations go poorly, at least some “face” can be saved by observing the appropriate protocols and the provision of hospitality).Americans are somewhat infamous throughout the global diplomatic and business communities --- for the lack of attention we give to hospitality. As one foreign Ambassador to Washington once remarked, “In Washington (DC) it can be hard to even get a cup of coffee.”Why is this so? Some diplomats, scholars, and writers have attributed American parsimony when it comes to hospitality to our Puritan past (which frowns on luxury of any kind) and our populist instincts (which is critical of any sort of government extravagance…that’s tax-payers money after all!).But let’s open this up for discussion…what do you think are some other reasons that we fail to devote much attention to hospitality during formal and semi-formal official meetings or business negotiations? Does anyone have a story to share based on their own experiences?Background Information:Biographic Information on Ambassador NeumannSource: <Ambassador Ronald E. Neumann is presently President, American Academy of Diplomacy. Formerly a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Ronald E. Neumann served three times as Ambassador; to Algeria, Bahrain and finally to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan from July 2005 to April Before Afghanistan, Mr. Neumann, a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, served in Baghdad from February 2004 with the Coalition Provisional Authority and then as Embassy Baghdad’s principal interlocutor with the Multinational Command, where he was deeply involved in coordinating the political part of military action. Prior to working in Iraq, he was Chief of Mission in Manama, Bahrain ( ). Before that, Ambassador Neumann served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Near East Affairs ( ), where he directed the organization of the first separately-funded NEA democracy programs and also was responsible for the bureau’s work in developing the North African Economic Initiative for Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria. Before that assignment, he was Ambassador to Algeria (1994 to 1997) and Director of the Office of Northern Gulf Affairs (Iran and Iraq; 1991 to 1994). Earlier in his career, he was Deputy Chief of Mission in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and in Sanaa in Yemen, Principal Officer in Tabriz, Iran and Economic/Commercial Officer in Dakar, Senegal. His previous Washington assignments include service as Jordan Desk officer, Staff Assistant in the Middle East (NEA) Bureau, and Political Officer in the Office of Southern European Affairs.Ambassador Neumann is the author of The Other War: Winning and Losing in Afghanistan (Potomac Press, 2009), a book on his time in Afghanistan. He is the author of a number of monographs and articles. At the Academy he has focused particularly on efforts to expand State and USAID personnel to enable these institutions to carry out their responsibilities. Ambassador Neumann speaks some Arabic and Dari as well as French. He received State Department Senior Foreign Service pay awards in 2004, 2003, and 1999 as well as individual Superior Honor Awards in 1993 and He served as an Army infantry officer in Viet Nam and holds a Bronze Star, Army Commendation Medal and Combat Infantry Badge. In Baghdad, he was awarded the Army Outstanding Civilian Service Medal. He earned a B.A. in history and an M.A. in political science from the University of California at Riverside. He is married to the former M. Elaine Grimm. They have two children.Hospitality: A form of reception, accommodation, and entertainment extended to guests or visiting officials (formal and informal)
18 From An Expert: On Hospitality “We don’t have the funds …but also the same habit [of wining and dining foreign guests]…Arabs, Iranians, and Afghans, if their means allow, are going to have a table groaning with food…we have a very different tradition…so,…we’re going to look a little cheap to them. They’re going to look a little profligate to us.”– Amb. Ronald Neumann
19 Cycles of Life: Birth / Childhood Children ensure continuity of lineage and serve as only “retirement plan”Shab-e shash (“six nights after birth”)When son is born, family arranges celebration and feastChildhood ends around years of ageInstructor Notes:In Afghanistan, Children are considered an indispensable asset for most families since children ensure continuity of the family lineage and are expected to support their parents in old age. Having large families increases the odds that at least one or two of the children in the family will achieve some degree of success or affluence and thus care for their parents and siblings. In rural areas, many hands are needed for planting and harvest and so large families are the norm.Because daughters often leave the immediate family after marriage and go live with their husband’s family, they represent a potential loss of wealth or land and so their births are not always considered a cause for celebration. The birth of a son, however, often is cause for great celebration (to include gun shots and drumming in many rural areas) and the family is expected to provide a large feast for the community. This is not a hard and fast rule, of course, since some families value their children whether boy or girl.Perhaps because of the high infant mortality rate (more than a quarter of Afghan children die before age five according to one UNICEF study), many families wait approximately 1 week to celebrate the child’s birth.A few days after birth the parents chose a name for the child, or in some cases, the local religious authority (mullah or pir) or family elder (whether matron or patron) will be allowed to chose a name for the child. In many parts of Afghanistan, a pseudonym or nickname will also be given to a child and the family will call them by this name rather than their actual name based on the belief that this will prevent djinn or evil spirits from influencing or stealing the baby.Childhood in Afghanistan ends earlier than in most Western countries and children are expected to assist with household chores and tending to their siblings when they turn years of age. Boy sare often expected to help their fathers on the farm or in their business and girls are expected to learn domestic skills from their mothers so that they can become suitable housewives someday.Photo source:
20 Cycles of Life: Marriage Most important ceremony in Afghan society; Marriage = Family / Tribal AllianceEngagement: Ruybar / Khasgari / Shirini-khuriWedding: Mendhi / Mahr / Nikkah / Kamar BastanMost marriages are arranged by the families of the groom and bride and much thought is given to the whether or not the intended comes from a family of honorable standing.In Afghanistan, “love marriages” are rare since marriage is viewed as a contract made to reinforce alliances or ensure that property and wealth are retained by family.Photo Source:Kabul Wedding with smiling bride in pink <Groom and Bride Wedding Car in Kabul <Wedding Hall <
21 Cycles of Life: Marriage Most marriages are arranged between first cousins --- i.e. paternal uncles’ daughter“Winter-Spring” marriages (Elder man with young girl) common esp. in rural areasPolygamy decreasing and rarer in urban areasTaboos:Broken EngagementsEmphasis on bride’s virginityTalaq (“Divorce”)Obligation to family or clan greater than to career, employer, individual need or spouse
22 Nadir Shah (1880-1933) Mausoleum, 1969 Cycles of Life: DeathFunerals conducted quickly IAW HadithCeremonies:GhusalNamaz-e janaza40 days of grievingNadir Shah ( ) Mausoleum, 1969Funeral rites are considered extremely important in Afghanistan and all family members and associates are expected to stop whatever they are doing (work, etc.) in order to visit the family and pay their respects. Important figures such as respected religious leaders, politicians, or members of the royal family are often buried in mausoleums (ziarats) which are often the only monumental forms of architecture in the country.Burial or funeral rituals are as follow:First the deceased is washed with water(ghusal),then wrapped with white clean cloth. Extended family members and others are expected to visit as soon as they receive word of the death, and will visit the household immediately to pay their respects or mourn. Eventually, the deceased is placed in a coffin or carrier (often a charpoy) and taken to graveyard.The procession is followed by relatives, friends, neighbors and the local religious authority (mullah, syed, or pir). Usually, most of the men will volunteer to carry the body on his shoulder in order to gain blessings (sawab) and to show their respect for the deceased. Once the porcession reaches the graveyard, the religious figure will lead the pray for the soul of the deceased (namaz janaza). Afterwards, the body is placed in the grave and buried as peacefully as possible. When buried the head of the dead body is supposed to face towards qibla (the direction of pray; towards Mecca). After the body is buried there is often another funeral ceremony at the local masjid (mosque). For 40 days there will be grieving and prayers. The 3rd day after the death is an important day and the every Friday night for 40 days. For 40 days the family of the deceased is expected to provide dinner for all visitors as well as the neighborhood poor. In western countries the food is often given away and need only leave the house of the family.
23 “Bacha bazi” and “Bacha posh” Bacha bazi (trans. ~ “boy play”)Form of illicit entertainment and prostitutionYoung male dancer dressed as woman old Persia/Central Asia tradition (9th -18th cent.)Bacha posh (loose trans. ~ “dressed up as a boy”)Done out of necessity/desperation in families with no son(s)As seen in Siddiq Barmak’s 2003 film, OsamaBacha bazi inSamarkand (ca 1905 – 1915)Photo:Instructor Notes:Up to this point, we’ve discussed those aspects of Afghan social customs and culture that most Westerners might find different but not entirely objectionable. Now, however, let’s turn briefly to the “dark-side.”Without engaging in apologetics, I’d like to note at the outset that prostitution, child-prostitution, pedophilia, and all other related matters are GLOBAL and transnational problems. Unfortunately, these practices are found in many societies and cultures around the world and manifest in different ways…The point I’d like to make is that just because something reprehensible exists within a culture (or receives a lot of media attention because of its “shock appeal”) doesn’t mean that everyone in that particular society or culture sanctions or approves of these practices. For example, prostitution and the exploitation of women and children is forbidden or disavowed by nearly every world religion, --- but it continues, nonetheless, as a regular practice in both the West and the East.That said, let’s talk about two practices that have received some recent media attention in Afghanistan.It might be instructive to think of these practices as polar opposites since the purpose and intention of each are for entirely different reasons.Dressing a boy up as a women and having him dance and forcing him to be sexually available, often to the highest bidder, is a form of illicit entertainment and prostitution. Whereas dressing a girl up as a boy, so that a family without male members can have a muharam (male family member who serves as an escort for the women of the family) is done out of survival and desperation.Yet, both practices have arisen as ways of circumventing social morays, values, and ethics --- though not always as discretely as some of its practitioners might imagine. In fact, both are barely veiled attempts at dissimulation, which is a nice way of saying, “hiding the truth.”Bacha bazi seems to be part of an older, even pre-Islamic tradition, and records of it existing in the Middle East and Central Asia can be found all the way back to the time of the ancient Persian Empires and days of Alexander the Great.Despite a few references to women posing as men to serve as Harem guards, Bacha posh, seems to be a more recent practice which may have only become widespread in Afghanistan during the Taliban era and as a result of the large orphan and widow population that emerged following the anti-Soviet Jihad and the Civil War that followed in Afghanistan.(If time allows) Ask the students: What are your thoughts on this matter?=========================================================================Bacha Bazi (Persian/Dari: بچه بازی ~ literally "playing with children"), also known as bacchá ' (from the Persian bacheh بچه "child, young man, calf") is a practice recognized as sexual slavery and child prostitution in which prepubescent children and adolescents are sold to wealthy or powerful men for entertainment and sexual activities.This business thrives in northern Afghanistan, where many men keep them as status symbols.Some of the individuals involved report being forced into sex. The authorities are barely attempting to crack down on the practice as "un-Islamic and immoral acts" but many doubt it would be effective since many of the men are powerful and well-armed former commanders.A documentary by Afghan journalist Najibullah Quraishi about this practice was aired on PBS Frontline in the United States , and True Stories in the UK on 20 April 2010.Dr. Anthony Shay, --- an anthropologist, folklorist, and dance choreographer, --- has noted that male dancers have been attested in the historical records of the Middle East prior to Islam and it has continued as a practice up to the modern era. For example; Bagoas was a male concubine who was famous for his dancing skills. First he was a concubine of the last Achaemenid ruler, Darius III, and, upon his defeat, Bagoas passed as war booty into the possession of Alexander the Great, with whom he remained until Alexander's death in 323 B.C.Shay notes that male dancers began to disappear after the First World War in some cities such as Cairo and Bukhara where they were forced out due to the Victorian era prudery and severe disapproval of colonial powers such as the Russians, English, and French, and the post colonial elites who had absorbed those Western colonial values.However, male dancers remained commonplace in rural Turkey, Egypt, Iran, and Afghanistan, among other locations, and during holidays would sometimes even venture into the cities of Iran and Central Asia. Shay observed them in both in Iran in the 1950s and 1970s and Afghanistan in the 1970s. .Notes:1. "Boys in Afghanistan Sold Into Prostitution, Sexual Slavery", Digital Journal, Nov 20, 20072. "The Dancing Boys of Afghanistan", PBS FRONTLINE TV documentary, April 20, 2010.3.4. "Afghan boy dancers sexually abused by former warlords". Reuters Retrieved 5. Shay, Anthony. "The Male Dancer in the Middle East and Central Asia". Retrieved===================================================================================Bacha posh (literal trans. ~ “boy’s coat” or "dressed up as a boy" in Dari) is a cultural practice in areas of Afghanistan where a family in which there are no sons may have a girl dress in characteristic male clothing and have her hair cut short, occupying an intermediate status in which she is treated as neither a daughter nor fully as a son.In Afghan culture, pressure exists to have a son to carry on the family name and to inherit his father's property. In the absence of a son, families may dress one of their daughters as a male, with some holding the superstition that having a bacha posh will make it more likely for a woman to give birth to a son in a subsequent pregnancy.As a bacha posh, a girl is more readily able to attend school, escort her sisters in public places and find work, in addition to helping overcome the shame that a family experiences at not having any male children. The girl's status as a bacha posh usually ends when she enters puberty. Women raised as a bacha posh often have difficulty making the transition from life as a boy and adapting to the traditional constraints placed on women in Afghan society.While historical records are unclear as to how far back the practice dates, anecdotal evidence exists that places the custom going back several generations. Historian Nancy Dupree told a reporter from The New York Times that she recalled a photograph dating back to the early 1900s during the reign of Habibullah Khan in which women dressed as men guarded the king's harem, as men could not be trusted to protect the women.Azita Rafaat, a legislator elected to the National Assembly of Afghanistan to represent Badghis Province, has had no sons and has raised one of her daughters as a bacha posh. She said she understood that "it's very hard for you to believe why one mother is doing these things to their youngest daughter", and that "things are happening in Afghanistan that are really not imaginable for you as a Western people."Osama, the 2003 film made in Afghanistan written and directed by Siddiq Barmak, tells the story of a young girl in Afghanistan under Taliban rule who disguises herself as a boy, Osama, in order to support her family, as her father and uncle had both been killed during the country's Soviet invasion and she and her mother would not be able to travel on their own without a male "legal companion".Notes1. Nordberg, Jenny. "Where Boys Are Prized, Girls Live the Part", The New York Times, September 20, Accessed September 20, 2010.2. Wajihuddin, Mohammed. "Agony and Ecstasy", Ariana Television Network, August 27, Accessed September 20, 2010.“It's very hard for you to believe why one mother is doing these things to their youngest daughter", and that "things are happening in Afghanistan that are really not imaginable for you as a Western people.” - Azita Rafaat, Legislator for Badghis ProvinceAfghan National Assembly (raised daughter as Bacha Posh)
24 Fatalism and Predestination “In sha’ Allah” (Inshallah)Different understanding of cause-and-effectNon-accountability avoids shame and dishonorEverything is preordained or controlled by hidden handStory: Mullah Nasruddin and the Shirt-makerMullahNasruddin
25 Proverbs (Fatalism and Predestination) Though you go to Kabul, your appointed lot will follow you there که ته لاړ شې تر کابله برخه به ځي در پسې خپلهMan's lot is (fixed) from the creation, it is not (attained) by force of competition برخې ازلي دي؛ نه په زور او نه په سيالې ديWere the whole world to turn physician, the cure rests entirely with fate که ټول جهان طبيب شي، چارې واړه په نصيب شيThe inevitable laughs at man's schemes تقدير په تدبير پورې خاندي
26 Famous and prolific Afghan Poet, Author, and Scholar Great poets speak to universals. Their words resonate beyond specifics of time and space. And yet their day-to-day lives, like all of ours, occur within three dimensions: culture, current history, and their own singular sensibilities.Poetry“Great poets speak to universals. Their words resonate beyond specifics of time and space. And yet their day-to-day lives, like all of ours, occur within three dimensions: culture, current history, and their own singular sensibilities.”- Khalilullah Khalili; Introduction to An Assembly of MothsRich tradition; often has themes of love, spirituality, and exhorts traditional valuesPoetry often set to music; most Folk and Traditional music mere extension of poetry (i.e. ghazals)sher jangi (“poetry battle”) common form of entertainmentKhalilullah Khalili(1905 – 1987)Famous and prolific Afghan Poet, Author, and ScholarAfghanistan has a rich tradition in the arts, with a focus on poetry and music – the latter being seen as an extension of the former.Poetry in Afghanistan has long been a cultural tradition and passion despite the fact that many Afghans are illiterate or semi-literate.Historically, poetry written in the Persian language was dominant and even Pashtun poets wrote their verse in Dari, although in modern times, poetry in Pashto and Turkic languages are becoming more recognized.Some notable early Pashto poets are Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Anaa Tokhi (mother of Mirwais Khan Hotaki), and a number of others. Probably the most famous 20th century Afghan poet is Khalilullah Khalili (1907–1987).Afghanistan have had many men and women poets throughout its history but because of culture values and bias, with only a few exceptions, women poets have often been hidden.Today, there are some established very young Afghan women poets such as Ms. Sajia Alaha Ahrar, known as Ms. Alaha, who is currently attending the University of Mary Washington in the United States.In April 2010, she wrote a poem entitled "Desire for World's Peace" (with English translation) which received some postive attention in Afghanistan.Photo source:================================================================================January 24, 2005NPR / CommentaryRestoring Poetry to Afghanistanby Steve CollAs Iraqis prepare to go to the polls, commentator Steve Coll reflects on Afghanistan, which held elections for the first time a few months ago. In part because of the success of those elections, Coll says, Afghanistan once again has room for much more than war and politics. One Afghan, Masood Khalili, has used the return to democracy as an opportunity to revive his country's poetic tradition.On Sept. 9, 2001, Masood Khalili was sitting beside legendary Afghan guerrilla leader Ahmed Shah Massoud when two al Qaeda suicide bombers posing as journalists detonated themselves. Massoud was killed, and Khalili was severely injured. As Khalili recovered, his country did also, and as elections approached, he began work on a collection of poems written by his father, Khalilullah Khalili, a former Afghan poet laureate. Those poems appear in a new collection titled An Assembly of Moths, which is being published in India. An excerpt from the introduction to that work appears below:Book Excerpt: From the Introduction to An Assembly of Moths“Great poets speak to universals. Their words resonate beyond specifics of time and space. And yet their day-to-day lives, like all of ours, occur within three dimensions: culture, current history, and their own singular sensibilities.”For Khalilullah Khalili ( ) this interplay involved deep cross-currents. His culture — the venerable, word-resonant, Persian-speaking culture of Central Asia —foregrounds poetry among all art forms. Nowhere on earth are poets more honored. But Khalili's historical circumstances — the turmoil of 20th century, Afghanistan's struggle for self definition — turned life for all Afghans, Khalili included, into unpredictable series of fortune swings. Assassinations, regime changes, wholesale emigration, utter devastation: These were the bookends that encompassed his life.How to be a poet in the midst of chaos?....Afghanistan remains mostly illiterate, overwhelmingly so outside the cities. Rather than read, people store material in memory and, if literary, recite it by heart. And poetry, because of rhyme and rhythm, is much easier to memorize than prose… Many Afghans internalize segments off the great Persian classical poets, philosopher-mystics whose verse rises above daily hustle and bustle.The result is something no longer valued in the modern, literate West: a memorized reservoir of poetic wisdom. Inherited from the great poets and internalized from early childhood onwards, this material serves Afghans as psycho-spiritual ballast — a buffer against misfortune, and a reminder, when times are good, the luck seldom lasts…The importance of shared poetic legacy is evident in day-to-day conversations across Afghanistan. People use the prefix 'Sha'er mega' ("The poet says") to substantiate argument. An Afghan provided this example: "If you go to a strange village and say, 'Two plus two equals four,' the villagers will challenge your authority. But tell them that 'The poet says' that two plus two equals five, and they'll accept what you say immediately.“About Steve CollSteve Coll is the author of Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001.About the Poetry in This CommentaryKhalilullah Khalili's PoetryBelow is a sample poem from An Assembly of Moths, a new collection of works by Afghan poet Khalilullah Khalili:"Way to Reedbed"A Cry is locked In my heart. Where's my reed flute? Home's become a cage. Which way to the desert? First suffering occupied me by day, Then grief from evening to dawn. Where is your face like a flower, Saaqi? Where are the cries of the drunks?For more information on An Assembly of Moths, please address inquiries to“Like many developing nations, Afghanistan has a sophisticated literate culture but an illiterate society…there is great respect for literature and poetry but most Afghans learn it as an oral tradition…”Louis Dupree, Afghanistan
27 LiteraturePoetry culturally dominant but non-fiction and non-fiction literature once popularMost indigenous fiction deals with fable or romances e.g. Shahnameh of FerdowsiHas deep cultural resonanceKnown to all (Persian equivalent of Legends of King Arthur)Many libraries destroyed during Taliban era unless religious textsDespite desire of many to read, Afghanistan has “book deficit”While poetry tends to dominate both the literate and oral traditions of Afghanistan, literature – both non-fiction and fiction – is also important in Afghan culture.Perhaps the most famous is the Shāhnāmeh (also Shahnama; trans as “The Book of Kings” or “The King's Chronicles") is an enormous poetic opus written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi around 1000 AD and is the national epic of the cultural sphere of Greater Persia (which includes Afghanistan, or Khorasan as it was known back then.Consisting of some 60,000 verses, the Shāhnāmeh tells the mythical and historical past of the greater Persian world (Afghanistan, Iran, and portions of Central Asia) from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century.Ferdowsi started his composition of the Shahnameh in the Samanid era in 977 A.D and completed it on 8 March 1010 during the Ghaznavid era under the direct patronage of Mahmud of Ghazni.The work is of central importance in Persian and Afghan culture, regarded as a literary masterpiece, and definitive of ethno-national cultural identity of both Iran and Afghanistan. It is also important to the contemporary adherents of Zoroastrianism and some secular minded Muslims will use it as a replacement for the Qur’an during Nowruz celebrations.==================================================================================Before the wars there were six libraries in the capital city of Kabul and six provincial libraries.Three of the six libraries in Kabul were totally destroyed and their collections dispersed. One is currently closed pending repairs and two others - Kabul Central Library at Malik Ashgar Crossroads and Khairkhana Library in the north west of the city – are open to the public.The six provincial libraries are in various states of disrepair. Those in Herat and Mazar e Sharif are now once more functional but need new books. The others require assistance to repair their buildings as well as improving their collections.During the Taliban era book covers bearing pictures of people (often the author) or animals were torn off. These books (in Dari and Pashtu) are now being laboriously repaired using scraps of paper, cardboard boxes for the covers, a pot of glue and heavy bricks to press them. Bags of books await the ministrations of the repair man.Source:Ferdowsi and characters / image source:Book / image source:Artistic depiction of Ferdowsi (940–1020) and characters from the Shahnameh
28 Recommended Minimum Reading for Rapport Building Books of Cultural-Historical-Religious significance:The Qur’an, trans. by Tarif Khalidi (2008), M. Abdel-Haleem (2004), et al.Approaching the Qur’an: The Early Revelations 2nd Ed. (with CD of Qur’anic Recitations) by Michael Sells (Ashland, Oregon: White Cloud Press, 2007)Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings by Abolqasem Ferdowsi, trans. by Dick Davis, The Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition (New York: Penguin Books, 2007)(Easy to read!) Primers on Islam / Islamic History:No God But God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam by Reza Aslan (New York: Random House, 2006)Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes by Tamim Ansary (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 2009)
29 Business and Social Etiquette Instructor Notes: Having address some of the values that shape Afghan social customs, let’s turn to Business Etiquette…Image Source: Afghan President Hamid Karzai, right, speaks with U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta at the presidential palace in Kabul, Afghanistan on Saturday, July 9, Photo: Ahmad Massoud / Pool Xinhua<
30 Business Etiquette Overview Acquaint yourself with Afghan culture, social customs, and etiquetteRemember and apply 3 principles that guide ideal Afghan social behavior:Business is ALWAYS personalHonor / Saving Face BETTER than ProgressDeference, Humility, and CordialityGo Slowly (“ahistah buro”)! Be patientBe flexible,…esp. as regards timelinessAvoid CAOS: “Clueless American Overseas Syndrome”
31 Business Dress Code Dress conservatively to be taken seriously Esteem associated with wearing a suitAfghans very formal dressers (if they have the means)Afghans with military rank may wear uniform during ceremonies and national holidaysNorm: Western-style suit/clothing in office and traditional clothing at home or in villageUnlike Arabs, no stigma against wearing traditional clothes (but not in urban setting)If possible, avoid stigma of U.S. civilian contractor outfit (5.11 pants and polo shirt)Image/Photo Source: James Sims; <Sure, he looks cool; but what’s wrong with this outfit (if walking into MoD or MoI?
32 Afghan Ministry of Defense (MoD Conference Room and Main Entrance) Setting Up the MeetingConfirm: Ask I/T to call on day before or morning of (even if regular event)Avoid meetings during holidays and elections (when possible)During Ramazan: Sched meeting in AMAlways allow extra time for traffic, security, and delays by counterpartAfghan Ministry of Defense (MoD Conference Room and Main Entrance)
33 Meeting and Greeting Your Counterpart Expect office to be filled other AfghansMay be subordinates or official visitors…or family members or neighbors visiting or seeking patronage, business contracts, etc.Greetings and farewellWaving inappropriateGreet everyone in room; seniors first (if able)Handshakes (same gender!) --- often soft/limp (conveys humility not insincerity or indifference)Wait for acknowledgement and offer to sitExpect “small talk,” smiles, stares, constant interruptions --- make only general inquiries about his familyImage: < F-MEDaykundi Governor Quorban Ali Uruzgani meets with Australian Brig. Gen. Bruce Scott, of Regional Command (South), and Regional Support Command-South Commander, Col. Greg Baine, May 3, 2011, at Nili to discuss security in Daykundi province, Afghanistan. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech Sgt. Adrienne Brammer)
34 Etiquette: Meetings and Introductions Business, decision-making conducted with senior maleWait for acknowledgement and offer to sitGreetingsGreet everyone in room; seniors firstHandshakes (same gender only)Handshakes may be soft/limp: Conveys humbleness not insincerity or indifferenceExpect “small talk,” smiles, stares, interruptionsGroup farewell wave inappropriate
35 Titles Matter: Addressing Your Counterpart Title / Form of AddressMeaning or Associationra’is or khanChief, leader, “the big boss”- jaanHonorific suffix; connotation of respect or familiarity --- used with peers & seniorsagha-ye / sahibSir / Mr. --- often used with profession i.e. doctor, engineer, professor, general, malvikhannum-e / sahibaMadame / Mrs.baba / pader / cawcawGrandfather / father and “Uncle”; used to show respect for elderly menmowder / bibiMother / honorable matron; used to show respect for elderly ladiesBacheem / bacha / dukhtarYoung children / young boy or “child” / young girl
36 Business Card Protocol Business cards not widely used in AFG; --- often carry sense of importance and prestigeIf handed a card, accept with either right or both handsDO: Study closely and comment on qualifications or credentials of the giverDO NOT: Just slip into wallet or pocket dismissivelyIf able: Have your own cards translated into Dari/PashtoCaution with address / pers. infoProviding Cell # can mean hour accessibilityWow! Me and Mr. Tim are BFFs!Photo source: Women voters with ID Cards; <Hey, here’s my card,… call me anytime!
37 Working with your Counterpart Accept chai (tea / finger-foods) and do accept invite to lunch (next time, OK)Business and decision-making only conducted with senior leader (rais)Avoid, when possible, tasking his subordinates (even when they “get it”)Avoid confrontation or forcing decision in front of subordinates“You must always respect their leader, always strengthen him, and never detract from him in public,… never lecture him.” -- T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
38 Presentations and Paperwork Audiovisual aids often not valued (as briefing / info-sharing tool)May be regarded as time-wasting / irritatingEnglish text / complex graphics of little valuePersonal relationships more important than informationPaperworkHardcopy (in Dari) still preferred (and more sustainable)Provide written summary for more important meetings but package in way that counterpart can pass / transfer to superiorChallenge: getting timely translation of detailed / lengthy docsMost Afghans, --- especially older generation, --- still prefer qalam wa kaghaz (“pen and paper”) over computar
39 Communication Styles Delivery, Tone, and Topics of Discussion WesternlinearNear East / South AsiaspiralDelivery, Tone, and Topics of DiscussionIndirect versus directEffusive, Exaggerated, Flowery: conveys erudition and sincerity not duplicityOnly general inquiries about familyLoyalty factor: Avoid expressions of frustration with elders or superiorLoudness conveys anger or dominationTell a story to convey/emphasize key pointsOral tradition: Use metaphor, story-telling, and analogy to your advantageInstructor Notes: With Afghans an inductive (versus deductive which is the Western predilection) approach always “sells” better
40 Etiquette: Social Interaction Business and decision-making conducted with senior malewakil, malik, arbab, khanNot the guy in the bazaar who speaks English!If local woman engages Western male in conversation maintain friendly but serious demeanorShake hands with opposite gender ONLY if they offer firstOnce relationship is established, expect hug (and even 3 x cheek kiss) --- same gender onlyNow that we’ve establish a framework for thinking about culture, in both its visible and invisible or beneath the surface aspects, in the next series of slides I’d like to briefly cover the actions and behaviors that you might find it necessary to take when interacting with AFPAK cultures.I would encourage you to not think of this as a list of “rights” and “wrongs” or “do’s” and “don’t’s.” In my opinion, those sort of things are of limited value and can even create some anxiety in some people who feel as if they need to remember everything on the list. In truth, many allowance will be made for you simply because you are a foreigner.If your able to move beyond “three cups of tea,” then you’ll find that Afghans can be amazingly hospitable hosts, sometimes it’s humbling in fact, how well they’ll treat you if you are a guest or perhaps even a close acquaintance or friend.In my experience, so long as you maintain a humble (which doesn’t imply weak!) demeanor and show the same degree of respect and politeness that you normally would as a guest in any environment, then you be OK. Just be authentic, respectful, sincere, --- and hopefully as a result of this class, --- a bit more informed and you will be more welcome and comfortable than you might imagine. Whenever possible, try to emphasize or focus on the similarities rather than get frustrated over the differences.Please remember, these are only suggestions…and there are certainly exceptions to every rule.
41 Etiquette: Home Visitation If must decline, do so gracefully (allow host to save face)Do not expect quick dinner or mixed gender diningRemove shoes on entering home / hujrah (lounge/dining area)Take gift to first visit (i.e. for hosts’ children or US souvenir-memento)
42 Etiquette: Home Visitation Bala EndEntering the hujrah; high-status guest sits near host at bala (high) endOther guests and male family members in order of precedenceDo not put I/T between self and hostWomen or children may join if host is expat or guests are femaleChai and finger-food served while food is preparedFood usually in separate area by women or household staffPayan End
43 Etiquette: During Meals Go to meal hungry (esp. if eating in Afghan home)Do not pull out own food (even to share); Do not offer to payPraise cooking /food often and early; host will force second, third helpingsFood served, often eaten, from common plates (use RH)Utensils provided if available (otherwise use right hand); OK to use both hands to tear bread / drink from cupInstructor Speaking Points:Image Source: Maj. Gen. Abdul Raziq Sherzai, Kandahar Air Wing commander, presents members of the 451st Air Expeditionary Wing with a traditional Afghan meal as a form of commodore March 10 at his compound in Kandahar, Af. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Nancy Hooks/Released);President Barack Obama and his Afghan counterpart Hamid Karzai. Photograph: Pete Souza/White House/EPA
44 Gift Giving and Receiving Part of Afghan culture (be prepared!)Gift Ideas:American souvenirs and mementoes*Have bi-lingual cards made for your counterpart (w/ card holder)Cologne or perfume --- esp. if pious individualCigarettesAlcohol and cigarettesCENTCOM General Order No. 1 prohibits use of alcohol (however, indirect solicitation probable)* If possible avoid statues of human beings, --- however, animals, buildings, insignia and crests, etc. usually OK
45 Humor Tread carefully; much is “lost in translation” e.g. “Oh, quit yer bitching”Be humble but not overly self-effacingAfghans love old-school slapstick comedyAvoid “dirty jokes”Image Source: <U.S. Army Gen. David H. Petraeus, NATO International Security Assistance Force commander, in traditional Afghan attire, thanks Iqbal Azizi, governor of Laghman province, for his hospitality throughout the day. Petraeus visited Azizi to talk about development within the province Feb. 7. (Photo by U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. Chase P. McFarland, Laghman Provincial Reconstruction Team)Image Source:Photo by Sgt. Joe Padula | 2nd Bct Strike Soldier brings southern hospitality to AfghanistanCombined Task Force Strike Soldier Sgt. George Ellis, a tactical communications team leader with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division, smiles with a village elder at Kandahar’s Zharay District Center, Feb. 17. Ellis, with the help of his wife Kathleen, collected and distributed clothes for the elder and his village.Image Source:U.S. Army Staff Sgt. Michael Baldwin shakes hands with an elder in the village of Mirsaleh in the Logar province of Afghanistan June 6, Baldwin is assigned to the 401st Military Police (MP) Company, 720th MP Battalion, 89th MP Brigade. (DoD photo by Spc. De'Yonte Mosley, U.S. Army/Released)
46 Nonverbal Communications When Greeting Eye ContactOccasionally Averted: With superiorsAlways averted: With opposite sexPhysical GesturesPalm on heart: Used to indicate respect, sincerity, recognition, or appreciationHandshake: Use right or both hands (left-hand assist)Note: Facial expressions mostly universal but gestures culture specificPhoto sources: Karzai – unknown / unattributed; soldier meeting with Afghan men -Important: Greet and shake hands with everyone present before sitting down
47 Nonverbal Communication Expect physical contactSame gender only (in public)!3 x hug and kiss (conveys kinship or close acquaintance)Hand Holding (conveys friendship)Guiding (conveys protection)Other forms of contactTouching and kissing top of head conveys blessingTouching and kissing hands conveys supplicationAll public physical contact in Afghanistan is same gender only (except in cases of close family members or a wide difference in age…and even then, this is usually only done in a semi-private or private space)Photo Source: Washington Post; description: 14 April 2010Capt. Mark Moretti and Shamshir Khan, an elder from the Korengal Valley, say goodbye, holding hands in a customary show of friendship; <
48 Gestures to Avoid “Thumbs up” “Hey you, Come here” “The Fig” Especially when performed with with upward motion“Hey you, Come here”Pointing and curling with index finger upwardsTo summon: flap all fingers up and down“The Fig”Originally sign of good luck in ancient GreeceNow insulting or threatening gestureCenturion Salute (horizontal fist pump)Thumbs Up - That's good: As a gesture it's one of the most common. Several references believe that is was used by Roman rulers at the "Coliseum" and other arenas to indicate whether a gladiator lived or died. This has recently been debunked as increasing evidence indicates that most gladiatorial battles did not end in death. It was popularized by American and Chinese pilots during WWII. In China this gesture means "one" or "number one". Whatever the origin, it is generally considered a positive gesture. Don't jab it forward as this has a completely different connotation.The Cutis: This rude gesture is common in India and Pakistan. The nail of the thumb is rested behind the front two teeth and then flicked towards the person on the receiving end of the insult. It is usually accompanied by the expression "cutta" which means "screw you." Why this gesture should be rude is a bit of a mystery but several different explanations have been offered. One claimed that it simulated spitting. (Many Indians believe that phlegm is bad for you and must never be swallowed.) Another source claimed it visually represented the vocal act of swearing.Source:The Fig: The mano fico (literally ‘fig hand’) is believed to be of Roman origin and originally meant good luck or fertility. The sexual connotation derives from the hand’s similarity to a woman’s vagina (fica is often Italian slang for “vulva”), The tip of thumb is supposed to represent the clitoris. As can be seen from the above picture, the fist forces blood to the thumb thus making it a darker (clitoral) red. However, used today its meaning is generally equivalent to “screw you!” This hand sign is highly insulting to Turks and Italians. Asian Indians may well see this as a threatening gesture.Nothing more than a fist with the thumb poking out from between the index and middle fingers, the mano fico (literally ‘fig hand’) is a gesture of Roman origin, used as a positive gesture to encourage good luck and fertility, and ward away the ‘evil eye’. The sexual nuance comes from from the hand’s resemblance to the female private parts (fica is actually Italian slang for “vulva”), with the nub of the thumb representing the clitoris.There seems to be a lack of positive meaning to this sign these days, however. If you’re doing the ‘fig’, it probably means you’re denoting a letter T in American Sign Language. But if somebody else is giving you the same gesture (especially if they are of the Asian persuasion), they’re probably giving you a rather disparaging insult, roughly equivalent to “fuck you!”. This hand sign is also highly disparaging to Italians and Turks, and in India would be taken as a threatening gesture. Most non-deaf Americans or Brits, however, would simply see the mano fico as a bizarre-looking fist. “ Words represent your intellect. Sound, gesture and movement represent your feelings.” Patricia Fripp
49 Etiquette: Public Protocol Transportation (Walking, Bicycling, Taxi, Bus): No yieldPunctuality: Arrive on time but expect to waitPersonal hygiene: All body fluids, discharges uncleanTaboos: Left hand; Sole of foot; Shoes (in masjid or home); Open affection w/ opposite sex (unless mahram)Dress and Accessories:Conservative and mostly westernNo restrictions on foreign wear of native dress as in Arab cultureAvoid hostility/harassment: No shorts, suggestive clothing!- Western women: Hijab not expected (but appreciated)
50 Religious EtiquetteMosques (masjid) normally closed to non-Muslims unless invited or escortedAlways remove shoes- socks or bare feet are acceptable- cover head in masjid (men and women)Avoid crossing qibla (direction of prayer)Polite to state “Peace Be Upon Him” after referring to “Prophet Muhammad”Refer to Isa, Ali and Rashidun as “Hazrat” (Arabic honorific; literal translation = “Great Presence”)No eating, smoking, chewing gum (in public) during RamazanA Muslim performs wudhu (washing before prayer). Muslims wash in this order: hands, mouth, face, arms up to the elbows, then they wipe their heads to dampen their hair, and lastly they wash their feet. This is to show that they are clean in body and in mind before they go to pray.Background Information:Source: <Why Muslims Take their Shoes Before Entering the Masjid / 21 April 2008Some people, if they were asked why Muslims remove their shoes in a mosque, would respond by vaguely saying "out of respect." Respect for what, or for whom? Do Muslims need to pray with their shoes off? Some people might say yes, others might say no. The answer is: not unless their shoes have impurities on them. So it isn't necessarily for the prayer, but is it to respect the space? I have heard some people say that the masjid is "sacred ground," like when Moses (s) was told to remove his shoes in front of the burning bush because he was on sacred ground. But refer to a hadith reported in Sahih Muslim where the Messenger of Allah (s) in explaining the differences between other messengers and himself (s), says "the earth has been made sacred and pure and mosque for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you he should pray whenever he is." If the earth has been made sacred, pure, and a mosque, then how can we say that inside the walls of a mosque are sacred and we must take our shoes off?In fact, we have traditions about the Prophet Muhammad (s) praying with his shoes on. Anas bin Malik was asked the question, if Muhammad prayed with shoes on, and he answered yes (reported in Bukhari and Muslim.) But the condition about the shoes being free of impurities comes from another hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood, on the authority of Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri. In this hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (s) was leading his companions in prayer, and during the prayer he removed them and placed them to his left. His companions copied the behavior, removing their shoes, and at the end of the prayer the Messenger of Allah (s) asked them why they did so, and of course they replied that they saw him remove his shoes. At this point, the Prophet Muhammad (s) explained that the Angel Gabriel had come to him during the prayer and told him that there was some filth on them, which is why he (s) removed them. So he told his Companions at that point to check their shoes before coming to a mosque and if they were dirty, to wipe them off and then pray in them. Given that story, one might expect for Muslims to pray in their shoes in the mosque. And in fact, Muslims were instructed (according to another hadith in Sunan Abu Dawood) by the Prophet Muhammad (s) to pray with their shoes on to differentiate themselves from the Jews. So returning to the question--why remove our shoes? And the answer has to do with the different nature of our mosques today, and our shoes. Because walking on the carpet with shoes will soil it, we should remove them. And that is the fatwa on this particular issue. Additionally, the carpets are considered waqf, meaning they should be preserved and maintained in good condition. Dirt on the carpets is likely to upset the people who will be praying on them, which is why we should take our shoes off. For a fatwa on whether to pray with or without shoes see: < So, simply because shoes carry dirt, and dirt will soil the carpets on which people prostrate, it is not appropriate to walk on the carpets with shoes. It is perfectly fine, however, to pray with shoes when praying outside the mosque--like at home, at work, in the park, etc.--so long as you ensure they are free from impurities. Some people, if they were asked why Muslims remove their shoes in a mosque, would respond by vaguely saying "out of respect." Respect for what, or for whom? Do Muslims need to pray with their shoes off? Some people might say yes, others might say no. The answer is: not unless their shoes have impurities on them. So it isn't necessarily for the prayer, but is it to respect the space? I have heard some people say that the masjid is "sacred ground," like when Moses (s) was told to remove his shoes in front of the burning bush because he was on sacred ground. But refer to a hadith reported in Sahih Muslim where the Messenger of Allah (s) in explaining the differences between other messengers and himself (s), says "the earth has been made sacred and pure and mosque for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you he should pray whenever he is." If the earth has been made sacred, pure, and a mosque, then how can we say that inside the walls of a mosque are sacred and we must take our shoes off?At the mosque, on the other hand, if you are taking off your shoes to walk on the carpet, please be sure to neatly stow them on the appropriate racks.============================================================================================For additional discussion on Islamic etiquette (in accordance with Sunnat) see: < or <
52 American Negotiating Styles Wheeler-dealer (Businesslike)Pragmatic, candid, directFocus: The “Deal”, bottomline, or endstateLegal-Eagle (Legalistic)Officious and bureaucraticFocus: Facts, figures, and documentationBully (Hegemonic)Superpower AuthoritarianismFocus: Machiavellian Realism, RealpolitkPreacher (Moralistic)MessianicFocus: Ideals and principlesImage:
53 Negotiation Styles (How We See Each Other) Afghans see U.S. as:We see Afghans as:ImpatientArrogantPoor ListenersInsular and NaïveFriendlyFlexibleRisk-takingSlow and inconsiderateInscrutable or connivingUnfocusedBackwards and corruptHospitableRigid or indecisiveLack initiativeUS Diplomat John W. McDonald (with 40 years of experience) has summarized the unique American cultural differences in negotiation as seen through the eyes of someone from another country. His critique identifies both negative and positive characteristics of the US negotiating style:Impatience- We are the most impatient people in the world. This characteristic is carried over into our negotiating style to such an extent that the rest of the world recognizes this trait in our negotiators and takes advantage of it at every opportunity.Arrogant- Most other peoples believe that we are the most arrogant, or certainly one of the most arrogant, nations in the world. Our superpower status is certainly a part of this image.Listening- We are not good listeners. This goes hand in hand with impatience and arrogance.Insular- Most Americans have limited experience with regard to other cultures. This shortcoming can often lead to mistakes, misunderstandings and subsequent embarrassment on the part of the Americans.Naive- Our insular attitude, and sometimes our appearance, can give the impression that we are naive, are easy marks for the skilled negotiator and are someone to be taken advantage of.Friendly- We are recognized as being friendly, out-going, and having a sense of humor. This trait is particularly important. Being friendly helps to build a sense of trust among negotiators.Flexible- U.S. negotiators have more authority to make decisions during negotiations than most other delegations. This means that they can often make decisions on the spot, at the conference table.Risk Takers- More so than most, U. S. negotiators are risk takers.
54 Polychronic vs. Monochronic Negotiations Negotiators from polychronic cultures tend to…start and end meetings at flexible timestake breaks when it seems appropriatebe comfortable with a high flow of informationexpect to read each others' thoughts and mindssometimes overlap talk or take long pausesview start times as flexible and not take lateness personallyNegotiators from monochronic cultures tend to…prefer prompt beginnings and endingsschedule breaksdeal with one agenda item at a timerely on specific, detailed, and explicit communicationprefer to talk in sequenceview lateness as devaluing or evidence of lack of respectSource:
55 Negotiating with Afghans Bazaar (barter) market economy and subsistence-level agrarian society = skill in bargaining / negotiationUsual approach: start wildly high and slowly work downMay politely protest damage that is being done to them and their interests or equities during compromiseMay appeal to your sense of fairness and justice; --- or in some cases, --- your sympathyNegotiatingo Negotiating can be a tricky, frustrating but often an enjoyable affair if approached correctly. o Always make sure you negotiate with the most senior person possible as they are the decision makers. If you negotiate with someone more junior they may be there to simply test the waters. o As a rule Afghans generally negotiate with a win-lose mentality. The goal is always to get the best for yourself at all costs. o This means that there is always a stronger/weaker party. This can however be used to your advantage if you play your cards right. Always start wildly high in negotiations and very slowly work your way down, always explaining why you are dropping in price but at the same time explaining the damage it is doing to you. o Always appeal to their sense of fairness and justice and use the fact you are looking to build a strong relationship. o If monetary matters do not work then try pushing the idea that a deal with you will bring prestige, honour and respect.Respond with: ● Desire to build strong relationship● Enhance their prestige, honor, respect, marketability● Improve their value to leadership / organization
56 Rapport BuildingImage: Afghan Hospitality; The Illustrated London News, June 11, 1879 (p.55G)Source: <
57 Rapport BuildingRapport: condition in which two or more people feel in sync or on the same wavelengthOccurs because of perception of shared values, beliefs, knowledge, experiences, behaviors, personal tastes, etc.Employ MCR to enhance or build rapportMirroring (or Matching)Postures and GesturesTone and Tempo (Emotion)CommonalityReciprocityInstructor Notes:Our ability to develop deep levels of rapport with others, may very well be the most essential and critical social survival skill we may ever learn to master. Not only does it help to build trust, honor and respect, it also enables us to delve into the minds of those we interact with and peer through into their deepest thoughts, emotions and feelings that make up the building blocks of their personality.Background Information:Rapport is a term used to describe, in common terms, that two or more people feel in sync or on the same wavelength because they feel alike.A classic if unusual example of rapport can be found in the book Uncommon Therapy by Jay Haley, about the psychotherapeutic intervention techniques of Milton Erickson. Erickson developed the ability to enter the world view of his patients and, from that vantage point (having established rapport), he was able to make extremely effective interventions (to help his patients overcome life problems).Usually, it occurs naturally whenever we realize that we might share (or believe that we might share) similar values, beliefs, knowledge, experiences, or behaviors (relative to sports, politics, religion, career, etc.).Building rapport is one of the most fundamental sales techniques. In sales, rapport is used to build relationships with others quickly and to gain their trust and confidence. It is a very powerful tool that veteran salespeople naturally employ, which allows them to close more deals with less effort.It stems from an old French verb rapporter which means literally to carry something back; and in the sense of how people relate to each other means that what one person sends out the other sends back.There are a number of techniques that are supposed to be beneficial in building rapport such as:Mirroring or Matching - Mirroring means getting into rhythm with the person on as many levels as possible.Emotional Mirroring - Empathizing with someone's emotional state by being on 'their side'. You must apply the skill of being a good listener in this situation so as you can listen for key words and problems that arise when speaking with the person. This is so you can talk about these issues and question them to better your understanding of what they are saying and show your empathy towards them (Arnold, E and Boggs, K. 2007).Another way to mirror is with your body language (i.e., posture, gestures, etc.); maintaining eye contact; and matching breathing rhythm.Posture Mirroring - Matching the tone of a person's body language not through direct imitation, as this can appear as mockery, but through mirroring the general message of their posture and energy.Tone and Tempo Mirroring - Matching the tone, tempo, inflection, and volume of a person's voice.Note: Many of these techniques are taught and exploited in neuro-linguistic programming (NLP).Other techniques include,…Reciprocity Giving gifts or doing favors without asking for something in return triggers feelings of obligation.Commonality Commonality is the technique of deliberately finding something in common with a person or a customer in order to build a sense of camaraderie and trust. This is done through shared interests, dislikes, and situations.
58 Mirroring (or Matching) Fosters connection on an unconscious level (familiarity = comfort = attachment)Body language (i.e., posture, gesture, and proximity)Avoid simultaneous mimicryResemble NOT imitate5-second delayTone and tempo of voiceEstablish “sticky” eye contact; break contact slowlyImages: <How to establish rapport in short meetingsBut how can you establish rapport in a quick meeting that takes less than 15 minutes?In fact you aren't going to establish rapport on the conscious level but you are going to establish it on the unconscious level.You just need to convince the subconscious mind of that person that there is something common between you, and guess what, this something could be the body language and tone of voice you use .When you mimic the body language of the other person he will unconsciously start to feel the same feelings associated with rapport establishment (familiarity and comfort) of course you are not going to randomly mimic him because he may consciously notice your moves but instead you should follow these steps :Notice his posture then make a move to be as close to it as possible without mimicking him 100%, just as in the first picture belowFew seconds later complete the move and take the same position he is taking. See pictures two and threeThere is a good possibility that the person will shift their position or make a new gesture. Just wait for few seconds and then repeat the previous stepsIn addition to mimicking gestures you need to mimic his tone of voice, tempo, and even the stops he makes while talkingAfter you mimic few of his gestures try to take a different position yourself and see if he unconsciously mimics you. If he did then the rapport establishment process was successful
59 Proxemics (or Propinquity) The study of measurable distances between people as they interactDifferent cultures have different standards of personal spaceToo large = "stand-offish"Too small = intrusivePersonal distances also depend on social situation, gender, and individual preferenceWith (same gender) Afghans; intimate space collapsesImage: <Positioning and rapport: Keeping on the right side of playersStay close... or distant!Physical positioning is a key aspect of building rapport with people. There is a lot to this concept including various NLP principles. An excellent general article on this subject has been written by Nicky Kriel: Communication – Let’s get Physical! and I strongly recommend that you take a look. The article details how space, angles and sides come into play.We use these when refereeing to deliberately elicit the desired response as part of a stepped approach to discipline:THE QUIET WORD: Running up to a player discreetly during play and asking them to calm down, or explaining something you have heard them grumbling about. Typically side by side, so it does not feel confrontational or lecturing. The positioning is saying: “Hey, we’re on the same side here”.THE NOT SO QUIET WORD:Raised voice from a distance: “That’s enough now”, “I’ve seen it, I played the advantage”, “GREAT challenge!” If aimed at a player the intention is also to let others know things have been seen or heard! The eye contact is there but no change in positioning from the referee. The positioning is saying: “Here’s my comment for everyone to hear, but we are just getting on with things!”.THE TALKING TO: Play is stopped for this. The player is taken to a neutral spot and addressed head on. “I don’t want to see any more challenges like that”, “This is your last warning: Stop questioning my decisions”, “I’m cautioning you for that tackle”. Gestures are used so that the other players on the pitch have an idea what is going on! The positioning is saying: “I’m not being nice now, I AM lecturing you and everyone is getting to see why!”The positioning in the above cases has a real impact on the game and the players. Imagine how you would feel if they were twisted around? A ‘quiet word’ when someone draws attention to it and is looking at you head on and invading your personal space? How about you’ve done something REALLY bad but someone just comes up to you side-on and says, “Don’t do it again”: Would you actually feel disciplined or instead that you had just got away with something? How would it look to spectators?Positioning is a powerful force with building rapport and vital for keeping control of a match. Do you have any positioning tricks?Other references: <
60 “People of the Book” (mardumeh ba kitab) Commonality“Sons of Abraham”(bacheh Ibrahim)“People of the Book” (mardumeh ba kitab)Deliberately finding something in common with a personPurpose is to build sense of camaraderie and trustDetermine shared interests, dislikes, and experiencesLeverage your knowledge of:Geography, History, Human TerrainIslamCulture and Social CustomsMaster NarrativesChristianityJudaismIslam
61 Bani Adam (“Children of Adam”) The “sons of Adam” are limbs of each other, having been created of one essenceWhen the calamity of time affects one limbthe other limbs cannot remain at restIf you have no sympathy for the troubles ofothers,…you are unworthy to be called “human”Bani adam aazaye yek deegarand ke dar aafarinesh ze yek gooharandcho ozvi be dard aavarad roozegaar deegar ozvhaa raa namaanad gharaarto kaz mehnate deegaraan bi ghami nashaayad ke naamat nahand adamiبنى آدم اعضای يك پیکرند که در آفرينش ز یک گوهرندچو عضوى به درد آورد روزگار دگر عضوها را نماند قرارتو کز محنت دیگران بی غمی نشاید که نامت نهند آدمیInstructor Notes:Sa’adi “Bani Adam” poem is well-known throughout the Persian and Turkish world and is used to grace the entrance to the Hall of Nations of the UN building in New York. It is often invoked as a call for compassionate understanding and to breaking down the barriers that blind us to the hardship and suffering of others and to our shared or common humanity.Background Info:Saadi (poet)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMuslih-ud-Din Mushrif ibn-Abdullah ShiraziImage: Saadi in a Rose garden, from a Mughal manuscript of the Gulistan, ca. 1645Full name: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif ibn-Abdullah ShiraziBorn: CE Died1283/1291 CE (aged 99/107)Main interests: Poetry, Mysticism, Logic, Ethics, SufismAbū-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (Persian: ابومحمد مصلح الدین بن عبدالله شیرازی) better known by his pen-name as Saʿdī (Persian: سعدی) or, simply, Saadi, was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is not only famous in Persian-speaking countries, but he has also been quoted in western sources. He is recognized for the quality of his writings, and for the depth of his social and moral thoughts.Contents1 Biography2 The Journey of Saadi Shirazi3 His works4 More about Saadi5 Obama and Saadi6 Notes7 See also8 References9 External linksBiographyA native of Shiraz, his father died when he was an infant. Saadi experienced a youth of poverty and hardship, and left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to pursue a better education. As a young man he was inducted to study at the famous an-Nizzāmīya center of knowledge (1195–1226), where he excelled in Islamic Sciences, law, governance, history, Arabic literature and theology.The unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for 30 years abroad through Anatolia (he visited the Port of Adana, and near Konya he met proud Ghazi landlords), Syria (he mentions the famine in Damascus), Egypt (of its music and Bazaars its clerics and elite class), and Iraq (the port of Basra and the Tigris river). He also refers in his work about his travels in Sindh (Pakistan across the Indus and Thar with a Turkic Amir named Tughral), India (especially Somnath where he encountered Brahmans) and Central Asia (where he meets the survivors of the Mongol invasion in Khwarezm).He also performed the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina and also visited Jerusalem. Saadi traveled through war wrecked regions from 1271 to Due to Mongol invasions he lived in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once lively silk trade routes. Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, Imams, men who formerly owned great wealth or commanded armies, intellectuals, and ordinary people. While Mongol and European sources (such as Marco Polo) gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the war-torn region. He sat in remote teahouses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, farmers, preachers, wayfarers, thieves, and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, advising, and learning, honing his sermons to reflect the wisdom and foibles of his people. Saadi's works reflects upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement, plight, agony and conflict, during the turbulent times of Mongol invasion.Saadi was also among those who witnessed first-hand accounts of Baghdad's destruction by Mongol Ilkhanate invaders led by Hulagu during the year Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent 7 years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress. He was later released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons.When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (1231–60) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was respected highly by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. In response, Saadi took his nom de plume from the name of the local prince, Sa'd ibn Zangi. Some of Saadi's most famous panegyrics were composed an initial gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house, and placed at the beginning of his Bustan. The remainder of Saadi's life seems to have been spent in Shiraz.The Journey of Saadi ShiraziDue to the Mongol Empire invasion of the Muslim World, especially Khwarizm and Iran, Saadi like many other Muslims was displaced by the ensuing conflict thus beginning a 30 year journey. He first took refuge at Damascus and witnessed the famine in one of the most efficient cities of the world. After the frightful Sack of Baghdad in 1258 by Hulegu and the Ilkhanate Horde, Saadi visited Jerusalem and then set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.Saadi then visits Mamluk Egypt, of Sultan Baibars. He mentions the Qadis, Muftis of Al-Azhar, the grand Bazaar, music and art. At Halab Saadi joins a group of Sufis who had fought arduous battles with the Crusaders. Further Saadi travels to Turkey first the mentions the port city of Adana and the wealthy Ghazi landowners in Anatolia.Saadi mentions Honey-gatherers in Azerbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder. Saadi finally returns to Iran where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Amir named Tughral. Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh there he met Pir Puttur (on whose tomb is an inscription claiming he was a contemporary of Saadi), Saadi then traveled across the Indus River and when they reach the Thar Desert, Tughral hires Hindu sentinels. Tughral later enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate and Saadi is invited to Delhi and later visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat Saadi learns more of the Hindus and visits the large temple of Somnath; Saadi flees the temple due to an unpleasant encounter with the Brahmans.Soon after Saadi returns to his native Shiraz and earns the patronage of its leaders.His worksThe first page of Bostan, from an Indian manuscript.His best known works are Bostan ("The Orchard") completed in 1257 and Gulistan ("The Rose Garden") in Bostan is entirely in verse (epic metre) and consists of stories aptly illustrating the standard virtues recommended to Muslims (justice, liberality, modesty, contentment) as well as of reflections on the behaviour of dervishes and their ecstatic practices. Gulistan is mainly in prose and contains stories and personal anecdotes. The text is interspersed with a variety of short poems, containing aphorisms, advice, and humorous reflections. Saadi demonstrates a profound awareness of the absurdity of human existence. The fate of those who depend on the changeable moods of kings is contrasted with the freedom of the dervishes.Saadi is also remembered as a panegyrist and lyricist, the author of a number of odes portraying human experience, and also of particular odes such as the lament on the fall of Baghdad after the Mongol invasion in His lyrics are found in Ghazaliyat ("Lyrics") and his odes in Qasa'id ("Odes"). He is also known for a number of works in Arabic.Of the Mongols he writes: In Isfahan I had a friend who was warlike, spirited, and shrewd. His hands and dagger were forever stained with blood. The hearts of his enemies were consumed by fear of him; even the tigers stood in awe of him. In battle he was like a sparrow among locusts; but in combat,"after long I met him: O tiger-seizer!" I exclaimed, "what has made thee decrepit like an old fox?"He laughed and said: "Since the days of war against the Mongols, I have expelled the thoughts of fighting from my head. Then did I see the earth arrayed with spears like a forest of reeds. I raised like smoke the dust of conflict; but when Fortune does not favour, of what avail is fury? I am one who, in combat, could take with a spear a ring from the palm of the hand; but, as my star did not befriend me, they encircled me as with a ring. I seized the opportunity of flight, for only a fool strives with Fate. How could my helmet and cuirass aid me when my bright star favoured me not? When the key of victory is not in the hand, no one can break open the door of conquest with his arms."The enemy were a pack of leopards, and as strong as elephants. The heads of the heroes were encased in iron, as were also the hoofs of the horses. We urged on our Arab steeds like a cloud, and when the two armies encountered each other thou wouldst have said they had struck the sky down to the earth. From the raining of arrows, that descended like hail, the storm of death arose in every corner. Not one of our troops came out of the battle but his cuirass was soaked with blood. Not that our swords were blunt—it was the vengeance of stars of ill fortune. Overpowered, we surrendered, like a fish which, though protected by scales, is caught by the hook in the bait. Since Fortune averted her face, useless was our shield against the arrows of Fate."Alexander Pushkin, one of Russia's most celebrated poets, quotes Saadi in his masterpiece Eugene Onegin:as Saadi sang in earlier ages, "some are far distant, some are dead".Saadi distinguished between the spiritual and the practical or mundane aspects of life. In his Bostan, for example, spiritual Saadi uses the mundane world as a spring board to propel himself beyond the earthly realms. The images in Bostan are delicate in nature and soothing. In the Gulistan, on the other hand, mundane Saadi lowers the spiritual to touch the heart of his fellow wayfarers. Here the images are graphic and, thanks to Saadi's dexterity, remain concrete in the reader's mind. Realistically, too, there is a ring of truth in the division. The Sheikh preaching in the Khanqah experiences a totally different world than the merchant passing through a town. The unique thing about Saadi is that he embodies both the Sufi Sheikh and the travelling merchant. They are, as he himself puts it, two almond kernels in thesame shell.Saadi's prose style, described as "simple but impossible to imitate" flows quite naturally and effortlessly. Its simplicity, however, is grounded in a semantic web consisting of synonymy, homophony, and oxymoron buttressed by internal rhythm and external rhyme something that Dr. Iraj Bashiri quite skillfully captures in histranslation of the Prologue of the work:"In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the MercifulLaudation is due the most High, the most Glorious, Whose worship bridges the Gap and Whose recognition breeds beneficence. Each breath inhaled sustains life, exhaled imparts rejuvenation. Two blessings in every breath, each due a separate salutation.Whose hand properly offers and whose tongue,The salutation due Him, and not be wrong?Says He: "Ingratiate yourself, O family of David,Unlike the unthankful, that I thee bid!"Subjects proper, best admit to all transgression,At His threshold, with contrite expression;How otherwise could mortal creatures ever,Make themselves worthy of His discretion?The shower of His merciful bounty gratifies all, and His banquet of limitless generosity recognizes no fall. The inner secrets of His subjects, He does not divulge, nor does He, for a rogue's slight frailty, in injustice indulge.O generosity personified!To the Christian and the Magi,You bestow with pleasure,From Your invisible treasure.O ardent benefactor!You will lift Your friends high,There is solid proof of that,Not abandoning enemies to die!He has ordered the zephyr to cover, with the emerald carpet of spring, the earth; and He has instructed the maternal vernal clouds to nourish the seeds of autumn to birth. In foliage green, He has clothed the trees, and through beautiful blossoms of many hues, has perfumed the breeze. He has allowed the life-imparting sap to percolate and its delicious honey to circulate. His power is hidden in the tiny seed that sires the lofty palm.The clouds, the wind, the moon, and the sun,For your comfort, and at your behest, run;They toil continuously for your satisfaction,Should not you halt, monitor your action?"Chief among these works is Goethe's West-Oestlicher Divan. Andre du Ryer was the first European to present Saadi to the West, by means of a partial French translation of Gulistan in Adam Olearius followed soon with a complete translation of the Bustan and the Gulistan into German in 1654.Ralph Waldo Emerson was also an avid fan of Sadi's writings, contributing to some translated editions himself. Emerson, who read Saadi only in translation, compared his writing to the Bible in terms of its wisdom and the beauty of its narrative.Saadi is well known for his aphorisms, the most famous of which, Bani Adam, calls for breaking all barriers:بنى آدم اعضای يك پیکرند که در آفرينش ز یک گوهرندچو عضوى به درد آورد روزگار دگر عضوها را نماند قرارتو کز محنت دیگران بی غمی نشاید که نامت نهند آدمیThe poem is translated by M. Aryanpoor as:Human beings are members of a whole,In creation of one essence and soul.If one member is afflicted with pain,Other members uneasy will remain.If you've no sympathy for human pain,The name of human you cannot retain!by H. Vahid Dastjerdi as:Adam's sons are body limbs, to say;For they're created of the same clay.Should one organ be troubled by pain,Others would suffer severe strain.Thou, careless of people's suffering,Deserve not the name, "human being".and the last translation by Dr. Iraj Bashiri:Of One Essence is the Human Race,Thusly has Creation put the Base.One Limb impacted is sufficient,For all Others to feel the Mace.The Unconcern'd with Others' Plight,Are but Brutes with Human Face.Typically, the translation of poetry from one language to another is very difficult. Yet, on Persian poetry, we find that the translators try to make rhymes with translation. The attempt has often distorted or even transformed the idea and the message that a poet wants to give. This attempt is the desire to give a translator as pretty and pleasant poetry of origin. We therefore propose here, instead of creating a rhyme in the translation, translate what the poet meant."Human beings (children of Adam) are the parts of a body,They are from the same species,When one of these parties is reached and suffering,Others can not find neither peace nor tranquility,If the misery of others leaves you indifferent,And without any trouble! Then:It is unthinkable to call yourself a human being. "More about SaadiIn his reference article entitled as Moments with Poet Saadai, Dr Saadat Noury wrote that, "Saadi died in his hometown of Shiraz. Even from the very early days after the poet's death, the tomb of Saadi in Shiraz became a place of pilgrimage to lovers of poetry and literature. The tomb was firstly renovated during Karim Khan Zand ( ), and it was then greatly elaborated in 1952 during Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi ( ). "The tomb of Saadi of Shiraz will scent of love, even a thousand years after his death". That line of poetry composed by Saadi, inscribed on the gate leading into the garden surrounding the tomb, welcomes all those who enter to pay homage to this master of the Persian Poetry and Literature".Obama and SaadiU.S. President Barack Obama quoted Saadi's Gulistan in a videotaped Nowruz (New Year's) greeting to the Iranian people in March 2009: "There are those who insist that we be defined by our differences. But let us remember the words that were written by the poet Saadi, so many years ago: 'The children of Adam are limbs to each other, having been created of one essence.'"Notes^^^ Full text of Eugene Onegin is available here.^ Milani, A. Lost Wisdom Washington. ISBN p.39^ From Gulistan Saadi. chapter 1, story 10^ گلستان سعدی، باب اول، تصحیح محمدعلی فروغی^ گلستان سعدی، باب اول^ [Vahid Dastjerdi, H. 2006, East of Sophia (Mashriq-e-Ma'rifat). Qom: Ansariyan.]^  Iraj Bashiri's A Brief Note on the Life of Shaykh Muslih al-Din Sa'di Shirazi^ M. A. Oraizi, La Culpabilité Américaine : Assault contre l'Empire du Droit International Public, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2005, p. 8.^ Cowell, Alan ( ). "Obama and Israeli Leader Make Taped Appeals to Iran". New York Times. Retrieved See alsoPoetry portalList of Persian poets and authorsPersian literaturePersian literature in the WestIslamic scholarsRiaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi ReferencesW.M. Thackston. The Gulistan of Sa'di. (Bilingual. English translation, Persian text on facing page) ISBNHoma Katouzian, Sa'di, the Poet of Life, Love and Compassion (A comprehensive study of Sa'di and his works) ISBNG.M Wikens, The Bustan of Sheikh Moslehedin Saadi Shirarzi (English translation and the Persian original) Iranian National Commission for Unesco, No. 46E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing) ISBN XJan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company OCLC ISBNPersian Language & Literature: Saadi ShiraziMuslih-ud-Din Mushrif ibn-Abdullah Shirazi aka “Sa’adi” ( )
62 Your Turn: Reciprocity (Hospitality) Invite counterpart to your office or meeting spaceMinimize/streamline ECP process as much as possibleIf secure area, find and reserve alternate conference roomImportant to provide beverages and snacksHot tea, soft drinks, and water (must offer repeatedly)Nuts, dried fruit, and candiesApologize that quality is insufficientInvite to your DFACMay require prior approval / paymentEnsure non-pork options are available!Increases transparency and fosters feeling of cooperation
63 Other “Tools You Can Use” to Build Rapport Slow smile (vs. quick and phony)Maintain open/welcoming postureRotate torso towards counterpartStand with one foot forwardStand w/ one foot forwardTreat Business card with respectUse same terms as counterpartSlowly nod while counterpart speaks (if in agreement)Touch wrist with forefinger (when shaking)Listen for words that suggest person’s interestMaster Warrant Officer Charlotte Hawes (left) from Dundurn, Saskatchewan from the Canadian Army Reservists attached to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry patrol talks with Afghan women during a meeting in Kandahar City, southern Afghanistan Thursday, Jan. 21, (AP)Master Warrant Officer Charlotte Hawes, left, from Dundurn, Saskatchewan and Cpl. Jodie Densmore, right, from Victoria, British Columbia from the Canadian Army Reservists attached to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry patrol talk with Afghan women during a meeting in Kandahar City, southern Afghanistan Thursday, Jan. 21, (AP)Has rapport been established?
65 Meta-Narratives and Cultural Themes Experiences shared by nearly all Afghans (or their relatives and neighbors)Involves conflict and attempt to resolve itDeeply embedded in their cultureEmpathetic acknowledgement and discussion of these themes can build rapportCompare to your own personal / national history (or that of your ancestors)Recent “I also have sons/daughters to provide for…”Historical - “My grandparents were immigrants (or refugees);” “my family lost their farm;” “my ancestors were all soldiers”Instructor Notes: Shared experience, --- even if tenuous or imaginary, --- forms a powerful bond.Background Information:Narrative: coherent system of interrelated and sequentially organized stories that share a common rhetorical desire to resolve a conflict by establishing audience expectations according to known trajectories of its literary and rhetorical formMeta-Narrative or Master Narrative: transhistorical narrative that is deeply imbedded in a particular culture
66 Cultural Themes: Migration and Displacement Many Afghans have lived as refugees or IDPsDramatic change in social standing and quality of lifeHumiliation or ShameLoss and ForbearanceStoicism / FatalismExposure to Iranian or Pakistani culture / worldviewMedia, education, entertainment (esp. conspiracy theories)New economic and social networksNomadic lifestyle (Turko-Persian and kuchi heritage)
67 Cultural Themes: Armed Resistance AK-47 replaces sword as symbol of manhood and faith“Praise Allah and pass the bullets!”Modern expression of ghazi“Weaponized” cultures are often “honor-shame” culturesFor many Afghans, jihad and mujahidin have same connotation as “veteran” in U.S.
68 Cultural Themes: Subsistence Agrarianism 78.6% of labor force (15 million; 2004 est.) engaged in agriculture; 31% GDP by sectorMost practice some form of subsistence agriculture and primitive food preparation (or have relatives who do)Many will have basic knowledge of farming/animal husbandryProduce (esp. melons) matter of national pride; seasons reckoned by fruit in market“Agriculture is the dominant factor in the Afghan economy, in food security, in livelihoods, sustainable resources, and national security.”- Mohammad Asif Rahimi, Afghan Minister of Agriculture,Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL)
69 Advice from an Old “Hand”… “Whenever I took a decision, or adopted an alternative, it was after studying every relevant factor…geography, tribal structure, religion, social customs, language, appetites, standards --- all were at my fingertips…”- T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia)Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph
72 Afghan NarrativesPredominately held culturally specific “world views”:Outward looking and widely acceptedThe Great GamePakistan TakeoverInward looking and contentiousLiberators of AfghanistanPreserving Local RuleUnited AfghanistanRight to RuleVictimization, Pride and Independence
73 The Great GameNARRATIVE: Afghanistan’s prized location at the heart of Asia brought a plague of meddling and self-interested foreign powers to the country. In the 19th century, the British and Russians battled over Afghanistan to expand their imperial power.After World War II, the West and the Soviets brought their rivalry to Afghanistan, leading to the Soviet invasion and civil war. As they tried to seize Afghanistan, foreigners brought with them violence, instability, and corruption.The 2001 American invasion and occupation is just the latest in a long series of foreign powers trying to control Afghanistan in pursuit of their expansionist aims. And like those before them, the Americans will stop at nothing to maintain their foothold. What these foreigners forget is that no outsider — not even Alexander the Great or Genghis Khan — has ever been able to control Afghanistan in pursuit of their expansionist aims.History proves that Afghanistan is unconquerable, protected against foreign domination by warriors committed to defending the homeland and the faith. Learning from this history, Afghans should not place their trust in foreign powers, who are motivated by their own interests and will undoubtedly be expelled. Afghans must instead look out for their own interests to maintain their proud history of independence and protect themselves from foreigners’ bloody games.
74 The Great Game Audience Segments Foreign Occupation Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanForeign OccupationRegional HegemonyViolence, instability and corruptionForeigner occupiers will eventually leaveAn unconquerable AfghanistanDefended by warriors protecting the homeland and faith
75 Liberators of Afghanistan NARRATIVE: Marauding foreign crusaders have always plagued Afghanistan in their quest to exploit the country’s resources and people. Like the British and Soviets before them, the Americans imposed a war on the Afghan people and brought great suffering: corrupt puppet officials, violence, disrespect for Afghan values, and injustice.Yet Afghan freedom fighters have always risen to the challenge of liberating Afghanistan, expelling the most powerful armies in the world, from Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan to the British Empire and the Soviets.Today, the Taliban has inherited this jihad, leading brave warriors to expel the American occupiers. As their grandfathers and fathers did before them, Afghans are obligated (farz or fard) to wage jihad against the foreigners and their puppet government — even giving their lives, if necessary, in defense of Afghanistan’s freedom and independence.Those who fight will liberate the Afghan people by restoring the Islamic Emirate — a state that will provide fair and swift application of Sharia, an end to rampant corruption, restoration of local authority in line with Afghan values, and an end to the occupation claiming innocent Afghan lives. Munafiqin (hypocrites) who collaborate with foreign occupiers will face harsh retribution when the Americans are inevitably expelled and the Taliban retakes power.
76 Liberators of Afghanistan Audience SegmentsUrban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanAfghan fighters fought foreign occupationProtectors of the people and liberators of the countryOverthrow puppet governance and restore independenceTaliban inheritance of this mantleLeads jihad against the most powerful army in the world.
77 Preserving Local RuleNARRATIVE: For hundreds of years, local and tribal leaders have provided peace and stability to the Afghan people, guided by their own laws and customs. No national government has survived without the support of these leaders.Powerful rulers, however, have also sought to destroy this natural order in pursuit of their own interests. From the British-backed Shah Shuja to the Soviet-backed communists, greed-driven leaders have failed in their efforts to concentrate power in their own hands.Despite the failures of those before them, American-backed leaders today are trying to govern from Kabul: this unnatural rule from afar, however, only breeds corruption, violence, and instability.Afghans should not be bound by what is dictated from Kabul. Instead, they should abide by the local laws and leaders that have served them well for ages. By taking control over their own destiny, Afghans will restore the country’s natural order in which families and tribes live peacefully among their own people, undisturbed by self-interested outsiders.
78 Preserving Local Rule Audience Segments Local and Tribal Rule Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanLocal and Tribal RuleAfghans should take control from ignorant distant rulersRob locals of authorityBring instability and violenceRemain Loyal to Indigenous Laws and CustomsStability and prosperity
79 United AfghanistanNARRATIVE: Through the 1950s and 1960s, Afghanistan demonstrated to the world that it was emerging as a modern democratic nation — a peaceful and stable partner guided by a strong central government and an enlightened leader, Zahir Shah.Afghanistan’s path toward modernization and democracy, however, was devastated by the Soviet invasion, the civil war, and the Taliban. These years of tragic fragmentation and violence are proof that Afghanistan must be unified under a strong, democratic central government if peace is to be restored.With the Taliban gone, the Afghan people have an opportunity to continue what Zahir Shah started: turning Afghanistan into a peaceful, prosperous, and unified country once again. Afghans must support government institutions if they want to prevent Afghanistan from plunging into civil war, potentially leading to the disintegration of the state.Only through popular support for government leaders and national institutions will the country emerge from the chaos started by the Soviets and become a successful, unified nation.
80 United Afghanistan Audience Segments GIRoA public support Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanGIRoA public supportNarrative UnderminedCompeting Narratives?Restore era of prosperityAvoid state disintegrationANALYSIS: The “United Afghanistan” master narrative underscores two central themes in Central Government Supporters’ efforts to rally public support behind the Kabul government: restoring an era of prosperity, and the threat of the state disintegrating. For Afghans who subscribe to this narrative, Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, symbolizes the promise of centralized governance: his reign saw Afghanistan’s first “decade of democracy” starting in the mid-1960s, as well as progressive reforms such as founding coeducational institutions and working with foreign governments (including the United States) to update Afghan infrastructure. For many other Afghans, Zahir Shah is viewed as a self-indulgent figure who deserves little credit for the modernization efforts made under his regime. Wider adoption of this master narrative faces significant hurdles. First, two competing master narratives shape the political order in parts of the country where the central government is weak: “Liberators of Afghanistan” calls for the restoration of the Taliban regime, while “Preserving Local Rule” emphasizes the necessity of local, decentralized governance. Second, persistent allegations of corruption undermine greater adoption of this master narrative by exacerbating public doubts about the government’s reliability and capacity to rule. As a result of these factors, as well as continued instability, the “United Afghanistan” master narrative espoused by Central Government Supporters remains embattled.Influencers invoking this master narrative point to symbolic leaders from Afghanistan’s era of prosperity in order to capitalize on nostalgia for the time before the Soviet invasion. Zahir Shah, for instance, was welcomed back to Afghanistan in 2002 after decades of exile to great fanfare from Central Government Supporters. Then-interim leader Hamid Karzai stated, “The new Afghanistan welcomes all its sons, including the former king of Afghanistan, a fatherly figure, a symbol of unity.”1 Zahir Shah was later formally recognized as the “Father of the Nation” in the Afghan constitution.2 Afghan leaders turn to these symbolic figures in order to remind Afghan audiences of better times and associate those times with broad Afghan unity behind a strong central government.Perceptions of CorruptionWeak CapacityLiberators of AfghanistanPreserving Local Rule
81 Pakistan TakeoverNARRATIVE: The Afghan people have repelled outside invaders for centuries, successfully fighting off the British Empire and the Soviets. Afghanistan faced a new kind of enemy when the British created Pakistan in 1947, one bent on controlling Afghanistan by sowing turmoil through secretive plots against the Afghan people. Pakistan armed and trained violent extremists and sent them across the border to destabilize Afghanistan after the Soviets left.In the 1990s, Pakistan supported the Taliban government, strengthening Pakistan’s foothold at the expense of Afghan peace and development. Today, Pakistan is waiting for an opportunity to retake control of the country, playing an elaborate game in which it takes money from the United States with one hand and arms extremists with the other. Pakistan wants to exploit Afghanistan economically, meddle in its domestic affairs, and prevent it from gaining the stability it needs to prosper.They will undoubtedly move quickly to assert their power in Afghanistan once again when American forces leave. To protect the country’s security and independence, Afghans must be vigilant against the plots of Pakistan and its ISI agents. Only by exposing and thwarting these conspiracies will Afghanistan finally be able to achieve the stability needed for its economy and society to flourish.
82 Pakistan Takeover Audience Segments Animosities date back to Partition Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanAnimosities date back to PartitionPashtun territory a natural extension of AfghanistanOffers explanations of current Pak meddlingEconomic ExploitationCovert Support to the TalibanDestabilizing Afghanistan to prevent spread of IndianANALYSIS: This master narrative is a modern manifestation of deeper historical grievances dating back to the nineteenth century. Many Afghans believe that the Pashtun territory of Pakistan is a natural extension of the Afghan state, a portion of “Greater Afghanistan” severed by British colonial authorities. As a result, interstate animosities between Afghanistan and Pakistan date back to Pakistan’s founding in 1947, when the Durand Line became Pakistan’s formal border and divided the Pashtun population across two states despite Afghan objections. Many Afghans believe Pakistan’s founding came at Afghanistan’s expense. This narrative supports a wide range of possible explanations for why Pakistan allegedly conspires against Afghanistan today. First, this narrative accuses Pakistan of engaging in deliberate economic exploitation— for instance, by barring access to ocean trade routes and flooding the Afghan market with cheap goods. Second, it is widely held that Pakistan covertly supports the Taliban in an effort to undermine Afghanistan’s security, thereby keeping Afghanistan weak while ensuring that the United States continues to provide Pakistan with military and financial aid.1,2 Third, some believe that Pakistan is motivated by its rivalry with India because destabilizing Afghanistan could prevent India from expanding its influence west of Pakistan.3 This deeply entrenched hostility and suspicion also impacts perceptions of the United States, which is often considered guilty by association due to its ties with Pakistan. To many who subscribe to the “Pakistan Takeover” master narrative, the United States either deliberately or naïvely plays along with Pakistan’s “double game” in which Pakistan simultaneously maintains close ties with both the United States and the Taliban.Key influencers invoking this narrative point to Pakistani plots as the cause of a long list of Afghan problems. Afghan editorials routinely lament these longstanding grievances: as one editorial described it, Pakistan’s actions are the “old pain of the Afghan nation.”4 These grievances are aired in political dialogue as well: in 2010 the spokesman for President Hamid Karzai noted that Pakistan instigates insecurity and supports terrorist activities in Afghanistan, instead of playing an effective role in bringing peace to Afghanistan.5
83 Right to RuleNARRATIVE: The Pashtuns have called Afghanistan home for thousands of years, long before any other peoples came to the land, making them the only true Afghans. Afghan and Pashtun identity are inseparable: the Pashtuns have always been Afghanistan’s source of strength and independence by resisting foreign invaders and uniting the Afghan people. Great Pashtun leaders used their power wisely to bring prosperity and security to Afghanistan. This power, however, instilled jealousy and anger among the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen, and Hazaras, all of whom have sought to repress Pashtuns. These minorities used the US invasion in 2001 to collaborate with foreign invaders against the Pashtuns: arming themselves, securing positions of power, and repressing Pashtun language and culture while a war was declared against Pashtuns on both sides of the border. Today, these minorities control the Kabul government and receive special treatment from both the government and the Americans, while Pashtuns bear the brunt of the war’s devastation. Yet Afghanistan will always be the land of the Pashtuns, and Pashtuns throughout Afghanistan must demand that the power they deserve is restored, that their culture is respected, and that they are not forced to bow to the whims of the minorities who work against them. Only through the restoration of natural Pashtun rule can Afghanistan hope for peace and prosperity.
84 Right to Rule Audience Segments Superiority of Pashtuns as superior Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic NationalistsPashtun NationalistsTajik NationalistsTurkic NationalistsHazara NationalistsCentral Government SupportersTalibanSuperiority of Pashtuns as superiorDeep historical roots in Afghan ethnic tensions2001 US invasionDisproportionately low Pashtun representation in Parliament and the Afghan National ArmyStrong nationalist support from TalibanNo governance competition
86 The Role of Religion and Religious Identity “Islam is so all pervading an element that there is little religiosity, little fervor, and no regard for externals. Do not think from their conduct that they are careless. Their conviction of the truth of their faith, and its share in every act and thought and principle of their daily life is as intimate and intense as to be unconscious, unless roused by opposition. Their religion is as much a part of nature to them as is sleep or food.”— T. E. Lawrence(“Lawrence of Arabia”)Speaking Notes:While Lawrence of Arabia made this observation about the Bedu (Bedouin) Arabs that he worked with in WWII, it is also relevant to Afghans in the sense that their identity, --- whether national or subnational (tribe, ethnic group, mateqah, mujahideen tanzim or political party), --- are all closely intertwined with their religious, spiritual, and sectarian (whether Sunni, Shi’a, Ismai’li, Deobandi, Sufi, etc.) identities.The photos shown here are of several ANSF graduation ceremonies, in which trainees and graduates are made to swear before Allah and upon the Holy Qur’an that they will defend their nation against all enemies, foreign and domestic and remain loyal to the government and their organization (whether ANA or ANP).Image Source:<National Military Academy of Afghanistan Affirmation CeremonyAfghanistan National Army officers recite their oath over the Koran during the National Military Academy of Afghanistan affirmation ceremony here on March 14, Afghanistan Army officers were recognized during today’s ceremony. The NMAA is a four-year program committed to graduating officers for the Afghan national army and is modeled after the United States Military Academy at West Point. (U.S. Air Force photo by MSgt Quinton T. Burris)< F-MEAfghan Uniformed Police recite an oath upon copies of the Quran and a rifle following a graduation ceremony Apr. 14, 2011, at the Regional Training Center-Kandahar in Kandahar province, Afghanistan. The site graduated 459 students. (U.S. Air Force Photo by Tech Sgt. Adrienne Brammer)< F-MEGraduates of the Basic Patrolman course kiss copies of the Quran after completing their oath following the graduation ceremony Apr. 7, 2011, at the Police Training Center in Qalat, Zabul province, Afghanistan. (U.S. Air Force Photo by Tech Sgt. Adrienne Brammer)
87 Pervasiveness of Islam “Islam is so all pervading an element that there is little religiosity, little fervor, and no regard for externals. Do not think from their conduct that they are careless. Their conviction of the truth of their faith, and its share in every act and thought and principle of their daily life is as intimate and intense as to be unconscious, unless roused by opposition. Their religion is as much a part of nature to them as is sleep or food.”-- T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
88 Working with your Counterpart “Avoid formal meetings…instead, be their constant guest and just drop suggestions in their ear, and always convince them that the suggestions you are making are really their own ideas.” T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
89 Working with your Counterpart “Never disparage your own religion. Avoid talking about religion as much as you can, but when you are asked a question, see that you know, and show that you know, -- the religion of Islam very well and deeply respect it.” T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
90 Working with your Counterpart “Speak their language; keep learning from them… Avoid any deep discussions until you have completely mastered the language, because otherwise, you get into a lot of difficulty.” T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
91 Working with your Counterpart “You must always respect their leader, always strengthen him, and never detract from him in public,… never lecture him.” -- T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”)
92 Stereotypes (Theirs…) Negative:Direct and InformalImpatience or SpoiledWastefulLoud and RudeLoose MoralsPositive:WealthyGenerousHardworkingOptimisticFun-lovingSo let’s examine some stereotypes…After lots of cups of chai and numerous discussions with lots of Afghans and Pakistanis, here are some of the traits or stereotypes, both postive and negative, which they ascribe to us.Can anyone think of any others?
93 Stereotypes (Ours…) Afghans aka “Haji’s” Negative: Always Late Slow to Decide and ActAuthoritarian / CorruptArgumentativeOverly SensitiveReligiously ConservativeMisogynistsPositive:Warm and FriendlyHumble and HospitableRugged and Hardworking…And here are some stereotypes that I’ve overheard or encountered in conversations with Americans deployed or posted in Afghanistan. I hope it goes without saying that Haji is a religious honorific and should never be used in a derogatory or sarcastic manner…however, that said, if a person is a Haji or introduces themselves as such, then by all means, do use it! In fact, it may be safe to use it with any older person, though baba (father), or qawca (uncle), --- or bibi or modar (mother) if an older woman, --- may be more appropriate terms to use and help you from embarrassing someone who hasn’t been able to perform the Hajj. This is an example of the problem with resorting to these checklist of “Do’s” and “Don’ts.” There are exceptions and nuances to every rule!Note that this photo and the previous one show individuals holding weapons, and that the gaze of both betrays some degree of intensity and focus common to warrior cultures.Not only do soldiers and mujahidin shares many values in common, the same is also true of Afghans and Americans in general.For example, traits such as loyalty kin and group, bravery, and respect for tradition but less regard for the rules and laws of a central authority (think of the American Revolution, Civil War, and the “western spirit” i.e. Frontiersmen, Cowboys, Pioneers, etc.), --- however, the ways and means in which these values are practiced and expressed can take vastly different forms. We will review this dynamic in a little more detail later in this presentation.
94 Recommended ReadingCulture, Communication, and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations by Gary R. Weaver (1997)Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures by Brooks Peterson (2004)Culture’s Consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations by Geert Hofstede (2001)Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories, and Synthetic Cultures by Geert Hofstede, Paul B. Pedersen, and Gert Jan Hofstede (2005)Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd Ed. by Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede (2005)When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures, 3rd Ed. by Richard D. Lewis (2006)A Manual for American Servicemen in the Arab Middle East: Using Cultural Understanding to Defeat Adversaries and Win the Peace by William D. Wunderle, LTC USA (2008)This is by no means a comprehensive list. Because intercultural communication is a growing field, both in academia and the corporate sector, new literature appears almost daily. These are some of my favorites, --- either because they are considered seminal texts in this particular filed of study or because they are especially informative but still accessible to a general audience.