Presentation on theme: "IV D 2. Human Resource Development: A Note on Entrepreneurship March 5, 2013 ECON 3508 Carleton University Main Source: Liebenstein, Harvey, (the seminal."— Presentation transcript:
IV D 2. Human Resource Development: A Note on Entrepreneurship March 5, 2013 ECON 3508 Carleton University Main Source: Liebenstein, Harvey, (the seminal article) Entrepreneurship and Development, American Economic Review, 1968, (to be distributed in class.) Complete original essay here: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1831799.pdf?acceptTC=true http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1831799.pdf?acceptTC=true :
Agenda: 1.History and History of Thought 2.Does Entrepreneurship Promote for Development 3. Where does Entrepreneurial Savoir-Faire Come From? 4.Can Public Policy Promote Entrepreneurship? Should It? 5.Two Cases: Otavalo and Osoyos.
I.Introduction: Long recognized as performing a central role in the process of development But, Largely ignored in the main body of economic theory Little attention in the general literature on development. In and out of fashion;
Entrepreneurship and Poverty – Note: Informal sector, rural and urban, exist and survives in large part in the informal economy. – Income generation and poverty, the lot of many entrepreneurs in the informal economies. The greater the poverty, the more informality and informal entrepreneurs A Paradox? Capitalism for the poor and socialism for the rich?
Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship: - performs a central role in an economy and society -largely ignored in economic theory An entrepreneur: -perceives and seizes an opportunity for the achievement of an objective, -visualizes and plans how the objective can be achieved, -undertakes to do everything necessary to implement the vision, -brings together all of the other factors of production;
II. The Otavalo Case:
Otavalo Market Scenes
1.General Situation of the Otavalenses, 2007 2.History Pre-Inca and Inca; Colonial and Independence to +/- 1914 1914-1960 Post WWII 3.Textile Activity 4.Transnational Marketing 5.Music 6.Explaining Otavalos Success 7.Lessons? 8.Generalizability or Unique to Otavalo?
Osoyoos, British Columbia
1.Background on the Osoyoos Indian Band (OIB) 2.OIB Goals 3.Leadership: Chief Clarence Louie 4.Major Projects of the OIB Development Corporation Businesses The NkMip Winery Eco-Tourism 5.Unique Features of the Osoyoos Experience 6.Duplicatability?
Entrepreneurship in the economy: the Key Factor of Production Could operate in politics, academia, religion, music, sports, or any area of human endeavor. It can be exercised in different varieties of economic system and in the private, public and voluntary sectors
The roles of entrepreneurs : – a market connecting role, (linking up the potential market for the outputs with the markets for all the relevant inputs); – a gap-filling role, (doing what is not normally or easily done through markets); – an input-completing role, (improvising the provision of all the inputs necessary for the enterprise); and – an enterprise creating role, (bringing together the inputs for the production of an output over a period of time and in some sort of organization).
2. The specific activities of entrepreneurs, A wide variety of things, some clear-cut and others more abstract. Exploring, discovering and evaluating new opportunities; Seizing the initiative; doing everything necessary for its realization; Determining, locating, purchasing and integrating all inputs; Establishing an enterprise, managing it, and providing leadership Structuring and implementing incentive structure; Bearing uncertainty and facing risk; Bearing ultimate responsibility and managing crisis; Continuously learning, evaluating and implementing new techniques and new management approaches.
In pathological circumstances - entrepreneurship may become deformed. When law and order break down or when entrepreneurial activities are illegal, entrepreneurship may become criminalized, perhaps within Mafia-like organizations. Entrepreneurship alone is insufficient to generate growth and development. Instead, it requires a supportive, legal, and orderly institutional environment.
III. Entrepreneurship and Development 1.History of Thought Werner Sombart & R. H. Tawney: Protestantism… David McClelland, 1962 The Achieving Society Michael Porter, 1992 Cluster Analysis UN, Unleashing Entrepreneurship 2004 2.Some History 3.Some Conlusions
IV. Does Entrepreneurship Promote for Development Ex Post: Yes – Societal & economic improvement requires innovation and someone to bring it about. But: – Significant entrepreneurship can co-exist with stagnation and regression. – The problem of the Informal Sector? – Suppression of entrepreneurship Intentional suppression Policy mess-ups? Macroeconomic instability Civil instability Conclude: entrepreneurship on its own may lead nowhere, not a magic bullet
V. Where does Entrepreneurship come from? Why do some individuals, ethnic groups, regions nations(?) have it (for a while) while others do not?
VI. Can Public Policy Promote Entrepreneurship? How? 1.Direct support for existing entrepreneurs? 2.Support for Informal Enterprises? 3.Support for Clusters
3. Support for Entrepreneurship Are there specific policies that could be used to support or promote entrepreneurship per se? Should there be?