Presentation on theme: "BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV."— Presentation transcript:
BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV
Review What is B.E.S.T.? Why is it important? What are the three goals of B.E.S.T.? What are the first three modules of B.E.S.T., and one key concept from each?
Learning Spark Learning Cycle Learning Environ- ment Learning Measure- ment Learning Strategies Learning Plan for All Student Engagement Student Achievement Continuous Teaching Improvement Module 1 Module 2 Module Module 3 Module 4 Module5 Module 5 Module 6 Serving every student with excellence as the standard Inclusion RtI SSNP Differentiated Accountability Model Differentiated Instruction National and State Standards
BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV
Reflect and Share Reflect on Once Upon a Time, a Tale of Excellence in Assessment With a partner, share how you feel about the story e.g., did you experience a paradigm shift?
Module IV LEARNING MEASUREMENT: Using Assessment to Drive Learning How will I know if my students are learning/have learned?
Effectiveness in teaching is not defined on the basis of what they do as teachers, rather, it is defined by what their students are able to do. --Thomas Guskey 2007
Desired Outcomes Module IV By the end of Module IV, we will have… A foundation for using assessment as a critical component of the teaching/ learning experience for us and our students Examples of formative assessments
Desired Outcomes A means for using assessment data to track student progress, differentiate instruction, and celebrate success A list of criteria for both traditional and standards-based grading systems An awareness of assessment with RtI
Putting the Pieces Together A metaphor or simile ( ) A song or rap ( ) A.S.S.E.S.S. An acronym (A.S.S.E.S.S.) A skit ( ) A drawing ( ) A formula ( )
Module IV Agenda Purpose and definitions of assessments Examples of assessments RtI correlation Grading issues Creating differentiated assessments Sorting and labeling assessments Discussing grading Welcome What & Why Ideal School Assessment Evaluation of created assessments Follow-up: Implementation of formative, differentiated assessments in the classroom Q IV: If? Q I: Why? Q II: What? Q III: How?
Agreements Take responsibility for your learning Listen as an ally Everyone participates; no one dominates Honor time limits Silence cell phones Have fun!
Assessments At your table: Brainstorm different assessments you use Write one per sticky note Whole table places notes under pre- assessment, formative, and summative on chart paper Three minutes
Why Assess? Reflect on your current assessment practices. Using the speedy round robin technique, begin with the person whose birthday is closest to this day and move around the table for each person to share (5 seconds or less) a reason why we assess learning. Continue until time is called.
Why Assess? To determine student readiness. To plan instruction. To monitor student progress. To modify instruction. To determine mastery of content.
Your Task Select a Quadrant 2 learner (thinking/analytic type) to be your representative. Draw on your paper a picture of the ideal school culture. You have 4 minutes. Designate a Quadrant 1 learner (feeling type).
Assessment is NOT… Always a grade Always pencil and paper An end-all
What is Assessment? The word assess comes from the Latin verb assidere meaning to sit with. In assessment one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do with and for students and not to students. --Green 1999
Assessment is todays means of understanding how to modify tomorrows instruction. Assessment has more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes. --Carol Tomlinson
Nature is like a radio band with infinite stations; the reality you are now experiencing is only one station on the band, completely convincing as long as you stay tuned to it, but masking the other choices that lie on either side. --Deepak Chopra
23 A Shift in the Use of Assessments FROMTO Infrequent summative assessments… Frequent common formative assessments Assessments to determine which students failed to learn by the deadline… Assessments to identify students who need additional time and support Assessments used to reward and punish students… Assessments used to inform and motivate students Focusing on average scores…Monitoring each students proficiency in every essential skill
24 A Shift in the Use of Assessments FROMTO Individual teacher assessments… Assessments developed jointly by collaboration Each teacher determining the criteria to be used in assessing student work… Collaborative teams clarifying the criteria and ensuring consistency among team members when assessing student work An over-reliance on one kind of assessment… Balanced assessments Assessing many things infrequently… Assessing a few things frequently
Three General Types of Assessment Assessment beFORe learning = Pre-assessment Assessment FOR learning= Formative or Ongoing Assessment Assessment OF learning = Summative evaluation
Formative Sources of Assessment Information Sources of Assessment Information What should I use to assess my students? Products Journals (blogs/Vlogs), worksheets, quizzes, tests, projects, self-assessments, reports (multi-media), stories (digital) Observations Cooperative learning teams, working with manipulatives, role-plays, demonstrations, performances, experiments Conversations Student-teacher conferences, oral presentations, peer conferences, group work FDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction, Assessment
When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit.
On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Screening Checking for Unit test or Diagnostic understanding semester exam Pre-test Guided practice data FCAT Survey Progress monitoring Final grade Pre-assessment Formative Summative (Finding out) ( Keeping track ( Making a & checking up) judgment)
Any method, strategy or process used to determine a students current level of readiness, prior knowledge, or interest in order to plan for appropriate instruction PRE-ASSESSMENT
Assessment BeFORe Instruction Allows teachers to understand each students starting point Guides initial planning Drives differentiated instruction PRE-ASSESSMENT
Pre-Assessment PURPOSE To determine what students already know, understand, and can do. WHEN Before instruction and during initial planning. HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTS To guide initial instruction, to make grouping decisions, and to differentiate learning experiences. HOW STUDENTS USE RESULTS As a preview of what they need to know, understand, and be able to do. WHAT Products, conversations, observations to assess readiness, prior knowledge or mastery.
Pre-Assessment Examples Pre-Assessment Examples Pre-assessment What Do You Know? Formative What Are You Learning? Summative What Have You Learned ? Screening Pre-test Diagnostic KWL Inventories Observation Anticipation Guide Concept Map Questioning Other
The single most important thing to change in teachers practice is the minute to-minute and day-by- day use of assessment to adjust instruction. --Wiliam 2007
Formative Assessment A process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students achievement of intended instructional outcomes.
Formative Assessment Assessment FOR learning Uses data to inform and alter instruction along the way towards student mastery Serves to promote student success Helps students advance their learning with enthusiasm (in control)
Formative Assessment An ongoing process with both students and teachers where they: An ongoing process with both students and teachers where they: – Focus on learning goals – Take stock of current student work in relation to the learning goals using formal or informal assessment processes – Take action to move closer to the learning goals (i.e teachers may adjust teaching methods; students may adjust learning methods.)
Effective Formative Assessment Must… Be used by both teacher and students Be aligned with instruction Measure what is important and not just what can be easily assessed Be practiced frequently to provide direction for instruction Reveal the students knowledge and cognitive strategies for solving problems
…the frequency of (formative) assessments is related to student academic achievement. --Bangert-Downs and Kulik 1991
# of Formative Assessments Percentile Gain
Providing two (formative) assessments per week resulted in a percentile gain of 30 points. --Fuchs and Fuchs
The Teachers Paradigm 1.Clearly communicate learning expectations with students 2.Help students make connections between the learning expectations and the work they do 3.Get information from students about where they are and how they learn
The Teachers Paradigm 4.Give feedback to students or suggestions about how they might move closer to learning expectations 5.Facilitate students self-assessment and goal-setting 6.Use assessment information to fine- tune lessons in progress and plan further lessons
Benefits to Students Understanding and articulation of their individual learning targets Monitoring and reflection on learning Using feedback to make adjustments for understanding
Benefits to Students Increased achievement Increased understanding of how they learn Increased control over their own learning Increased engagement and empowerment
There is a diagnostic aspect to all formative assessment, and diagnostic information can inform both students studying and teachers teaching...
The key is having a concept of the goal or learning target, which originally is the teachers, but which ideally the student will internalize, eventually setting his or her own goals and monitoring progress toward them. --Sadler 1989; Gipp 1994
Students who could identify their learning scored 27 percentile points higher than those who could not. --Marzano 2005
Three Essential Questions Where are you now ? How can we get there? Where do you need to go ?
The Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning Where am I going? (what standard?) 1.Provide a clear statement of the learning goal, expectation 2.Use examples and models Where is the student now? 3.Offer regular descriptive feedback 4.Teach students to self-assess and set goals
The Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning How can I close the gap? 5.Design targeted lessons 6.Teach students focused revision 7.Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep track of and share their learning
1. Assessment 2. Pre-Assessment 3. On-going (Formative) Assessment Identify Desired Results (KUD) Determine Acceptable Evidence 1 2 Plan Learning Experiences 3 Planning for Meaningful Differentiation: Examining the Assessment Sequence FDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction, Assessment
The effect of assessment for learning on student achievement is some four to five times greater than the effect of reduced class size. --Stiggins 2006
Improved formative assessment helps low achievers more than other students and so reduces the range of achievement while raising achievement overall. --Black and Wiliam 1998
Formative Assessments PURPOSE To guide and adjust instruction and provide student feedback. To provide evidence of progress and learning over time. WHEN Regularly and frequently during lessons and units. HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTS To adjust and differentiate instruction. HOW STUDENTS USE RESULTS To self-monitor understanding and progress. WHAT Rubrics, exit slips, self-assessment checklists, conferences/anecdotal records, questions, conversations, observations, feedback from guided practice
Formative Assessment Examples Pre-assessment What Do You Know? Formative What Are You Learning? Summative What Have You Learned ? Screening Pre-test Diagnostic KWL Inventories Observation Anticipation Guide Concept Map Questioning Other Checking for Understanding Portfolio Journal *Quiz Observation Anecdotal Notes Exit Slips Data from Guided Practice
Formative Assessment Exit Slip Teacher Checklist Student Self-Assessment Checklist Question and Answer during Lesson Thumbs up/Thumbs down Classroom Performance System (CPS)-clickers Heart Rate Monitors in P.E.
Formative Assessment and 21 st Century Skills Reflect (student) regarding content mastery Release responsibility for learning to learner (heutagogy) Build capacity of teacher and learner to compete in a 21st century global society
Authentic Assessment (AA) A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real- world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills --Jon Mueller
Traditional Assessment (TA) 1. A school's mission is to develop productive citizens. 2. To be a productive citizen an individual must possess a certain body of knowledge and skills.
Traditional Assessment (TA) 3. Therefore, schools must teach this body of knowledge and skills. 4. To determine if it is successful, the school must then test students to see if they acquired the knowledge and skills.
Authentic Assessment (AA) 1. A school's mission is to develop productive citizens. 2. To be a productive citizen an individual must be capable of performing meaningful tasks in the real world. 4. To determine if it is successful, the school must then test students to see if they acquired the knowledge and skills.
Authentic Assessment 3. Therefore, schools must help students become proficient at performing the tasks they will encounter when they graduate. 4. To determine if it is successful, the school must then ask students to perform meaningful tasks that replicate real world challenges to see if students are capable of doing so.
Formative Assessment: Grouping Individual Response (Think) Partner Processing (Pair) Learning Group Processing (Share) (Final Word) (Chalk Talk) Learning Group to Learning Group Processing (Share) (Chalk Talk) (Critical Friends) Whole Group Sharing (Share) (Carousel)
Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning is a means to determine a students mastery of information, knowledge, skills, concepts, etc. after the unit or learning activity has been completed.
Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning Should parallel the formative assessments that were used during the learning process May determine an exit grade or score Is tied to a conclusion about a students mastery of a standard
Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning Serves accountability purposes Evaluates the overall success of student achievement, teacher instruction and instructional programs on a long-term basis
Summative Assessment PURPOSE To determine if students have mastered what they should know, understand and be able to do. WHEN End of lesson, unit, course, year HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTS To determine a grade that represents what the student knows, understands, & is able to do. To evaluate a years work and serve as a needs assessment for the next year HOW STUDENTS USE RESULTS To gauge their progress towards course or grade-level expectations WHAT Projects, portfolios, paper/pencil tests, FCAT, semester/end of course exams, district assessments, final performances
Summative Assessment Examples Pre-assessment What Do You Know? Formative What Are You Learning? Summative What Have You Learned? Screening Pre-test Diagnostic KWL Inventories Observation Anticipation Guide Concept Map Questioning Other Checking for Understanding Portfolio Journal *Quiz Observation Anecdotal Notes Exit Slips Data from Guided Practice Evaluation Project Tests/Exams Demonstration Portfolio Review Final Performance Composition Other
Geography Unit Assessment Plan PurposeAssessment TaskAssessor Formative Summative First draft of map Revised draft of map Supported opinion draft essay Quiz(zes) Map Supported opinion short essay Test Student Peer Peer/Student Teacher/Student Teacher
Ive Assessed: NOW WHAT?? Assessment results guide decisions to differentiate and to adjust – Content – Process – Product – Learning Environment To support students in their – Readiness – Interest – Learning Preferences To encourage maximum growth and individual student success.
ReadinessInterestsLearning profiles Differentiation of Instruction based on students Teachers can differentiate Tomlinson, The Common Sense of Differentiation, ASCD, 2005 OPTIONS, FDLRS Action Resource Center Differentiated Instruction is a teachers response to a learners needs clear learning goals respectful tasks flexible grouping positive lrng. environment ContentProcessProduct guided by general principles of differentiation, such as ongoing assessment & adjustment
The idea that a single teacher, working alone, can know and do everything to meet the diverse learning needs of [all] students every day throughout the school year has rarely worked…
and it certainly wont meet the needs of learners in years to come. --Carroll 2009
In learning teams, teachers work collectively to develop a guaranteed and viable curriculum to ensure that students have access to the same essential knowledge and skills, regardless of the teacher to whom they are assigned.
The team gathers ongoing information regarding the learning of their students through a comprehensive, balanced assessment process that includes common assessments developed by the team.
The team then jointly analyzes the evidence of student learning from the assessments and uses the information to improve the professional practice of individual members and collective effectiveness of the team. --Rick Dufour 2011
Common Formative Assessment Typically created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or course Created before teaching the course Used frequently throughout the year to…
Common Formative Assessment Identify individual students who need additional time and support Utilize teaching strategies most effective in helping students acquire the intended knowledge and skills Address any program concerns Set improvement goals for individual teachers and the team
Student A vs. Student B Student A: Quizzes (maximum 100) – 75, 65, 85, 80, 65, 70 Tests (maximum 100) – 85, 65 Homework (maximum 20) – 5, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 5, 10 Extra Credit (maximum 20) - 15, 20 Using your individual grading policy in your classroom, determine a final GRADE.
Student A vs. Student B Student B: Quizzes (maximum 100) – 95, 90, 95, 100 Tests (maximum 100) – 90, 95, 100 Homework (maximum 20) – 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 0, 0, 0 Extra Credit: 0 Using your individual grading policy in your classroom, determine a final GRADE.
1 = A 3 = C 1 = A 2 = B 3 = C 5 = F 4 = D 5 = F Grade for Student A
1 = A 3 = C 1 = A 2 = B 3 = C 5 = F 4 = D 5 = F Grade for Student B
Grading Systems TraditionalStandards-Based Based on assessment methods (hmwk., quizzes, tests, etc.). One grade for each subject. Based on learning goals and performance standards. One grade is given per learning goal. Score everything – regardless of purpose. Use only summative assessments for grading purposes. Assessments are based on percent correct. Criteria are often unclear. Standards are criterion- referenced and proficiency-based. Criteria are known to all.
Key Concepts Norm –referenced tests determine a students placement on a normal distribution curve. Students compete against each other and are ranked on this type of assessment. The Stanford 10, GRE, and SAT are examples of norm-referenced tests.
Key Concepts Criterion-referenced tests assess concepts and skills students have learned from a segment of instruction Measure how well a student performs against an objective or criterion rather than another student Examples: classroom quizzes and exams based on standards/course objectives, FCAT
Grading Systems TraditionalStandards-Based Include every score. Assessments record the average. Emphasize the most recent evidence of learning when grading. Calculate grades using the mean. Use median, mode, and professional judgment to determine grades. Assessments vary in quality. Behavioral evidence is included. Use only quality assessment and carefully record data.
Grading Systems TraditionalStandards-Based The teacher makes decisions about grading and announces those to students. Discuss all aspects of grading with students and parents. Use an uncertain mix of assessment of attitude, achievement, effort, and behavior. Use penalties and extra credit. Include group scores. Measure only achievement. No penalties or bonuses. Individual evidence only.
What we assess defines what we value. --Wiggins 1990
We know that grading and reporting are not essential to the instructional process. Teachers teach and students learn in the absence of grades. You need to decide the purpose. --Guskey, 2010
Grading in a Differentiated Classroom Grades are based on clearly specified learning goals that are communicated to students. Measurement is based on the selected objective or standard taught. Grades are criterion-referenced rather than norm-based. Grades are not curved.
Grading on a Curve A student might receive an A for being the best performer in a group of low performers = an A is the best worst. A student might make a C despite quality work because the group is so strong. A C = knows the content, but doesnt look so great compared to others.
Grading in a Differentiated Classroom Avoid averaging zeros into final grades.
ZEROS in the Gradebook Student scores: 85, 0, 98, 100, 89, 95=78 Student scores: 85, 59 (failing), 98, 100, 89, 95 = 88 Which score more accurately reports the students mastery?
Alternatives to Giving Zeros Change Grading Scales. Use integers (A=4, B=3, C=2, …) instead of percentages. Report Behavioral Aspects Separately. Separate Product (Achievement) from Process and Progress. Assign I or Incomplete Grades. Include specific and immediate consequences.
Assessments of learning that contribute to a report card grade can affect students motivation to learn. -- Stiggins 2006
Decisions students make about their assessment results exert far greater influence on their success as learners than do the decisions made by the adults. -- Stiggins 2007
Putting the Pieces Together A metaphor or simile ( ) A song or rap ( ) A.S.S.E.S.S. An acronym (A.S.S.E.S.S.) A skit ( ) A drawing ( ) A formula ( )
Follow-Up/Connections Work in learning teams to develop common assessments. Implement two new formative assessments in your classroom and share the results in learning teams. Work collegially as a department/ faculty to determine a consistent grading policy.
Follow-Up/Connections Determine which of your assessments are authentic or traditional, and why. Work in depts. or grade levels to develop differentiated content, process and/or assessments.
Whats Next PDD – February 20, 2012 – Module V: We will discuss and practice various instructional strategies and ways to incorporate them in learning plans. – Module VI: We will begin with the end in mind and develop learning plans that encompass the instructional model and common language of B.E.S.T.
What Do You Think? At your table: Using your handout, reflect on each statement Mark the ones you would like to address Speak whole table - five minutes
We are convinced that the first attempt at a common formal assessment by a collaborative team of teachers who make a collective effort to gather evidence of their students learning will be superior to the formal assessments those same teachers have developed working in isolation. --Richard and Rebecca Dufour, Robert Eaker 2008
Think about the purpose of grading. Dont use grades as weapons. They do not serve that purpose well and never will.
Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals. --Reeves 2000