Presentation on theme: "BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV"— Presentation transcript:
1 BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV (Have laminated posters up of Pyramid, Six Modules, Agreements, Learning Cycle, Dimensions of Success)Good Morning! Let’s get ready for B.E.S.T.! Play video.BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIESFOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IVModule II1
3 Review What is B.E.S.T.? Why is it important? What are the three goals of B.E.S.T.?What are the first three modules ofB.E.S.T., and one key conceptfrom each?Do review as ‘rapid fire’ – ask question and get answer; move quickly through. (point to charts when appropriate)An instructional model. A systemic model providing a common language of effective instruction for teachers and administrators. Part of performance appraisal.Increased student engagement, student achievement, and continuous improvement of teachingLearning Spark (Dimensions of Success, technology, data, catalyst teacher, collegiality with peers, Final Word)Learning Cycle (Four quadrants – Hook, Model, Practice, Perform; Multiple Intelligences, Critical Friends)Learning Environment (Rules and Procedures, Classroom Management – time, materials, groups, etc., Circle Maps, Bubble Map)
4 SSNP Inclusion RtI Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Accountability ModelNational and State StandardsServing every student with excellence as the standardStudent EngagementStudent AchievementContinuous Teaching ImprovementRemember…B.E.S.T. is an instructional model that shifts our focus to LEARNING strategies as well as teaching strategies; hence, the names of the modules…(click to have each appear: Learning Spark [catalyst teacher], Learning Cycle, Learning Environment, Learning Measurement, Learning Strategies, Learning Plan for All.Learning SparkLearning CycleLearning Environ-mentLearning Measure-mentLearning StrategiesLearning Plan forAllModule 1Module 2Module 3Module 4Module 5Module 6
5 BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IV Today we’re focusing on Module IV.Note: If your faculty has read Once Upon a Time: A Tale of Excellence in Assessment from Ahead of the Curve prior to Oct. 7, say the following:We will be discussing and experiencing some of the concepts documented in the chapter you read prior to this session (Once Upon a Time: A Tale of Excellence in Assessment). As you recall from our activity during pre-planning, this was Peter Miller’s true story of a paradigm shift he experienced about assessment at Russell Burnette High School.If your faculty did NOT read the chapter, move to slide 7.BREVARD EFFECTIVE STRATEGIESFOR TEACHING (B.E.S.T.) Module IVModule II5
6 Reflect and ShareReflect on Once Upon a Time, a Tale of Excellence in AssessmentWith a partner, share how you feel about the story e.g., did you experience a paradigm shift?NOTE: If your faculty has read this chapter from Ahead of the Curve prior to Oct. 7, use this slide. If not, move to the next slide.Module II6
7 Module IV LEARNING MEASUREMENT: Using Assessment to Drive Learning How will I know if my students are learning/have learned?Read slide.You may remember that in Module I we discussed the catalyst teacher and experienced technology and collegiality to “ignite,” to engage learners in the learning. In this module we will be sharing “key” strategies for ensuring every student is, in fact, learning.Module II7
8 “Effectiveness in teaching is not defined on the basis of what they do as teachers, rather, it is defined by what their students are able to do.” --Thomas Guskey 2007Allow for reading of slide and add “…as a result of what the teacher is doing….” So, what students are able to do is like an assessment of our teaching.This quote is in line with two of our B.E.S.T. goals – student achievement, and continuous improvement of teaching.Let’s take a look at our Desired Outcomes…(next slide)
9 Desired Outcomes By the end of Module IV, we will have… A foundation for using assessment as a critical component of the teaching/ learning experience for us and our studentsExamples of formative assessmentsBriefly review the outcomes of this module.Module II9
10 Desired OutcomesA means for using assessment data to track student progress,differentiate instruction, and celebrate successA list of criteria for both traditional and standards-based grading systemsAn awareness of assessment with RtIBriefly review the outcomes of this module.At the end of this module, for our summative assessment, for a grade, we will be asking you to demonstrate mastery of what we’ve taught in this session. So, beginning with the end in mind,(next slide)Module II10
11 Putting the Pieces Together A metaphor or simile ( )A song or rap ( )An acronym (A.S.S.E.S.S.)A skit ( )A drawing ( )A formula ( )You will select from this differentiated assessment menu, one means of sharing what you have learned this morning, so keep this in the back of your mind as we progress. (briefly review slide; you might want to give an example of the first one; assessment is like preparing spaghetti sauce for an important dinner you are having for special people. To prepare, you imagine what you want (end in mind). You take an inventory of what you have, purchase what you need and begin to make the sauce. As you make the sauce, you keep tasting and adding ingredients (formative)…when you place it on the plates, it’s ready for the final test! (summative).Our Agenda for today is…(next slide)
12 Module IV Agenda Evaluation of created assessments Q IV:If?Evaluation of created assessmentsFollow-up: Implementation of formative, differentiated assessments in the classroomQ I:Why?WelcomeWhat & WhyIdeal School AssessmentQ II:What?Purpose anddefinitions of assessmentsExamples of assessmentsRtI correlationGrading issuesQ III: How?Creating differentiated assessmentsSorting and labeling assessmentsDiscussing grading(Optional: share concrete sequential agenda, as well).Our agreements are the same as in our previous modules (next slide)Module II12
13 Agreements Take responsibility for your learning Listen as an ally Everyone participates; no one dominatesHonor time limitsSilence cell phonesHave fun!Read through this slide and come to an agreement regarding expectations.Module II13
14 Assessments At your table: Brainstorm different assessments you use Write one per sticky noteWhole table places notes under pre-assessment, formative, and summative on chart paperThree minutesShow the first two bullets and say, “As a Quadrant I activity of our Learning Cycle, and as a pre-assessment, please record one assessment per sticky note provided at the tables. (Allow 2 mins. for this before proceeding to the third bullet. Then show the remaining bullets and say, “Now take a piece of chart paper and create three columns – Pre-Assessment, Formative, Summative. Then place each of your sticky notes where you think they belong on the chart.”(allow three minutes)We’ll be revisiting this chart throughout the session.
15 Why Assess? Reflect on your current assessment practices. Using the ‘speedy round robin’ technique, begin with the person whose birthday is closest to this day and move around the table for each person to share (5 seconds or less) a reason why we assess learning.Continue until time is called.Allow 2 mins. for ‘round robin’ discussion.
16 Why Assess? To determine student readiness. To plan instruction. To monitor student progress.To modify instruction.To determine mastery of content.How many of you said #1? #2? Etc.Review slide.SAY: To summarize, We assess for meaningful feedback that leads to improved performance for both students and teachers-and for accountability. As opposed to this story…Tell joke about final exam for ornithology class…(student will get a car from parents if he does well in ONE college course. Only course available is ornithology class. Class is HUGE, with professor standing at the center of a huge auditorium. Student studies VERY hard..mating habits, eating habits, flight patterns, coloration, etc. ONE grade given – final exam. Shows up very prepared. Boxes on table in front. Professor lifts up front of each box and students are to ID birds by looking at their legs. The student goes berserk…”WHADDYA MEAN? I know EVERYTHING about birds and you expect me to ID them from their stupid legs??” The professors asks, “Excuse me..what is your name?” The student says, “I dunno, you tell me (and he lifts up his pants leg).Let’s experience an assessment right now. To do that, we need to review the Learning Styles we covered in Module II. (next slide)
17 Q3 Q4 Performing Type: Spontaneous Adventurous Dramatic Creative Q1 Feeling Type:EmpatheticReflectiveCaringSensitiveQ3Doing Type:Hands-onProblem solverGoal-orientedActiveQ2Thinking/Analytic Type:ConceptualFactualAnalyticalRationalAs you recall, our Quadrant 1 learners are (read from upper right corner of slide); continue around all the quadrants. Of course, we ALL have ALL the styles and need to utilize them to learn things well; however, for this activity, we ask that you select a preferred learning style.Have enough sheets of chart paper with markers around the room to accommodate your group for no more than 8 at each place.(Ask those who have Q2 as their preferred style to raise their hands. Move one to each sheet of chart paper. Then ask the Q1s to raise their hands and direct one to each sheet of paper. The remaining participants then move to any chart, making sure not to have more than 8 at a station.)(next slide)
18 Your TaskSelect a Quadrant 2 learner (thinking/analytic type) to be your representative.Draw on your paper a picture of the ideal school culture.You have 4 minutes.Designate a Quadrant 1 learner (feeling type).(Show only the first bullet until they’ve designated their Q2 learner, then show the following two. The Q2 learner is to be the artist. At the end of 4 minutes, show the last bullet and give them 15 seconds to identify a Q1 learner – do NOT tell them why.)If a large group, to save time, ask the other trainers to cover some of the groups and move from group to group and assess, asking the Q1 learner to answer any questions. Using a red marker, assign a grade to each drawing, using ridiculous criteria:You receive an A…you used my favorite colors.You receive an F because you kept on working after time was called…that’s cheating.You receive a B because you tried VERY hard…etc.You receive a C because your print is too small.You receive an A because you didn’t look on anyone else’s chart.You receive a C because…well, I just think it’s an average job.You WOULD have received an A, but you didn’t use all the colors. Etc.Have groups move back to tables and debrief. What was that like? Did you feel you were being assessed fairly?We did everything wrong – we asked the 2s to be the artists and the 1s to report out – placing them outside their comfort zones. We didn’t circulate and assist; we provided no expectations or criteria, and many may feel “dismissed” with such a flippant grading system.Bottom line is, assessment is tricky business and impacts student motivation, achievement, and success.Most of us know…(next slide)
19 Assessment is NOT… Always a grade Always pencil and paper An ‘end-all’ Allow for reading of slide.We’ll be discussing this in depth as we continue with this module.What might the consequences be if students are given a 200 question scantron test to determine mastery of a standard?What SHOULD assessment be, then?Assessment is something we do to measure and increase awareness of student learning for the benefit of the student and of the teacher.(next slide)
20 What is Assessment?The word “assess” comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’. In assessment one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do ‘with’ and ‘for’ students and not ‘to’ students. --Green 1999
21 “Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.” “Assessment has more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.”--Carol TomlinsonAllow for reading of slide.This may require a paradigm shift, such as that experienced by Peter Miller as told by Rick DuFour in the book, Ahead of the Curve: The Power of Assessment to Transform Teaching and Learning, edited by Doug Reeves.
22 “Nature is like a radio band with infinite stations; the reality you arenow experiencingis only one station on the band,completely convincingas long as you stay tuned to it,but masking the other choicesthat lie on either side.”--Deepak ChopraAllow for reading of slide.To continuously learn, we must be open to paradigm shifts, to look at some of those choices that lie on either side.Paradigm shifts challenge our thinking and encourage expansion of ideas, forcing us to be learners and to continuously improve teaching. To experience a paradigm shift, however, we must be open to ideas that challenge our current thinking. We need to have a willing suspension of disbelief in order to fully comprehend what current data is telling us about assessment. Consider that as you view the following slides with information provided by Rick and Becky DuFour about the shifts that are necessary for the effective use of assessments.Focus on the ‘to’ side of the following two slides and be prepared to share at your table how you are currently doing what is listed (next slide)
23 A Shift in the Use of Assessments FROMTOInfrequent summative assessments…Frequent common formative assessmentsAssessments to determine which students failed to learn by the deadline…Assessments to identify students who need additional time and supportAssessments used to reward and punish students…Assessments used to inform and motivate studentsFocusing on average scores…Monitoring each student’s proficiency in every essential skillNote anything you are currently doing in the ‘to’ column…Allow for reading of slide and following slide.23
24 A Shift in the Use of Assessments FROMTOIndividual teacher assessments…Assessments developed jointly by collaborationEach teacher determining the criteria to be used in assessing student work…Collaborative teams clarifying the criteria and ensuring consistency among team members when assessing student workAn over-reliance on one kind of assessment…Balanced assessmentsAssessing many things infrequently…Assessing a few things frequentlyAllow for reading of slide.Now share at your table any of the items listed on the right that you are currently doing and how.Ask for two tables to share, whole group.Now let’s take a look at three general types of assessments. (next slide)24
25 Three General Types of Assessment Assessment beFORe learning =Pre-assessmentAssessment FOR learning=Formative or Ongoing AssessmentAssessment OF learning =Summative evaluationWe assess beFORe learning. We assess AS students are learning. Then, we provide an assessment OF learning.Formative Assessments are taken at varying intervals throughout an instructional sequence to provide information and feedback that helps to improve:- the quality of student learning- the quality of the instruction itselfThey also provide information on what individual students need to practice, have re-taught, or learn next.Summative Assessments are taken by students at the end of a unit, semester, or to demonstrate the “sum” of what they’ve learned or haven’t learned. A judgment is made by someone other than the student about that student’s learning. These assessments reflect most, if not all, of the essential and enduring understandings.Determining where an assessment falls comes in the responses to these questions: WHEN is the assessment being given? WHY is the assessment being given, and HOW are the results being used?Let’s look at a graphic showing these three types of assessment and the sources of assessment information… (next slide)
26 Sources of Assessment Information What should I use to assess my students? FormativeConversationsStudent-teacher conferences,oral presentations, peer conferences, group workObservationsCooperative learning teams, working with manipulatives,role-plays, demonstrations,performances,experimentsThis visual, developed by Carol Tomlinson and taken from the FDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction, reiterates that beFORe learning is pre-assessment; Assessment FOR learning is the ongoing, formative assessment; and Assessment OF learning is the summative assessment. Using the components of assessment is a fluid process; for example, the Summative assessment may also serve as a Pre-assessment for the next lesson, unit, or year. It is a continual loop.We’ve included some 21st Century skills here, in the products piece. Of course, virtual learning could take place in all three areas.There is a large body of research showing..(next slide)ProductsJournals (blogs/Vlogs), worksheets, quizzes, tests, projects, self-assessments, reports (multi-media), stories (digital)FDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction, Assessment
27 When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit. If teachers assess only at the end of learning (summative), they are missing valuable information about how students are learning and about modifying instruction to meet student learning needs (formative).(research from Guskey, Stiggins, Marzano, O’Connor, DuFour, Reeves)Let’s look at a suggested diagnostic continuum for ongoing assessment. (next slide)
28 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Screening Checking for Unit test orDiagnostic understanding semester examPre-test Guided practice data FCATSurvey Progress monitoring Final gradePre-assessment Formative Summative(Finding out) (Keeping track (Making a& checking up) judgment)(Mention - Progress Monitoring is formative AND summative, which we will discuss later)Using different tools to determine what students know before you teach, to determine what and how students are learning as you teach, and to determine what students have learned at the end of the teaching/learning cycle, will enhance all students’ chances to perform at their level of proficiency.Using different tools also provides us a wealth of information about individual students and their level of comprehension of the concept we are trying to teach.Multiple assessment measures and feedback are both critical to student success.Let’s begin with Pre-Assessment…(next slide)
29 PRE-ASSESSMENTAny method, strategy or process used to determine a student’s current level of readiness, prior knowledge, or interest in order to plan for appropriate instructionShow, but do not read, slide.The end result of pre-assessment is a sorting of students; who knows what; who may be at risk. Screening is a type of pre-assessment.Diagnostic assessments are criterion referenced to further diagnose an individual student’s strengths and weaknesses.29
30 Assessment BeFORe Instruction PRE-ASSESSMENTAssessment BeFORe InstructionAllows teachers to understandeach student’s starting pointGuides initial planningDrives differentiated instructionStress assessment beFORe instruction.Pre-assessment (Assessment beFORe Learning) is often left out – but is an ESSENTIAL part of the planning process.How do we assess the gap between what we know about students and what performance is expected of them for the final assessment of the next unit?Let’s put this all together in a visual..(next slide)30
31 Pre-Assessment PURPOSE WHEN HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTS To determine what students already know, understand, and can do.WHENBefore instruction and during initial planning.HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTSTo guide initial instruction, to make grouping decisions, and to differentiate learning experiences.HOW STUDENTS USE RESULTSAs a preview of what they need to know, understand, and be able to do.WHATProducts, conversations, observations to assess readiness, prior knowledge or mastery.After allowing for reading of slide, ask participants to look at the chart they created and edit anything they feel needs changing under the ‘Pre-assessment’ column.Next slide)31
32 Pre-Assessment Examples What Do You Know?FormativeWhat Are You Learning?SummativeWhat Have You Learned ?ScreeningPre-testDiagnosticKWLInventoriesObservationAnticipation GuideConcept MapQuestioningOtherRaise your hand if your list has any of these listed?
33 “The single most important thing to change in teachers’ practice is the minute to-minute and day-by-day use of assessment to adjust instruction.”--Wiliam 2007Allow for reading of slide.Researchers tell us that effective teachers utilize formative assessments on a regular basis. The new performance appraisal instrument provides a way for observers to credit teachers with the frequent use of formative assessments. For example, a simple thumbs-up (“If you think the answer is ‘5’, thumbs up…”) or an exit slip, as you fill out for us at the end of each module.
34 Formative AssessmentA process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes.Allow for reading of slide…Remembering our Dimensions of Success, note that this is a process which involves positive relationships with students leading to increased achievement (results).
35 Formative Assessment Assessment FOR learning Uses data to inform and alter instruction along the way towards student masteryServes to promote student successHelps students advance their learning with enthusiasm (in control)Allow for reading of slide…Ask, “Why do you suppose…’with enthusiasm’ is included here? (solicit responses). As students feel in control of their learning, they are more likely to be motivated to learn more.
36 Formative AssessmentAn ongoing process with both students and teachers where they:Focus on learning goalsTake stock of current student work in relation to the learning goals using formal or informal assessment processesTake action to move closer to the learning goals (i.e teachers may adjust teaching methods; students may adjust learning methods.)This slide serves as a reminder that both teacher and students are involved in the assessment process. It also reinforces the concept that assessment isn’t something we ‘do’ to students but ‘with’ and ‘for’ students.Remember that the primary purpose of formative assessment is to improve teaching and learning, not merely to audit it.For Formative Assessment to be most effective, there are certain ‘musts’ that need to be considered (next slide)
37 Effective Formative Assessment Must… Be used by both teacher and studentsBe aligned with instructionMeasure what is important and not just what can be easily assessedBe practiced frequently to provide direction for instructionReveal the students’ knowledge and cognitive strategies for solving problemsShow, do not read, slide.Ask for an explanation of the third bullet.For fourth bullet – frequently means more than once before the final test. In many classrooms, formative assessment strategies are used daily. (next slide)
38 Formative AssessmentQ IV:If?Q I:Why?Q II:What?Q III: How?Looking at our Learning Cycle, with formative assessment, there is teaching, checking for understanding with practice, teaching, checking for understanding with practice, etc.…then movement to Quadrant IV.One strong finding from the research of Bangert-Downs and Kulik on formative assessment is (next slide).Module II38
39 “…the frequency of (formative) assessments is related to studentacademic achievement.”--Bangert-Downs and Kulik 1991Allow for reading of slide.They found that the more formative assessments given over a 15 week period, the higher the percentile gain for student achievement.(next slide)
40 # of Formative Assessments PercentileGain113.5520.01022.51524.52026.02528.5Go over slide.And this information corroborates another meta-analysis of 21 studies that found the following:
41 “Providing two (formative) assessments per week resulted in a percentile gain of 30 points.” --Fuchs and FuchsHow do we make formative assessments effective? As teachers, we have a paradigm that includes the following (next slide)
42 The Teacher’s Paradigm Clearly communicate learning expectations with studentsHelp students make connections between the learning expectations and the work they doGet information from students about where they are and how they learn(allow for reading of slide)Learning expectations are communicated at the beginning of each lesson, AND checked for understanding throughout the teaching of each lesson.Information from students about how they learn – remember multiple intelligences, learning styles, etc.We also…next slide…
43 The Teacher’s Paradigm Give feedback to students or suggestions about how they might move closer to learning expectationsFacilitate students’ self-assessment and goal-settingUse assessment information to fine-tune lessons in progress and plan further lessonsFEEDBACK is the critical component to student progress. Students who ‘get it’ ask questions; those who don’t, won’t. Hence, a conversation incorporating feedback is necessary.On our shared website, you will find information about a DVD on delivering effective feedback.When we understand that the assessment itself can be part of the learning process, then it is clear that the time spent assessing students doesn’t necessarily take away time for instruction.If we have this paradigm, and if we are teaching through it, THEN the following benefits are available to our students:
44 Benefits to Students Understanding and articulation of their individual learning targetsMonitoring and reflection on learningUsing feedback to make adjustmentsfor understandingAssessment FOR Learning is the ultimate goal, where students are their own best assessors. Effective assessment empowers students to ask reflective questions and consider a range of strategies for their own learning.And these benefits lead to these benefits: (next slide)44
45 Benefits to Students Increased achievement Increased understanding of how they learnIncreased control over their own learningIncreased engagementand empowermentAllow for reading of slideWhen students know and track personal learning goals, learning increases. Too often, only the teacher is aware of learning expectations. (next slide)At Enterprise Elementary, students (K-6)keep data notebooks to consistently monitor their own learning.
46 “There is a diagnostic aspect to all formative assessment, and diagnostic information can inform both students’ studying and teachers’ teaching...(Note: “Informing instruction” simply means providing information)(remainder of quote is on the next slide)
47 The key is having a concept of the goal or learning target, which originally is the teacher’s, but which ideally the student will internalize, eventually setting his or her own goals and monitoring progress toward them.”--Sadler 1989; Gipp 1994Goals are the learning expectations.Remember, student-led conferences, mentioned last year in Module III, support student progress monitoring.
48 “Students who could identify their learning scored 27 percentile points higher than those who could not.” Marzano 2005Allow for reading of slide.When thinking about promoting student learning, three critical questions come into play:
49 Three Essential Questions 231How can we get there?Where are you now?Where do you need to go?Share the visual on this slide.The Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning describe what assessment for learning looks like in the classroom. The strategies are organized around three questions formative assessment must answer for the student.You may recall that these questions are similar to the questions provided by DuFour for PLC focus:What is it we want students to learn?How will we know if they have learned it?What do we do if they haven’t learned it?What do we do if they have?Similar to MapQuest…we begin with where we want to go.
50 The Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning Where am I going? (what standard?)1. Provide a clear statement of the learning goal, expectationUse examples and modelsWhere is the student now?3. Offer regular descriptive feedbackTeach students to self-assess and set goals(After the first two, say, “After determining where you want to go, what standard you want students to master, you determine where the students is now with regard to the content,” then click for the last two.)
51 The Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning How can I close the gap?5. Design targeted lessons6. Teach students focused revision7. Engage students in self-reflection; let them keep track of and share their learningAllow for reading of slide.Explain #6: Focused revision – teachers provide tools for students to effectively revise content, e.g., rubrics.#7: If we want students to control their own learning, we need to provide time for students to reflect on their learning.In summary, doing seven steps help us keep students in touch with their own learning and to reap the achievement gains found in study after study.
52 Identify Desired Results Determine Acceptable Evidence Planning for Meaningful Differentiation: Examining the Assessment Sequence1Identify Desired Results(KUD)2Determine Acceptable EvidencePlan Learning Experiences3This model, taken from the FDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction and used in RtI, is similar. The Backward Design Planning Model, puts ‘Where do you need to go?’ first.KUD stands for…What will the student Know, Understand, and Do.1. Assessment2. Pre-Assessment3. On-going (Formative) AssessmentFDLRS/FIN training manual on Differentiated Instruction, Assessment
53 “The effect of assessment for learning on student achievement is some four to five times greater thanthe effect of reducedclass size.”--Stiggins 2006Allow for reading of slide.And Marzano shares that research shows that formative assessments might be one of the more powerful tools in a teacher’s toolbox.Next slide…
54 “Improved formative assessment helps low achievers more than other students and so reduces the range of achievement while raising achievement overall.”--Black and Wiliam 1998Allow for reading of slide.Let’s look at a visual summarizing what we’ve said about formative assessments. (next slide)
55 Formative Assessments PURPOSETo guide and adjust instruction and provide student feedback.To provide evidence of progress and learning over time.WHENRegularly and frequently during lessons and units.HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTSTo adjust and differentiate instruction.HOW STUDENTS USE RESULTSTo self-monitor understanding and progress.WHATRubrics, exit slips, self-assessment checklists, conferences/anecdotal records, questions, conversations, observations, feedback from guided practiceShow, but do not read, slide.Now…look at your table chart and see what you wrote and labeled for formative assessment. Make changes if necessary (allow time).Ask a reporter from each table to share ONE example. Remind participants that examples of assessments that are NOT graded (percent or A-F) are being shared. The main purpose is for improving instruction.Cover all tables. Then show next slide.
56 Formative Assessment Examples What Are You Learning?SummativeWhat Have You Learned ?Pre-assessmentWhat Do You Know?ScreeningPre-testDiagnosticKWLInventoriesObservationAnticipation GuideConcept MapQuestioningOtherChecking for UnderstandingPortfolioJournal*QuizObservationAnecdotal NotesExit SlipsData from Guided PracticeYou have mentioned some of these. The portfolios and journals, for example, are drafts and are not the final submission. A Portfolio COULD be a summative (final submission) OR a formative, depending on WHY and HOW you choose to use it. Remember, the difference between formative and summative assessments rests largely with when you are using them, why, and how you use the results.*QUIZ – ask, “How is a quiz formative?” (when checking for understanding; no grade) Could a quiz ever be summative? (yes; when given with purpose of ‘labeling’ [grading] student)(share if no one has offered these) Other formative assessment examples may include bell work, labs, class debates, gallery walks, student-created thinking maps, podcasting, Pre-Music Performance Assessment, White Board ResponsesUnderstanding Student Ideas in ScienceIn the Learning Cycle, all quadrant III activities are formative in nature – “on the way” learning.
57 Formative Assessment Exit Slip Teacher Checklist Student Self-Assessment ChecklistQuestion and Answer during LessonThumbs up/Thumbs downClassroom Performance System (CPS)-clickersHeart Rate Monitors in P.E.Here are some additional examples(show hyperlink examples, if time).21st Century Skills also promote the use formative assessment (next slide)
58 Formative Assessment and 21st Century Skills Reflect (student) regarding contentmasteryRelease responsibility for learning tolearner (heutagogy)Build capacity of teacher and learnerto compete in a 21st century globalsocietyFormative assessment allows for student reflection.We talked about heutagogy in Module I…that B.E.S.T is about pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy. With heutagogy, the learning is self-directed.With 21st Century skills, we are reminded of authentic assessment versus traditional assessment (next slide)
59 Authentic Assessment (AA) A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills--Jon MuellerAllow for reading of slideJon Mueller goes on to differentiate between traditional assessment and authentic assessment next slide)Module I59
60 Traditional Assessment (TA) 1. A school's mission is to developproductive citizens.2. To be a productive citizen anindividual must possess a certainbody of knowledge and skills.Traditional Assessment follows this line of reasoning…(Read aloud this slide and the next.)Module I60
61 Traditional Assessment (TA) 3. Therefore, schools must teach thisbody of knowledge and skills.4. To determine if it is successful, theschool must then test students tosee if they acquired the knowledgeand skills.In the TA model, the curriculum drives assessment. The" body of knowledge is determined first. That knowledge becomes the curriculum that is delivered. Subsequently, the assessments are developed and administered to determine if acquisition of the curriculum occurred.Let’s compare this to Authentic Assessment (AA)Module I61
62 Authentic Assessment (AA) 1. A school's mission is to develop productive citizens.2. To be a productive citizen an individual must be capable of performing meaningful tasks in the real world.4. To determine if it is successful, the school must then test students to see if they acquired the knowledge and skills.We begin with the same mission; however the remaining rationale changes a bit…(allow for reading of this slide and the next)Module I62
63 Authentic Assessment 3. Therefore, schools must help students become proficient atperforming the tasks they willencounter when they graduate.4. To determine if it is successful, theschool must then ask students toperform meaningful tasks thatreplicate real world challenges tosee if students are capable ofdoing so.Thus, in AA, assessment data drives the curriculum. That is, teachers first determine the tasks that students will perform to demonstrate their mastery, and then a curriculum is developed that will enable students to perform those tasks well, which would include the acquisition of essential knowledge and skills. As we discussed earlier, this is planning backwards beginning with the end in mind.But a teacher does not have to choose between AA and TA. It is likely that some mix of the two will best meet our needs. Jon Mueller provides this example: If I had to choose a chauffeur from between someone who passed the driving portion of the driver's license test but failed the written portion or someone who failed the driving portion and passed the written portion, I would choose the driver who most directly demonstrated the ability to drive, that is, the one who passed the driving portion of the test. However, I would prefer a driver who passed both portions. I would feel more comfortable knowing that my chauffeur had a good knowledge base about driving (which might best be assessed in a traditional manner) and was able to apply that knowledge in a real context (which could be demonstrated through an authentic assessment).For more information about authentic assessment and examples for various subject areas, google Authentic Assessment Toolbox, by Jon Mueller.Module I63
64 Formative Assessment: Grouping Individual Response(Think)Partner Processing(Pair)Learning Group Processing(Share)(Final Word)(Chalk Talk)Learning Group to Learning Group Processing(Critical Friends)Whole Group Sharing(Carousel)Here is a simple mosaic to demonstrate grouping strategies.Now let’s move to our final type of assessment - summative assessment…(next slide)
65 …where a ‘final’ evaluation is made by the teacher on the student’s work. Say: Read the following Peanuts Comic Strip. Think about what Sally is saying and how it relates to assessment and be prepared to discuss at your tables.
73 Humorous, but the message is worthy of deeper thought… Obviously, students must know the expectations before they begin an assignment.
74 Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning is a means to determine a student’s mastery of information, knowledge, skills, concepts, etc. after the unit or learning activity has been completed.Briefly review definition of Summative assessment.Note: FCAT, End-of-course exams, etc. are based on the standards. Do we teach to the test…yes. If we’re teaching for mastery of standards, and these assessments are demonstrative of that mastery, then yes..And (next slide)
75 Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning Should parallel the formative assessments that were used during the learning processMay determine an exit grade or scoreIs tied to a conclusion about a student’s mastery of a standardAllow for reading of slide.Why do we use summative assessments? (next slide)
76 Summative Assessment Assessment OF Learning Serves accountability purposesEvaluates the overall success of student achievement, teacher instruction and instructional programs on a long-term basisTo put it all together…(next slide)
77 Summative Assessment PURPOSE WHEN HOW TEACHERS USE RESULTS To determine if students have mastered what they should know, understand and be able to do.WHENEnd of lesson, unit, course, yearHOW TEACHERS USE RESULTSTo determine a grade that represents what the student knows, understands, & is able to do. To evaluate a year’s work and serve as a needs assessment for the next yearHOW STUDENTS USE RESULTSTo gauge their progress towards course or grade-level expectationsWHATProjects, portfolios, paper/pencil tests, FCAT, semester/end of course exams, district assessments, final performancesCover slide. Now, look at your table charts and see what you wrote and labeled for summative assessment. Make changes if necessary. (allow time)Did anyone have additional examples of Summative Assessments? (solicit responses)(next slide)
78 Summative Assessment Examples Pre-assessmentWhat Do You Know?FormativeWhat Are You Learning?SummativeWhat Have You Learned?ScreeningPre-testDiagnosticKWLInventoriesObservationAnticipation GuideConcept MapQuestioningOtherChecking for UnderstandingPortfolioJournal*QuizObservationAnecdotal NotesExit SlipsData from Guided PracticeEvaluationProjectTests/ExamsDemonstrationPortfolio ReviewFinal PerformanceCompositionOtherYou mentioned some of these.Formative:*Quiz – if the quiz is given a grade that cannot be changed, it is summative. If it is given to check for understanding and to inform instruction, or if it can be dropped once the standard is mastered, it is formative.Summative: Tests – chapter tests, unit tests, etc.Thoroughly discuss the ‘Samples of Assessments’ handout created by resource teachers with the listing of tests under various categories. Go over the left hand column – down, then move across. It isn’t the instrument itself that determines formative or summative; rather, it’s the timing, purpose and use of the assessment.Explain that progress monitoring is both summative and formative; summative in the sense that it is a grade, an evaluation of the student’s knowledge at that moment in time; formative in that the teacher uses the results to modify instruction.Checking for understanding is an informal, daily, formative assessment (thumbs up, thumbs down; clickers, etc.); whereas screening, also formative, is formal.Let’s look at how formative and summative assessment might work together in a unit plan. (next slide)
79 Geography Unit Assessment Plan PurposeAssessment TaskAssessorFormativeSummativeFirst draft of mapRevised draft ofmapSupported opiniondraft essayQuiz(zes)Mapshort essayTestStudentPeerPeer/StudentTeacher/StudentTeacherThe learning activities include the following:Develop a map of a country showing its topography. Write an essay describing how the topography impacts the country’s industry.Review slide, noting the assessors involved for each. Note, peer review in the formative assessment cycle. Students can be valuable reviewers.The quizzes are not given a grade; rather they are used to check for understanding and to inform instruction.The difference between summative and formative rests largely in WHY the assessment is taking place, WHEN the assessment is taking place, and HOW the results are being used.Our new performance appraisal rubric calls for teachers to analyze and apply data from multiple measures and use both formative and summative assessment that lead to mastery.
80 I’ve Assessed: NOW WHAT?? Assessment results guide decisions to differentiate and to adjustContentProcessProductLearning EnvironmentTo support students in theirReadinessInterestLearning PreferencesTo encourage maximum growth and individual student success.Allow for reading of slide.This information reminds us of the importance of making conscious choices when using assessment, and correlates well with RtI’s focus on ICE, Instruction, Curriculum, and Environment. The first three bullets, content, process and product, correlate with RTI’s Instruction and Curriculum. The last bullet, of course, correlates to RtI;s ‘E’ for Environment.With differentiated assessment and differentiated instruction, we move closer to meeting the needs of each individual.Next slide
81 Differentiation of Instruction Differentiated Instruction isa teacher’s response to a learner’s needsguided by general principles of differentiation, such asrespectful tasksongoing assessment & adjustmentflexible groupingclearlearning goalspositivelrng. environmentTeachers can differentiateContentProcessProduct(Participants can refer to their handout as you review this slide.)Briefly review the Framework for Differentiated Instruction, developed by Carol Tomlinson and included in the FDLRS/FIN training manual for Differentiated Instruction, pointing to parts as you go:The Framework for Differentiation is an organizer that represents a way of thinking about differentiation in the classroom. Teachers creating differentiated learning environments make a consistent effort to respond to students’ learning needs.Teachers are guided by general principles such as positive learning environment, clear learning goals, on-going assessment and adjustment, respectful work, and flexible grouping of students.Teachers can differentiate according to a student’s readiness for what is being taught, a student’s interests and/or a student’s learning profile (preferences).Teachers can differentiate content, process or product.There is no single formula for creating a differentiated classroom. The framework presented here offers key ideas about differentiation. A teacher does not try to differentiate everything for everybody every day. Differentiation is organized, flexible, and a way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet students where they are to help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.BPS has new workshops on differentiated instruction. These are listed on our resources document located on our website.Let’s watch differentiated assessment in action at Atlantis Elementary. (Note to trainer: Click BELOW the title on the next slide to activate the video).based on students’ReadinessInterestsLearning profilesTomlinson, The Common Sense of Differentiation, ASCD, 2005 OPTIONS, FDLRS Action Resource Center
82 Differentiated Assessment Angie NellisAtlantis ElementaryAngie Nellis is a second grade inclusion teacher who is going over menu items for the students’ assessment of a book the students have read. She has 7 choices – complete a puzzle, create an acrostic poem, perform a skit, sing a rap or song, do safety drawings, complete a reflection in a journal, or create a map. We only will watch through the “Be An Actor” selection. Note how there are multiple intelligences icons for each of the items on the menu.The next piece has Angie going over the rubric to be used for the menu items.The final section involves four boys collaborating about what they chose on the menu, which was acting, and a young girl who chose the journal entry.She also has pictures of each of the intelligences on her menuWhat about ‘common assessments’?Research tells us that quality teaching is not an individual accomplishment; rather it is the result of a collaborative culture that empowers teachers to be in learning teams to improve student learning beyond what any of the teachers can achieve alone. In learning teams, common assessments can be created, delivered, and assessed. We are reminded once again of Peter Miller at Russell Burnette High School.
83 “The idea that a single teacher, working alone, can know and do everything to meet the diverse learning needs of [all] students every day throughout the school year has rarely worked…
84 and it certainly won’t meet the needs of learners in years to come and it certainly won’t meet the needs of learners in years to come.” --Carroll 2009We find help in addressing the learning needs of all our students by collegially participating and utilizing information gained in learning teams. Research shows that a collaborative culture improves student learning.Rick Dufour tells us…(next slide)
85 “In learning teams, teachers work collectively to develop a guaranteed and viable curriculum to ensure that students have access to the same essential knowledge and skills, regardless of the teacher to whom they are assigned.(quote continues on next two slides)
86 The team gathers ongoing information regarding the learning of their students through a comprehensive, balanced assessment process that includes common assessments developed by the team.
87 The team then jointly analyzes the evidence of student learning from the assessments and uses the information to improve the professional practice of individual members and collective effectiveness of the team.” --Rick Dufour 2011There can be common formative as well as common summative assessments.(Next slide)
88 Common Formative Assessment Typically created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or courseCreated before teaching the courseUsed frequently throughout the year to…Rick DuFour also tells us…Allow for reading of slide.Note: common assessments are not created by one teacher and used by a dept.; rather they are created by the whole dept., delivered, and debriefed to inform instruction.(next slide)
89 Common Formative Assessment Identify individual students who need additional time and supportUtilize teaching strategies most effective in helping students acquire the intended knowledge and skillsAddress any program concernsSet improvement goals for individual teachers and the teamAllow for reading of slide.Rick and Becky DuFour and Robert Eaker tell us that from their research they are convinced that “the first attempt at a common formal assessment by a collaborative team of teachers who make a collective effort to gather evidence of their students’ learning will be superior to the formal assessments those same teachers have developed working in isolation.”Of course, teachers in a Learning Team should have shared knowledge about effective assessment strategies.Common assessments can be summative, as well. In the following video, we will see and hear Chuck Gardner, a math teacher at DeLaura Middle School, speaking about the findings after the dept. delivered a common summative assessment. As the assessment was the semester exam, it was summative for the students. However, the teachers look at the results to identify patterns and to improve the test for use in the future. Also, the results help them address issues before the end of the year exam (next slide)
90 CommonAssessmentShare that the Language Arts dept. at DeLaura is also using common summative assessments.Secondary schools are familiar with this concept as it was part of the SSNP training.Secondary math teachers have developed common semester exams for teachers to use if they choose; many schools have taken advantage of that. Also, common pre and post exams for history, grade 8 and high school, have been developed to prepare for the end-of-course exams.Ask for a show of hands of those who are currently developing and debriefing common assessments. Allow participants to share. Make sure they identify if the assessments are formative or summative.How does the information we have covered today impact grading? Although we may all feel differently about this, departments, even faculties, collegially discuss grading to establish consistency.Let’s do an experiment: (next slide)
91 Student A vs. Student B Student A: Quizzes (maximum 100) – 75, 65, 85, 80, 65, 70Tests (maximum 100) – 85, 65Homework (maximum 20) – 5, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 5, 10Extra Credit (maximum 20) - 15, 20Using your individual grading policy in your classroom, determine a final GRADE.Individually, NOT as a table, determine a grade (A-F) for this student. Do NOT share with anyone.
92 Student A vs. Student B Student B: Quizzes (maximum 100) – 95, 90, 95, 100Tests (maximum 100) – 90, 95, 100Homework (maximum 20) – 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 0, 0, 0Extra Credit: 0Using your individual grading policy in your classroom, determine a final GRADE.Again, individually determine a grade for this student. Do not share your answers.After everyone has had time to finish, move to the next slide.
93 Explain how to use clickers. Please respond to the following grades using your clickers. (If you do not have clickers, or to save time, simply have participants raise their hands on the next two slides)Module III
94 Grade for Student A 1 = A 2 = B 3 = C 4 = D 5 = F Allow time for reading, then say, “now…go…(pause)…stop” to allow for calculating totals.Show results.Module III94
95 Grade for Student B 1 = A 2 = B 3 = C 4 = D 5 = F Allow time for reading, then say, “now…go…(pause)…stop” to allow for calculating totals.Show results.Ask: What are the ramifications of inconsistency in grading policies in our departments/grade levels, our schools, our district?Module III95
96 What does this comic strip tell us about this teacher’s grading? -Need to provide explicit criteria and check for understanding when giving the assignment.-Teacher may be more interested in his evaluation of the assignment than of what students have learned.This is not that uncommon.Research from many sources (O’Connor, Stiggins, Reeves, Dufour and Guskey) informs us that a standards-based grading system, would focus on student learning rather than the teacher’s evaluation of the learning.Let’s consider the differences between the traditional grading system and a standards-based grading system. Moving to the standards-based system may require a paradigm shift for many of us.Look at your Grading Systems handout as we view the following slides and be prepared to share which, if any, of the standards-based grading system’s criteria you currently utilize and how.
97 Grading Systems Traditional Standards-Based Based on assessment methods (hmwk., quizzes, tests, etc.). One grade for each subject.Based on learning goals and performance standards. One grade is given per learning goal.Score everything – regardless of purpose.Use only summative assessments for grading purposes.Assessments are based on percent correct. Criteria are often unclear.Standards are criterion-referenced and proficiency-based. Criteria are known to all.What this is telling us is the following:Row 1 – research evidence shows benefits to moving away from the traditional subject grading to grading according to performance standards.Row 2 – When the purpose of the assessment is to monitor and adjust instruction (e.g., formative assessments) it should not be graded.Row 3 –Standards-based grading focuses on a student’s learning progress toward mastery of a standard. It moves away from the bell-shaped curve to determine grades and moves toward documenting individual student mastery of standards.
98 Key ConceptsNorm –referenced tests determine a student’s placement on a normal distribution curve. Students compete against each other and are ranked on this type of assessment.The Stanford 10, GRE, and SAT are examples of norm-referenced tests.Norm-referenced tests cannot indicate mastery of content.95 percentile means that 95 of every 100 test-takers ranked lower than this. It does not indicate how many or which questions were answered correctly or wrongly.
99 Key ConceptsCriterion-referenced tests assess concepts and skills students have learned from a segment of instructionMeasure how well a student performs against an objective or criterion rather than another studentExamples: classroom quizzes and exams based on standards/course objectives, FCATCriterion-referenced tests are used as an effective measurements of student learning growth based on a standard.Criterion-referenced tests are mastery-oriented since all students are informed of the expected standard, and instruction is geared toward all students succeeding on related outcome measures. FCAT was designed to measure individual student achievement on the Sunshine State Standards.Some elements of traditional grading systems are being questioned as we move to more criterion-referenced assessments based on individual student learning goals and plans.Continuing with our Grading systems handout…(next slide)
100 Grading Systems Traditional Standards-Based Include every score. Assessments record the average.Emphasize the most recent evidence of learning when grading.Calculate grades using the mean.Use median, mode, and professional judgment to determine grades.Assessments vary in quality. Behavioral evidence is included.Use only quality assessment and carefully record data.Row 1 –In a standards-based system, grades represent the student’s best work rather than an average of all scores leading to the mastery.Row 2 – Rather than a straight arithmetic average, the teacher uses professional judgment in viewing ‘outliers’ and weighting scores. (Olympic Games – judges throw out the highest and lowest, as one score could skew the rating)Row 3 – Clear targets, clear purpose, and appropriate sampling of the content are required for quality assessments; i.e., content covered should match the content tested.
101 Grading Systems Traditional Standards-Based The teacher makes decisions about grading and announces those to students.Discuss all aspects of grading with students and parents.Use an uncertain mix of assessment of attitude, achievement, effort, and behavior. Use penalties and extra credit. Include group scores.Measure only achievement. No penalties or bonuses. Individual evidence only.1 – There are no surprises about grades in a standards-based system; it’s transparent. Rubrics are provided at the beginning of instruction.Allow time for tables to discuss. Then, ask for volunteers to share whole group some of the standards-based grading system descriptors they utilize and how.What is this team going to accept as evidence of mastery?
102 “What we assess defines what we value.” --Wiggins 1990 Allow for reading of slide.This is a good question for us all.What do you value when you assess? Achievement? Behavior? Progress? All of the above? Does everyone in your department/grade level value the same things?(next slide)
103 --Guskey, 2010 “We know that grading and reporting are not essential to the instructionalprocess. Teachers teach andstudents learn in the absenceof grades. You need to decidethe purpose.”--Guskey, 2010Guskey states that reporting to parents should include THREE grades -1-Product (achievement); 2-Process (behavior); 3- (Progress)improvement (how much has the student improved, regardless of the grade).Although some of us may feel differently and very strongly about grading, in collegial discussion, we can share whatever research and experiences we have had that helped shape our beliefs about grading in an effort to determine what is, in fact, best for student achievement and the continuous improvement of teaching. We are reminded of Module I and the importance of collegial discussions with our peers.You may recall from RtI training that nationally recognized educators (Carol Ann Tomlinson, Ken O’Connor, Rick Wormeli) encourage grading policies that complement rather than conflict with a differentiated environment, and offer guidelines for grading.Each teacher may be ready to adopt only one or two of these.
104 Grading in a Differentiated Classroom Grades are based on clearly specified learning goals that are communicated to students.Measurement is based on the selected objective or standard taught.Grades are criterion-referenced rather than norm-based.Grades are not ‘curved’.
105 Grading on a CurveA student might receive an ‘A’ for being the best performer in a group of low performers = an ‘A’ is the ‘best worst’.A student might make a ‘C’ despite quality work because the group is so strong. A ‘C’ = knows the content, but doesn’t look so great compared to others.Grading on a curve involves manipulating grades so that a certain percentage of the class receives an A or B or C, etc. regardless of the numeric value of the grade.Another policy our experts encourage us to use is…(next slide)
106 Grading in a Differentiated Classroom Avoid averaging zeros into final grades.Receiving one zero can pull a grade down so low, the student may ‘give up’ which then might influence his behavior as well as his future achievement.(Refer to handouts available on the B.E.S.T. website regarding the argument against averaging zeros – useful for Final Word activity in Learning Teams or whole faculties.)Why NOT average zeros in grades? On a 100 point scale, the interval between grades is typically 10 points (90, 80, 70, etc.). But when a zero is applied to a 100 point scale, the interval between a D and F is not 10 points but 60 points. What is the alternative?
107 ZEROS in the GradebookStudent scores: 85, 0, 98, 100, 89, 95=78 Student scores: 85, 59 (failing), 98, 100, 89, 95 = 88 Which score more accurately reports the student’s mastery?When a student crosses into failing, delineating degrees of failure doesn’t help anyone, says Carol Tomlinson, Ken O’connor, and Rick Wormeli, who encourage grading policies that complement rather than conflict with a differentiated environment.
108 Alternatives to Giving Zeros Change Grading Scales.Use integers (A=4, B=3, C=2, …)instead of percentages.Report Behavioral Aspects Separately.Separate “Product” (Achievement) from “Process” and “Progress.”Assign “I” or “Incomplete” Grades.Include specific and immediate consequences.Guskey gives us these alternatives to giving zeros.If using a four point scale, one could give a zero and it not be devastating. Moving from a 0 to a four is not as difficult as moving from a 0 to a 70 or 80 or 90 or 100.Guskey tell us, if using a 100 point scale, the lowest possible grade should be the numerical value of a D, minus the same interval that separates every other grade. If the interval between grades is 10, for example, and the value of D is 60, then the mathematically accurate value of an F is 50 points. NOT ‘giving’ 50 points, rather, awarding a punishment that ‘fits’ the crime. The student failed to turn in an assignment, so he/she receives a failing grade. They are not sent to Siberian Labor camp. By the way, the stint at the labor camp will eventually end…a grade on a report card lasts forever.So, how do we incorporate what we see here with EdLine? Let’s take a look at an alternative… (next slide).
109 Good SparkyHere we have Good Sparky, who has done the homework and two other formative assessment assignments, indicated by the ‘yes’. The O in the footnote tells the parent that Sparky is “on track”.Bad Sparky, on the other hand, is a different story (next slide)
110 Bad SparkyHere Sparky didn’t turn in homework OR the first draft of the map. He had an unexcused absence when the draft essay was assigned. In this way, parents are informed of the ‘responsibility’ portion of the grade and better understand why Sparky didn’t do so well on the map project and essay. At the same time, Sparky has time to make up this grade; whereas, if a zero had been given for the formative assessments, his fate would have been sealed.
111 “Assessments of learning that contribute to a report card grade can affect students’ motivation to learn.”--Stiggins 2006Stiggins experienced a profound transformation in his understanding of assessment. He discovered (next slide)
112 “Decisions students make about their assessment results exert far greater influenceon their success as learnersthan do the decisionsmade by the adults.”--Stiggins 2007Read slide.Just as the teacher decides the importance of a grade, students decide, when receiving the grade, whether they are motivated to learn or not.Okay, here we are at the end of our module, ready for the summative assessment and your opportunity to share what you have learned this morning. (next slide)
113 Putting the Pieces Together A metaphor or simile ( )A song or rap ( )An acronym (A.S.S.E.S.S.)A skit ( )A drawing ( )A formula ( )(Participants will use chart paper and markers provided for appropriate items.)(If pressed for time, do only the items that can be done on chart paper, and have participants do a quick gallery walk.)(Review the slide again.) For a skit, you could act out formative vs. summative assessment, or authentic assessment vs. traditional, or something about the standards-based grading system. What are your questions?You will have 8 minutes to work together. Be prepared to demonstrate your assessment.Ask for questions and then allow participants to move and begin.Have groups report out.We’ve covered a lot of material this morning, and we appreciate your ‘professional compliance’ as we have tested tricky waters. For follow-up, we have some suggestions, understanding you might want to select only one to begin with. (next slide)
114 Follow-Up/Connections Work in learning teams to develop common assessments.Implement two new formative assessments in your classroom and share the results in learning teams.Work collegially as a department/ faculty to determine a consistent grading policy.(more on next slide)Module I114
115 Follow-Up/Connections Determine which of your assessments are authentic or traditional, and why.Work in depts. or grade levels to develop differentiated content, process and/or assessments.Next slide…Module I115
116 What’s Next PDD – February 20, 2012 Module V: We will discuss and practice various instructional strategies and ways to incorporate them in learning plans.Module VI: We will begin with the end in mind and develop learning plans that encompass the instructional model and common language of B.E.S.T.
119 What Do You Think? At your table: Using your handout, reflect on each statementMark the ones you would like to addressSpeak whole table - five minutesReview slide. Refer participants to the handout entitled “What Do You Think”.At end, say, “We hope you had a lively discussion.During our session this morning, you may find some things that might justify what you are thinking or doing, OR things that might create a change in your thinking and practice.”
120 “We are convinced that the first attempt at a common formal assessment by a collaborative team of teachers who make a collective effort to gather evidence of their students’ learning will be superior to the formal assessments those same teachers have developed working in isolation.”--Richard and Rebecca Dufour, Robert Eaker 2008Allow for reading of slide.Of course, teachers in a Learning Team should have shared knowledge about effective assessment strategies.In the following video, we will see and hear Chuck Gardner, a math teacher at DeLaura Middle School, speaking about the findings after the dept. delivered a common summative assessment. As the assessment was the semester exam, it was summative for the students. However, the teachers look at the results to identify patterns and to improve the test for use in the future. Also, the results help them address issues before the end of the year exam.
121 “Think about the purpose of grading. Don’t use grades as weapons. They do notserve that purpose well andnever will.
122 “Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals.” --Reeves 2000Assessment is not a single event; rather, it is a continuous cycle, a process of aligning the assessments to the standards and instruction (CIA).Taking a long-term view, even a report card grade is a stepping stone to further learning, be it next semester or next year. The Continuous Improvement Model, which we use in district strategic planning and school improvement planning, applies here, as well.Another important aspect of grading takes into consideration the student’s response to grades. (next slide)