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Directorate for Human Capital Instructors: Leonard R. Hawley, former DAS State Tim Hollifield, U.S. Army LTC Retd MoDA IV Business Etiquette and Rapport.

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Presentation on theme: "Directorate for Human Capital Instructors: Leonard R. Hawley, former DAS State Tim Hollifield, U.S. Army LTC Retd MoDA IV Business Etiquette and Rapport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Directorate for Human Capital Instructors: Leonard R. Hawley, former DAS State Tim Hollifield, U.S. Army LTC Retd MoDA IV Business Etiquette and Rapport Building (in Afghanistan) This presentation is unclassified

2 Directorate for Human Capital 2 Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objective Participants will be able to describe key challenges and imperatives of working with the Afghanistan National Security Forces (ANSF) as a bi-lateral advisor Enabling Learning Objectives Describe and discuss history and culture of Afghanistan and ANSF in particular Describe and discuss overarching challenges and current organizational culture of CSTC-A and the ANSF Identify and discuss techniques and procedures that American advisors to the ANSF can use to establish and build rapport with their bi-lateral partners Identify and discuss techniques and procedures that American advisors to the ANSF can use to avoid being manipulated and outmaneuvered by their bi-lateral partners UNCLASSIFIED

3 Directorate for Human Capital AGENDA Introduction (and Caveats) Social Customs and Values National Character Hospitality, Honor and Shame Cycles of Life Etiquette Meetings and Introductions Public Protocol and Communication Home Visitation and Social Interaction Rapport-building and Negotiation Tools you can use Leveraging Cultural Narratives 3

4 Directorate for Human Capital In a remote part of Afghanistan, a PRT Commander and his Political Advisor stopped at a small road side tea house to talk to the villagers gathered there. The Commander didnt want to drink and politely turned down the offered tea. Turning to the locals, the tea house owner said in Dari, These foreigners think what we eat and drink is dirty. The POLAD understood and quietly told the Commander to accept the tea,… The American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World, Michael J. Metrinko (2008) Another True Story…

5 Directorate for Human Capital Impossible to cover every aspect of AFG Social Customs and Etiquette Everyone will have a different experience (please share!) Disconnect between ideal values or norms and actual practice (especially living at subsistence level) Contradictions and exceptions to every rule and generalization (individual and collective behavior) Only constant is change,…only absolute is complexity Caveats and Disclaimers

6 Directorate for Human Capital The Cultural Iceberg

7 Directorate for Human Capital Values Influence Customs and Etiquette American values are individualist: Life, (Human Rights and Equality) Liberty, (Inherent Personal Choice) …and pursuit of Happiness (An Abstraction) Afghans values are collectivist: Blood, (Lineage and Descent) Patronage, (Security and Econ Provision) …and pursuit of Honor (An Abstraction) 7 must acquire and prevent loss

8 Directorate for Human Capital Religious Shura Provincial Govt Druglord Multiple Centers of Power and Influence Ahmad, Mamood, Kalbi, Maqsud… Tribal Jirga Warlord Tribal Malik Village Mullah Zamindar Taliban Commander GIRoA Badmashi Taliban Shadow Governor CSTC-A Tribal Kinsmen ISAF

9 Directorate for Human Capital Afghan National Character Weak national identity; sub-national (local, regional, ethnic) identity stronger Honor (and shame) serves as a form of social currency Past is important: long memories, focus on genealogy and lineage Strong social emphasis; customs reinforce collaboration/communal harmony Not a disposable culture; everything recycled or repaired when possible Afghan ingenuity: tree trunk used as water pipe; tooth-paste box used to make remote airplane

10 Directorate for Human Capital Afghan National Character Weak national identity; sub-national (local, regional, ethnic) identity stronger Honor (and shame) serves as a form of social currency Past is important: long memories, focus on genealogy and lineage Strong social emphasis; customs reinforce collaboration/communal harmony Not a disposable culture; everything recycled or repaired when possible Afghan ingenuity: tree trunk used as water pipe; tooth-paste box used to make remote airplane

11 Directorate for Human Capital Honor (and Shame) ghayrat wa namus (pride and honor the safe-guarding of personal, family, womens honor as well as property) bey-ghayrat - without pride ben-namus - without honor tauba tauba - shame, shame (on you) izzat (honor, face -- as in saving face, or reputation In Afghan society, women are the ultimate repositories of honor for each family, clan, lineage honor --- why? 11

12 Directorate for Human Capital Hospitality Cornerstone of Afghan culture; a matter of social obligation and honor/pride Mehman Nawazi (Dari) or Melmastia (Pashto): extending hospitality and invitation to friends or strangers Saleh Samarkandi: Insincere hospitality 12

13 Directorate for Human Capital Morals and Values wafadari - loyalty and fidelity to family and friends and keeping ones pledges qawmparasti - Ethnic/tribal fidelity adab - respect or deference shown to rish-e-safeyd / speen-gireh (elders, lit. white beards) or key leaders sadaqat wa imandari - honesty and integrity rishwat - Corruption, bribery wasita - Connections, social or political ` influence Considered immoral but unavoidable Important Distinction: Use of the word jihadi Synonymous with mujahidin or veteran not terrorism Use dushman instead (or takfiri, munafiq,…etc.) Even serves as M.O.S in ANSF

14 Directorate for Human Capital Afghan Courtesy Great courtesy given to acquaintances and guests (in private or official spaces) No longer extends to public space i.e. waiting in line, getting on a bus, etc. Still many formulaic expressions of politeness: Response to expression of thanks --- qabli ta-shakur nast Response when someone apologizes for turning their back to you --- gul pusht-eh ruh nadareh When receiving a compliment --- chesm makhbool ast After labor/physical task --- khasteh nabsheed or dast-e shoma dard nakoneh 14

15 Directorate for Human Capital Courtesy and Good Manners muadab (polite, courteous) Adab-etch-tim-mah-e (possessing social graces, charisma) aklak (Dari) or khoost bar-khord (Farsi) (Good Manners) Note: These qualities are cultivated by observing proper etiquette and protocol

16 Directorate for Human Capital Politeness as a Lost Cultural Value Most Afghans now lament loss of former gentile and polite society Many complain that their countrymen have become greedy and rude Conflict society: Social norms and processes subordinate to competition for scarce resources / subsistence Sarah Chayes: The whole of Afghan society suffers from PTSD 16 Afghans will never surrender in war or give up in a fight,...but they will always surrender to kindness. --- Joseph David Osman Neo-patrimonialism: Unregulated accumulation and redistribution of resources to establish, maintain or increase a rulers power, mercy and grace

17 Directorate for Human Capital Hospitality: An Undervalued Practice For Afghans, hospitality is: A social obligation and cornerstone of culture and identity (should be reciprocated) Both etiquette and part of negotiations (process as important as content) A means of winning honor or patronage Something to be reciprocated 17 Hospitality: A form of reception, accommodation, and entertainment extended to guests or visiting officials (formal and informal) A guest is Gods friend!

18 Directorate for Human Capital From An Expert: On Hospitality We dont have the funds …but also the same habit [of wining and dining foreign guests]…Arabs, Iranians, and Afghans, if their means allow, are going to have a table groaning with food…we have a very different tradition…so,…were going to look a little cheap to them. Theyre going to look a little profligate to us. – Amb. Ronald Neumann 18

19 Directorate for Human Capital Children ensure continuity of lineage and serve as only retirement plan Shab-e shash (six nights after birth) When son is born, family arranges celebration and feast Childhood ends around years of age Cycles of Life: Birth / Childhood

20 Directorate for Human Capital Most important ceremony in Afghan society; Marriage = Family / Tribal Alliance Engagement: Ruybar / Khasgari / Shirini-khuri Wedding: Mendhi / Mahr / Nikkah / Kamar Bastan Cycles of Life: Marriage

21 Directorate for Human Capital Most marriages are arranged between first cousins --- i.e. paternal uncles daughter Winter-Spring marriages (Elder man with young girl) common esp. in rural areas Polygamy decreasing and rarer in urban areas Taboos: Broken Engagements Emphasis on brides virginity Talaq (Divorce) Cycles of Life: Marriage

22 Directorate for Human Capital Funerals conducted quickly IAW Hadith Ceremonies: Ghusal Namaz-e janaza 40 days of grieving Cycles of Life: Death Nadir Shah ( ) Mausoleum, 1969

23 Directorate for Human Capital Bacha bazi and Bacha posh Bacha bazi (trans. ~ boy play) Form of illicit entertainment and prostitution Young male dancer dressed as woman old Persia/Central Asia tradition (9 th -18 th cent.) Bacha posh (loose trans. ~ dressed up as a boy) Done out of necessity/desperation in families with no son(s) As seen in Siddiq Barmaks 2003 film, Osama It's very hard for you to believe why one mother is doing these things to their youngest daughter", and that "things are happening in Afghanistan that are really not imaginable for you as a Western people. - Azita Rafaat, Legislator for Badghis Province Afghan National Assembly (raised daughter as Bacha Posh) Bacha bazi inSamarkand (ca 1905 – 1915)

24 Directorate for Human Capital Fatalism and Predestination Mullah Nasruddin In sha Allah (Inshallah) Different understanding of cause-and-effect Non-accountability avoids shame and dishonor Everything is preordained or controlled by hidden hand Story: Mullah Nasruddin and the Shirt-maker

25 Directorate for Human Capital Proverbs (Fatalism and Predestination) Though you go to Kabul, your appointed lot will follow you there که ته لاړ شې تر کابله برخه به ځي در پسې خپله Man's lot is (fixed) from the creation, it is not (attained) by force of competition برخې ازلي دي؛ نه په زور او نه په سيالې دي Were the whole world to turn physician, the cure rests entirely with fate که ټول جهان طبيب شي، چارې واړه په نصيب شي The inevitable laughs at man's schemes تقدير په تدبير پورې خاندي

26 Directorate for Human Capital Poetry Rich tradition; often has themes of love, spirituality, and exhorts traditional values Poetry often set to music; most Folk and Traditional music mere extension of poetry (i.e. ghazals) sher jangi (poetry battle) common form of entertainment Great poets speak to universals. Their words resonate beyond specifics of time and space. And yet their day- to-day lives, like all of ours, occur within three dimensions: culture, current history, and their own singular sensibilities. - Khalilullah Khalili; Introduction to An Assembly of Moths Khalilullah Khalili (1905 – 1987) Famous and prolific Afghan Poet, Author, and Scholar Like many developing nations, Afghanistan has a sophisticated literate culture but an illiterate society…there is great respect for literature and poetry but most Afghans learn it as an oral tradition… Louis Dupree, Afghanistan

27 Directorate for Human Capital Literature Poetry culturally dominant but non-fiction and non-fiction literature once popular Most indigenous fiction deals with fable or romances e.g. Shahnameh of Ferdowsi Has deep cultural resonance Known to all (Persian equivalent of Legends of King Arthur) Many libraries destroyed during Taliban era unless religious texts Despite desire of many to read, Afghanistan has book deficit Artistic depiction of Ferdowsi (940–1020) and characters from the Shahnameh

28 Directorate for Human Capital Recommended Minimum Reading for Rapport Building Books of Cultural-Historical-Religious significance: The Quran, trans. by Tarif Khalidi (2008), M. Abdel-Haleem (2004), et al. Approaching the Quran: The Early Revelations 2 nd Ed. (with CD of Quranic Recitations) by Michael Sells (Ashland, Oregon: White Cloud Press, 2007) Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings by Abolqasem Ferdowsi, trans. by Dick Davis, The Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition (New York: Penguin Books, 2007) (Easy to read!) Primers on Islam / Islamic History: No God But God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam by Reza Aslan (New York: Random House, 2006) Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes by Tamim Ansary (New York: PublicAffairs Books, 2009) 28

29 Directorate for Human Capital 29 Business and Social Etiquette

30 Directorate for Human Capital Business Etiquette Overview Acquaint yourself with Afghan culture, social customs, and etiquette Remember and apply 3 principles that guide ideal Afghan social behavior: Business is ALWAYS personal Honor / Saving Face BETTER than Progress Deference, Humility, and Cordiality Go Slowly (ahistah buro)! Be patient Be flexible,…esp. as regards timeliness 30 Avoid CAOS: Clueless American Overseas Syndrome

31 Directorate for Human Capital Business Dress Code Dress conservatively to be taken seriously Esteem associated with wearing a suit Afghans very formal dressers (if they have the means) Afghans with military rank may wear uniform during ceremonies and national holidays Norm: Western-style suit/clothing in office and traditional clothing at home or in village Unlike Arabs, no stigma against wearing traditional clothes (but not in urban setting) If possible, avoid stigma of U.S. civilian contractor outfit (5.11 pants and polo shirt) 31 Sure, he looks cool; but whats wrong with this outfit (if walking into MoD or MoI?

32 Directorate for Human Capital Confirm: Ask I/T to call on day before or morning of (even if regular event) Avoid meetings during holidays and elections (when possible) During Ramazan: Sched meeting in AM Always allow extra time for traffic, security, and delays by counterpart Setting Up the Meeting 32 Afghan Ministry of Defense (MoD Conference Room and Main Entrance)

33 Directorate for Human Capital Meeting and Greeting Your Counterpart Expect office to be filled other Afghans May be subordinates or official visitors …or family members or neighbors visiting or seeking patronage, business contracts, etc. Greetings and farewell Waving inappropriate Greet everyone in room; seniors first (if able) Handshakes (same gender!) --- often soft/limp (conveys humility not insincerity or indifference) Wait for acknowledgement and offer to sit Expect small talk, smiles, stares, constant interruptions --- make only general inquiries about his family 33

34 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: Meetings and Introductions Business, decision-making conducted with senior male Wait for acknowledgement and offer to sit Greetings Greet everyone in room; seniors first Handshakes (same gender only) Handshakes may be soft/limp: Conveys humbleness not insincerity or indifference Expect small talk, smiles, stares, interruptions Group farewell wave inappropriate

35 Directorate for Human Capital Titles Matter: Addressing Your Counterpart 35 Title / Form of AddressMeaning or Association rais or khanChief, leader, the big boss - jaanHonorific suffix; connotation of respect or familiarity --- used with peers & seniors agha-ye / sahibSir / Mr. --- often used with profession i.e. doctor, engineer, professor, general, malvi khannum-e / sahibaMadame / Mrs. baba / pader / cawcawGrandfather / father and Uncle; used to show respect for elderly men mowder / bibiMother / honorable matron; used to show respect for elderly ladies Bacheem / bacha / dukhtarYoung children / young boy or child / young girl

36 Directorate for Human Capital Business Card Protocol Business cards not widely used in AFG; --- often carry sense of importance and prestige If handed a card, accept with either right or both hands DO: Study closely and comment on qualifications or credentials of the giver DO NOT: Just slip into wallet or pocket dismissively If able: Have your own cards translated into Dari/Pashto Caution with address / pers. info Providing Cell # can mean 24 hour accessibility 36 Wow! Me and Mr. Tim are BFFs! Hey, heres my card,… call me anytime!

37 Directorate for Human Capital Working with your Counterpart Accept chai (tea / finger-foods) and do accept invite to lunch (next time, OK) Business and decision-making only conducted with senior leader (rais) Avoid, when possible, tasking his subordinates (even when they get it) Avoid confrontation or forcing decision in front of subordinates 37 You must always respect their leader, always strengthen him, and never detract from him in public,… never lecture him. -- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

38 Directorate for Human Capital Presentations and Paperwork Audiovisual aids often not valued (as briefing / info-sharing tool) May be regarded as time-wasting / irritating English text / complex graphics of little value Personal relationships more important than information Paperwork Hardcopy (in Dari) still preferred (and more sustainable) Provide written summary for more important meetings but package in way that counterpart can pass / transfer to superior Challenge: getting timely translation of detailed / lengthy docs 38 Most Afghans, --- especially older generation, --- still prefer qalam wa kaghaz (pen and paper) over computar

39 Directorate for Human Capital Communication Styles Delivery, Tone, and Topics of Discussion Indirect versus direct Effusive, Exaggerated, Flowery: conveys erudition and sincerity not duplicity Only general inquiries about family Loyalty factor: Avoid expressions of frustration with elders or superior Loudness conveys anger or domination Tell a story to convey/emphasize key points Oral tradition: Use metaphor, story-telling, and analogy to your advantage 39 Western linear Near East / South Asia spiral

40 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: Social Interaction Business and decision-making conducted with senior male -wakil, malik, arbab, khan -Not the guy in the bazaar who speaks English! If local woman engages Western male in conversation maintain friendly but serious demeanor Shake hands with opposite gender ONLY if they offer first Once relationship is established, expect hug (and even 3 x cheek kiss) --- same gender only

41 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: Home Visitation If must decline, do so gracefully (allow host to save face) Do not expect quick dinner or mixed gender dining Remove shoes on entering home / hujrah (lounge/dining area) Take gift to first visit (i.e. for hosts children or US souvenir- memento)

42 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: Home Visitation Entering the hujrah; high-status guest sits near host at bala (high) end Other guests and male family members in order of precedence Do not put I/T between self and host Women or children may join if host is expat or guests are female Chai and finger-food served while food is prepared Food usually in separate area by women or household staff 42 Bala End Payan End

43 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: During Meals Go to meal hungry (esp. if eating in Afghan home) Do not pull out own food (even to share); Do not offer to pay Praise cooking /food often and early; host will force second, third helpings Food served, often eaten, from common plates (use RH) Utensils provided if available (otherwise use right hand); --- OK to use both hands to tear bread / drink from cup 43

44 Directorate for Human Capital Part of Afghan culture (be prepared!) Gift Ideas: American souvenirs and mementoes* Have bi-lingual cards made for your counterpart (w/ card holder) Cologne or perfume --- esp. if pious individual Cigarettes Alcohol and cigarettes CENTCOM General Order No. 1 prohibits use of alcohol (however, indirect solicitation probable) Gift Giving and Receiving 44 * If possible avoid statues of human beings, --- however, animals, buildings, insignia and crests, etc. usually OK

45 Directorate for Human Capital Humor Tread carefully; much is lost in translation e.g. Oh, quit yer bitching Be humble but not overly self-effacing Afghans love old-school slapstick comedy Avoid dirty jokes 45

46 Directorate for Human Capital Nonverbal Communications When Greeting Eye Contact Occasionally Averted: With superiors Always averted: With opposite sex Physical Gestures Palm on heart: Used to indicate respect, sincerity, recognition, or appreciation Handshake: Use right or both hands (left-hand assist) Note: Facial expressions mostly universal but gestures culture specific Important: Greet and shake hands with everyone present before sitting down

47 Directorate for Human Capital Nonverbal Communication Expect physical contact Same gender only (in public)! 3 x hug and kiss (conveys kinship or close acquaintance) Hand Holding (conveys friendship) Guiding (conveys protection) Other forms of contact Touching and kissing top of head conveys blessing Touching and kissing hands conveys supplication 47

48 Directorate for Human Capital Gestures to Avoid Thumbs up Especially when performed with with upward motion Hey you, Come here Pointing and curling with index finger upwards To summon: flap all fingers up and down The Fig Originally sign of good luck in ancient Greece Now insulting or threatening gesture Centurion Salute (horizontal fist pump) 48 Words represent your intellect. Sound, gesture and movement represent your feelings. Patricia Fripp

49 Directorate for Human Capital Etiquette: Public Protocol Transportation (Walking, Bicycling, Taxi, Bus): No yield Punctuality: Arrive on time but expect to wait Personal hygiene: All body fluids, discharges unclean Taboos: Left hand; Sole of foot; Shoes (in masjid or home); Open affection w/ opposite sex (unless mahram) Dress and Accessories: -Conservative and mostly western -No restrictions on foreign wear of native dress as in Arab culture -Avoid hostility/harassment: No shorts, suggestive clothing! - Western women: Hijab not expected (but appreciated)

50 Directorate for Human Capital Religious Etiquette Mosques (masjid) normally closed to non-Muslims unless invited or escorted Always remove shoes - socks or bare feet are acceptable - cover head in masjid (men and women) Avoid crossing qibla (direction of prayer) Polite to state Peace Be Upon Him after referring to Prophet Muhammad Refer to Isa, Ali and Rashidun as Hazrat (Arabic honorific; literal translation = Great Presence) No eating, smoking, chewing gum (in public) during Ramazan

51 Directorate for Human Capital 51 Negotiating with Afghans org/2011/jun/23/reaction- obama-afghan-pullout- strategy/

52 Directorate for Human Capital American Negotiating Styles Wheeler-dealer (Businesslike) Pragmatic, candid, direct Focus: The Deal, bottomline, or endstate Legal-Eagle (Legalistic) Officious and bureaucratic Focus: Facts, figures, and documentation Bully (Hegemonic) Superpower Authoritarianism Focus: Machiavellian Realism, Realpolitk Preacher (Moralistic) Messianic Focus: Ideals and principles 52

53 Directorate for Human Capital Negotiation Styles (How We See Each Other) We see Afghans as: Impatient Arrogant Poor Listeners Insular and Naïve Friendly Flexible Risk-taking Afghans see U.S. as: Slow and inconsiderate Inscrutable or conniving Unfocused Backwards and corrupt Hospitable Rigid or indecisive Lack initiative 53

54 Directorate for Human Capital Polychronic vs. Monochronic Negotiations Negotiators from polychronic cultures tend to… start and end meetings at flexible times take breaks when it seems appropriate be comfortable with a high flow of information expect to read each others' thoughts and minds sometimes overlap talk or take long pauses view start times as flexible and not take lateness personally Negotiators from monochronic cultures tend to… prefer prompt beginnings and endings schedule breaks deal with one agenda item at a time rely on specific, detailed, and explicit communication prefer to talk in sequence view lateness as devaluing or evidence of lack of respect

55 Directorate for Human Capital Negotiating with Afghans Bazaar (barter) market economy and subsistence-level agrarian society = skill in bargaining / negotiation Usual approach: start wildly high and slowly work down May politely protest damage that is being done to them and their interests or equities during compromise May appeal to your sense of fairness and justice; --- or in some cases, --- your sympathy 55 Respond with: Desire to build strong relationship Enhance their prestige, honor, respect, marketability Improve their value to leadership / organization

56 Directorate for Human Capital 56 Rapport Building

57 Directorate for Human Capital Rapport Building Rapport: condition in which two or more people feel in sync or on the same wavelength Occurs because of perception of shared values, beliefs, knowledge, experiences, behaviors, personal tastes, etc. Employ MCR to enhance or build rapport Mirroring (or Matching) Postures and Gestures Tone and Tempo (Emotion) Commonality Reciprocity 57

58 Directorate for Human Capital Mirroring (or Matching) Fosters connection on an unconscious level (familiarity = comfort = attachment) Body language (i.e., posture, gesture, and proximity) Avoid simultaneous mimicry Resemble NOT imitate 5-second delay Tone and tempo of voice Establish sticky eye contact; break contact slowly 58

59 Directorate for Human Capital Proxemics (or Propinquity) 59 The study of measurable distances between people as they interact Different cultures have different standards of personal space Too large = "stand-offish" Too small = intrusive Personal distances also depend on social situation, gender, and individual preference With (same gender) Afghans; intimate space collapses

60 Directorate for Human Capital Commonality Deliberately finding something in common with a person Purpose is to build sense of camaraderie and trust Determine shared interests, dislikes, and experiences Leverage your knowledge of: Geography, History, Human Terrain Islam Culture and Social Customs Master Narratives 60 Sons of Abraham (bacheh Ibrahim) People of the Book (mardumeh ba kitab)

61 Directorate for Human Capital Bani Adam (Children of Adam) The sons of Adam are limbs of each other, having been created of one essence When the calamity of time affects one limb the other limbs cannot remain at rest If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others,…you are unworthy to be called human Bani adam aazaye yek deegarand ke dar aafarinesh ze yek gooharand cho ozvi be dard aavarad roozegaar deegar ozvhaa raa namaanad gharaar to kaz mehnate deegaraan bi ghami nashaayad ke naamat nahand adami 61 Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif ibn-Abdullah Shirazi aka Saadi ( ) بنى آدم اعضای يك پیکرند که در آفرينش ز یک گوهرندچو عضوى به درد آورد روزگار دگر عضوها را نماند قرارتو کز محنت دیگران بی غمی نشاید که نامت نهند آدمی

62 Directorate for Human Capital Your Turn: Reciprocity (Hospitality) Invite counterpart to your office or meeting space Minimize/streamline ECP process as much as possible If secure area, find and reserve alternate conference room Important to provide beverages and snacks Hot tea, soft drinks, and water (must offer repeatedly) Nuts, dried fruit, and candies Apologize that quality is insufficient Invite to your DFAC May require prior approval / payment Ensure non-pork options are available! 62 Increases transparency and fosters feeling of cooperation

63 Directorate for Human Capital Other Tools You Can Use to Build Rapport Slow smile (vs. quick and phony) Maintain open/welcoming posture Rotate torso towards counterpart Stand with one foot forward Stand w/ one foot forward Treat Business card with respect Use same terms as counterpart Slowly nod while counterpart speaks (if in agreement) Touch wrist with forefinger (when shaking) Listen for words that suggest persons interest 63 Master Warrant Officer Charlotte Hawes (left) from Dundurn, Saskatchewan from the Canadian Army Reservists attached to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry patrol talks with Afghan women during a meeting in Kandahar City, southern Afghanistan Thursday, Jan. 21, (AP) Master Warrant Officer Charlotte Hawes, left, from Dundurn, Saskatchewan and Cpl. Jodie Densmore, right, from Victoria, British Columbia from the Canadian Army Reservists attached to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry patrol talk with Afghan women during a meeting in Kandahar City, southern Afghanistan Thursday, Jan. 21, (AP) Has rapport been established?

64 Directorate for Human Capital 64 Meta-Narratives

65 Directorate for Human Capital Meta-Narratives and Cultural Themes Experiences shared by nearly all Afghans (or their relatives and neighbors) Involves conflict and attempt to resolve it Deeply embedded in their culture Empathetic acknowledgement and discussion of these themes can build rapport Compare to your own personal / national history (or that of your ancestors) Recent - I also have sons/daughters to provide for… Historical - My grandparents were immigrants (or refugees); my family lost their farm; my ancestors were all soldiers 65

66 Directorate for Human Capital Cultural Themes: Migration and Displacement Many Afghans have lived as refugees or IDPs Dramatic change in social standing and quality of life Humiliation or Shame Loss and Forbearance Stoicism / Fatalism Exposure to Iranian or Pakistani culture / worldview Media, education, entertainment (esp. conspiracy theories) New economic and social networks Nomadic lifestyle (Turko-Persian and kuchi heritage) 66

67 Directorate for Human Capital Cultural Themes: Armed Resistance AK-47 replaces sword as symbol of manhood and faith Praise Allah and pass the bullets! Modern expression of ghazi Weaponized cultures are often honor-shame cultures For many Afghans, jihad and mujahidin have same connotation as veteran in U.S. 67

68 Directorate for Human Capital Cultural Themes: Subsistence Agrarianism 78.6% of labor force (15 million; 2004 est.) engaged in agriculture; 31% GDP by sector Most practice some form of subsistence agriculture and primitive food preparation (or have relatives who do) Many will have basic knowledge of farming/animal husbandry Produce (esp. melons) matter of national pride; seasons reckoned by fruit in market 68 Agriculture is the dominant factor in the Afghan economy, in food security, in livelihoods, sustainable resources, and national security. - Mohammad Asif Rahimi, Afghan Minister of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL)

69 Directorate for Human Capital Advice from an Old Hand… Whenever I took a decision, or adopted an alternative, it was after studying every relevant factor…geography, tribal structure, religion, social customs, language, appetites, standards --- all were at my fingertips… - T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph

70 Directorate for Human Capital 70 Questions?

71 Directorate for Human Capital 71

72 Directorate for Human Capital Afghan Narratives Predominately held culturally specific world views: Outward looking and widely accepted The Great Game Pakistan Takeover Inward looking and contentious Liberators of Afghanistan Preserving Local Rule United Afghanistan Right to Rule Victimization, Pride and Independence

73 Directorate for Human Capital The Great Game NARRATIVE: Afghanistans prized location at the heart of Asia brought a plague of meddling and self-interested foreign powers to the country. In the 19th century, the British and Russians battled over Afghanistan to expand their imperial power. After World War II, the West and the Soviets brought their rivalry to Afghanistan, leading to the Soviet invasion and civil war. As they tried to seize Afghanistan, foreigners brought with them violence, instability, and corruption. The 2001 American invasion and occupation is just the latest in a long series of foreign powers trying to control Afghanistan in pursuit of their expansionist aims. And like those before them, the Americans will stop at nothing to maintain their foothold. What these foreigners forget is that no outsider not even Alexander the Great or Genghis Khan has ever been able to control Afghanistan in pursuit of their expansionist aims. History proves that Afghanistan is unconquerable, protected against foreign domination by warriors committed to defending the homeland and the faith. Learning from this history, Afghans should not place their trust in foreign powers, who are motivated by their own interests and will undoubtedly be expelled. Afghans must instead look out for their own interests to maintain their proud history of independence and protect themselves from foreigners bloody games.

74 Directorate for Human Capital The Great Game Foreign Occupation Regional Hegemony Violence, instability and corruption Foreigner occupiers will eventually leave An unconquerable Afghanistan Defended by warriors protecting the homeland and faith Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments

75 Directorate for Human Capital Liberators of Afghanistan NARRATIVE: Marauding foreign crusaders have always plagued Afghanistan in their quest to exploit the countrys resources and people. Like the British and Soviets before them, the Americans imposed a war on the Afghan people and brought great suffering: corrupt puppet officials, violence, disrespect for Afghan values, and injustice. Yet Afghan freedom fighters have always risen to the challenge of liberating Afghanistan, expelling the most powerful armies in the world, from Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan to the British Empire and the Soviets. Today, the Taliban has inherited this jihad, leading brave warriors to expel the American occupiers. As their grandfathers and fathers did before them, Afghans are obligated (farz or fard) to wage jihad against the foreigners and their puppet government even giving their lives, if necessary, in defense of Afghanistans freedom and independence. Those who fight will liberate the Afghan people by restoring the Islamic Emirate a state that will provide fair and swift application of Sharia, an end to rampant corruption, restoration of local authority in line with Afghan values, and an end to the occupation claiming innocent Afghan lives. Munafiqin (hypocrites) who collaborate with foreign occupiers will face harsh retribution when the Americans are inevitably expelled and the Taliban retakes power.

76 Directorate for Human Capital Liberators of Afghanistan Afghan fighters fought foreign occupation Protectors of the people and liberators of the country Overthrow puppet governance and restore independence Taliban inheritance of this mantle Leads jihad against the most powerful army in the world. Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments

77 Directorate for Human Capital Preserving Local Rule NARRATIVE: For hundreds of years, local and tribal leaders have provided peace and stability to the Afghan people, guided by their own laws and customs. No national government has survived without the support of these leaders. Powerful rulers, however, have also sought to destroy this natural order in pursuit of their own interests. From the British-backed Shah Shuja to the Soviet-backed communists, greed-driven leaders have failed in their efforts to concentrate power in their own hands. Despite the failures of those before them, American-backed leaders today are trying to govern from Kabul: this unnatural rule from afar, however, only breeds corruption, violence, and instability. Afghans should not be bound by what is dictated from Kabul. Instead, they should abide by the local laws and leaders that have served them well for ages. By taking control over their own destiny, Afghans will restore the countrys natural order in which families and tribes live peacefully among their own people, undisturbed by self- interested outsiders.

78 Directorate for Human Capital Preserving Local Rule Local and Tribal Rule Afghans should take control from ignorant distant rulers Rob locals of authority Bring instability and violence Remain Loyal to Indigenous Laws and Customs Stability and prosperity Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments

79 Directorate for Human Capital United Afghanistan NARRATIVE: Through the 1950s and 1960s, Afghanistan demonstrated to the world that it was emerging as a modern democratic nation a peaceful and stable partner guided by a strong central government and an enlightened leader, Zahir Shah. Afghanistans path toward modernization and democracy, however, was devastated by the Soviet invasion, the civil war, and the Taliban. These years of tragic fragmentation and violence are proof that Afghanistan must be unified under a strong, democratic central government if peace is to be restored. With the Taliban gone, the Afghan people have an opportunity to continue what Zahir Shah started: turning Afghanistan into a peaceful, prosperous, and unified country once again. Afghans must support government institutions if they want to prevent Afghanistan from plunging into civil war, potentially leading to the disintegration of the state. Only through popular support for government leaders and national institutions will the country emerge from the chaos started by the Soviets and become a successful, unified nation.

80 Directorate for Human Capital United Afghanistan GIRoA public support Narrative Undermined Competing Narratives? Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments Liberators of Afghanistan Preserving Local Rule Perceptions of Corruption Weak Capacity Restore era of prosperity Avoid state disintegration

81 Directorate for Human Capital Pakistan Takeover NARRATIVE: The Afghan people have repelled outside invaders for centuries, successfully fighting off the British Empire and the Soviets. Afghanistan faced a new kind of enemy when the British created Pakistan in 1947, one bent on controlling Afghanistan by sowing turmoil through secretive plots against the Afghan people. Pakistan armed and trained violent extremists and sent them across the border to destabilize Afghanistan after the Soviets left. In the 1990s, Pakistan supported the Taliban government, strengthening Pakistans foothold at the expense of Afghan peace and development. Today, Pakistan is waiting for an opportunity to retake control of the country, playing an elaborate game in which it takes money from the United States with one hand and arms extremists with the other. Pakistan wants to exploit Afghanistan economically, meddle in its domestic affairs, and prevent it from gaining the stability it needs to prosper. They will undoubtedly move quickly to assert their power in Afghanistan once again when American forces leave. To protect the countrys security and independence, Afghans must be vigilant against the plots of Pakistan and its ISI agents. Only by exposing and thwarting these conspiracies will Afghanistan finally be able to achieve the stability needed for its economy and society to flourish.

82 Directorate for Human Capital Pakistan Takeover Animosities date back to Partition Pashtun territory a natural extension of Afghanistan Offers explanations of current Pak meddling Economic Exploitation Covert Support to the Taliban Destabilizing Afghanistan to prevent spread of Indian Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments

83 Directorate for Human Capital Right to Rule NARRATIVE: The Pashtuns have called Afghanistan home for thousands of years, long before any other peoples came to the land, making them the only true Afghans. Afghan and Pashtun identity are inseparable: the Pashtuns have always been Afghanistans source of strength and independence by resisting foreign invaders and uniting the Afghan people. Great Pashtun leaders used their power wisely to bring prosperity and security to Afghanistan. This power, however, instilled jealousy and anger among the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Turkmen, and Hazaras, all of whom have sought to repress Pashtuns. These minorities used the US invasion in 2001 to collaborate with foreign invaders against the Pashtuns: arming themselves, securing positions of power, and repressing Pashtun language and culture while a war was declared against Pashtuns on both sides of the border. Today, these minorities control the Kabul government and receive special treatment from both the government and the Americans, while Pashtuns bear the brunt of the wars devastation. Yet Afghanistan will always be the land of the Pashtuns, and Pashtuns throughout Afghanistan must demand that the power they deserve is restored, that their culture is respected, and that they are not forced to bow to the whims of the minorities who work against them. Only through the restoration of natural Pashtun rule can Afghanistan hope for peace and prosperity.

84 Directorate for Human Capital Right to Rule Superiority of Pashtuns as superior Deep historical roots in Afghan ethnic tensions 2001 US invasion Disproportionately low Pashtun representation in Parliament and the Afghan National Army Strong nationalist support from Taliban No governance competition Urban DemocratsViolent IslamistsEthnic Nationalists Central Government Supporters Taliban Pashtun Nationalists Tajik Nationalists Turkic Nationalists Hazara Nationalists Audience Segments

85 Directorate for Human Capital BACK-UP OR UNFINISHED SLIDES 85

86 Directorate for Human Capital The Role of Religion and Religious Identity 86 Islam is so all pervading an element that there is little religiosity, little fervor, and no regard for externals. Do not think from their conduct that they are careless. Their conviction of the truth of their faith, and its share in every act and thought and principle of their daily life is as intimate and intense as to be unconscious, unless roused by opposition. Their religion is as much a part of nature to them as is sleep or food. T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

87 Directorate for Human Capital Pervasiveness of Islam Islam is so all pervading an element that there is little religiosity, little fervor, and no regard for externals. Do not think from their conduct that they are careless. Their conviction of the truth of their faith, and its share in every act and thought and principle of their daily life is as intimate and intense as to be unconscious, unless roused by opposition. Their religion is as much a part of nature to them as is sleep or food. -- T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) 87

88 Directorate for Human Capital Working with your Counterpart 88 Avoid formal meetings…instead, be their constant guest and just drop suggestions in their ear, and always convince them that the suggestions you are making are really their own ideas. -- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

89 Directorate for Human Capital Working with your Counterpart 89 Never disparage your own religion. Avoid talking about religion as much as you can, but when you are asked a question, see that you know, and show that you know, -- the religion of Islam very well and deeply respect it. -- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

90 Directorate for Human Capital Working with your Counterpart 90 Speak their language; keep learning from them… Avoid any deep discussions until you have completely mastered the language, because otherwise, you get into a lot of difficulty. -- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

91 Directorate for Human Capital Working with your Counterpart 91 You must always respect their leader, always strengthen him, and never detract from him in public,… never lecture him. -- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)

92 Directorate for Human Capital Stereotypes (Theirs…) Negative: –Direct and Informal –Impatience or Spoiled –Wasteful –Loud and Rude –Loose Morals Positive: –Wealthy –Generous –Hardworking –Optimistic –Fun-loving

93 Directorate for Human Capital Stereotypes (Ours…) Afghans aka Hajis Negative: –Always Late –Slow to Decide and Act –Authoritarian / Corrupt –Argumentative –Overly Sensitive –Religiously Conservative –Misogynists Positive: –Warm and Friendly –Humble and Hospitable –Rugged and Hardworking

94 Directorate for Human Capital Recommended Reading Culture, Communication, and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations by Gary R. Weaver (1997) Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures by Brooks Peterson (2004) Cultures Consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations by Geert Hofstede (2001) Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories, and Synthetic Cultures by Geert Hofstede, Paul B. Pedersen, and Gert Jan Hofstede (2005) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2 nd Ed. by Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede (2005) When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures, 3 rd Ed. by Richard D. Lewis (2006) A Manual for American Servicemen in the Arab Middle East: Using Cultural Understanding to Defeat Adversaries and Win the Peace by William D. Wunderle, LTC USA (2008)


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