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Overview 1. Introduction of Service / Case Management Inventory

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Presentation on theme: "Overview 1. Introduction of Service / Case Management Inventory"— Presentation transcript:

1 Risk Assessment for Offender Applying LS/CMI in Hong Kong SRACP experience by C.F. Li (SRACP)

2 Overview 1. Introduction of Service / Case Management Inventory
RNR principles General Risk / Need Factors (Central Eight Criminogenic Needs ) Specific Risk / Need Factors Other Client Issues (Social, Health & Mental Health) Special Responsivity Considerations

3 2. SRACP Experiences Applying LS/CMI to Offender Rehabilitation Services - Training - Preparations - Implementation Preliminary findings of assessments Feedback from Users

4 Introduction to LS/CMI
History of Offender Risk Assessment 1st generation : Clinical Assessment 2nd generation : Static Risk Assessment 3rd generation : Integrated Risk and Need 4th generation : Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI) by Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith (2004)

5 Some Features of LS/CMI :
Easy to complete and score Can be used in all forensic settings (e.g. prisons, probation, aftercare rehabilitation) Can be used in different disciplines and officials, (e.g. correctional officers, probation offers, psychologists, social workers, psychiatrist, criminologists, etc.) Has a complete case management system Has a very large normative sample (Over 130,000 of adult offenders from North America) Excellent reliability and validity

6 RNR Principles Risk Need Responsivity

7 Risk Principle The level of service should vary with level of risk High risk cases have high probability for recidivism, and vice versa Over treatment may actually increase risk of recidivism (e.g. through increased association with high risk offenders) Match level of treatment to level of risk i.e. Devote time, energy and resources to risky cases Higher risk level, more services with higher intensity

8 Need Principle Target treatment interventions toward reducing major dynamic risk factors and/or enhancing major protective / strength factors i.e. Match service interventions to criminogenic needs Beginning with higher risk / need factors Stress on more intrinsic risk / needs

9 Responsivity Principle
Match treatment mode to offender characteristics 2 types of Responsivity General Responsivity – refer to general approaches, e.g. Behavioural model, Cognitive Behavioural techniques Specific Responsivity – refers to personal characteristics, e.g. personality, ability, motivation, age, gender, race, language, various barriers, etc Tailor treatment to the individual abilities, style, culture and personality

10 Section 1 : General Risk / Need Factors
Central Eight 43 items for 8 subcomponents Score and Profile Total score indicate probability of recidivism from Very Low Risk to Very High Risk Provide direction and priority of intervention Strength / Protective factors of the Offender

11 Score and Profile

12 Education / Employment Family / Marital Leisure / recreation
Central Eight – criminogenic needs Criminal History Education / Employment Family / Marital Leisure / recreation Companions Alcohol / Drug Problem Pro criminal Attitude / Orientation Antisocial Pattern

13 Section 1.1 - Criminal History
The best predictor of future behaviour is past behaviour Includes: - Frequency of behaviour - Onset under 16 years old at first arrest or charge - Seriousness – any incarceration - Behaviour during treatment

14 Section 1.2 - Education / Employment
Involvement and commitment to the social institutions of education and employment Frequent job changes Never employed for over 12 months continuously Achievement in school Suspension or expulsion

15 Section 1.3 - Family / Marital
As interpersonal sources of reward for prosocial behavior and costs for criminal behavior Models, supports Satisfaction, rewarding familial / marital relationships

16 Section 1.4 - Leisure / Recreation
Substantial free time outside of work and school How does individual occupy his/her free time? Organized, structured activities Good use of time? Prosocial activities

17 Section Companions Friends – spends time with, opinions valued, provide help when needed, etc Acquaintance – not close friends Influence attitude, behaviour Models of behaviour One of single best predictors of criminal behaviour

18 Section 1.6 - Alcohol / Drug Problem
One of the most common criminogenic need areas targeted by treatment programs Interferes with prosocial behaviour and interactions, relationships with others Focus on the abuse (rather than substance related offences) Focus on current use (Status)

19 Section 1.7 - Procriminal Attitude / Orientation
What and how a person thinks and feels about violating laws or alternatives Attitudes supportive of crime (e.g. usefulness of crime) Negative attitudes towards convention (alternatives to crime) Attitude towards sentence / offence Attitude towards supervision / treatment

20 Section 1.8 - Antisocial Pattern
General personality and behavioural patterns Diversity and early onset of antisocial behaviour Assaultative or violent behaviour Escapes, breach of probation / release conditions Pattern of generalize trouble

21 Section 2 – 5 Section 2 : Specific Risk / Needs Section 3 : Prison Experience – Institutional Factors Section 4 : Other Client Issues Section 5 : Special Responsivity Considerations No score is assigned to these sections Used in case management planning and in consideration of override decisions

22 Section 2 : Specific Risk / Need Factors 2
Section 2 : Specific Risk / Need Factors 2.1 : Personal Problems with Criminogenic Potential - Diagnosis of psychopathy or other personality disorder - Emotion (Anger) management deficits - Problem solving / self management skill deficits - Poor social skills 2.2 : History of Perpetration - History of sexual / physical assault - Other violence - Other antisocial behaviour

23 Section 3 : Prison Experience – Institutional Factors Items mainly for Corrections officials 3.1 : History of Incarceration - previous classification, current security needs, misconducts 3.2 : Barriers to release - notoriety of offence, lack of community support

24 Section 4 : Other Client Issues
Social, Health & Mental Health Noncriminogenic needs - Physical disability, learning disability, homeless, financial problem, mental disorder, depression, suicide attempts, victim of family violence, etc Factors contribute to overall well being of offender May not reduce risk level

25 Section 5 : Special Responsivity Considerations
Responsivity factors reflect differences in learning styles and / or personal interests Factors are not to be interpreted as risk, need, or problematic characteristics Cultural issues, gender- specific issues, ethnicity issues, low intelligence, communication barriers, mental disorder, antisocial personality, etc The best treatment program may be completely ineffective if it is delivered in wrong style / direction

26 Section 6 : Risk Summary and Override
Examples of override Low score in section 1, but crime was a serious one, may increase risk level High score in section 1, but has many strengths, may decrease risk level Policy based decision - some jurisdictions / criminal justice agencies may have internal policies that certain types of offenders must be declared a particular risk level, e.g. sexual offenders

27 Section 7 : Risk / Need Profile

28 Section 8 : Program / Placement Decision
Institutional Offenders Community Offenders Aftercare / Rehabilitation recommendation Presentence Report

29 Section 9 - 11 : Case Management Protocol
Built-in case management protocol to the assessment Intervention and goals are based on result of sections 1-5 Section 9 : Identify program targets and develop of case plan Section 10 : Monitor intervention and record progress Section 11 : Summarize results, Discharge summary

30 Section 9 : Case Management Plan 9.2.1 Criminogennic Needs
Criminogenic Needs Goal Intervention Time Frame 1. Alcohol abuse Abstinence of alcohol Attend alcoholic treatment program 12 months 2. Leisure / Recreation Participate in structured activities Join a football team 6 months 3. 4.

31 Section 9 : Case Management Plan 9. 2. 2
Section 9 : Case Management Plan Other client Non-Criminogennic Needs Requiring Attention Other Needs Goal Intervention Time Frame 1. Victim of family violence Accept personal history Victim counselling 12 months 2. 3.

32 Section 9 : Case Management Plan 9. 2. 3
Section 9 : Case Management Plan Special Responsivity Considerations Responsivity Issue Proposed Approach to Address Issue 1. Lack of Motivation Motivational interviewing 2. Denial / minimization Challenge client by reviewing history on many fronts (drinking, relationships, family, marital)

33 Section 10 : Progress Record 10.1. Criminogenic Needs

34 Section 10 : Progress Record 10.2. Other Client Non-Criminogenic Needs

35 Section 11 : Discharge Summary

36 Applying LS/CMI SRACP Experience

37 Training Social workers attended training conducted by Professor Stephen Wormith in November 2009 10 social workers qualified as trainers and 27 as qualified users Second batch training in March, 2010 by SRACP trainer 15 more social workers (and 1 CP) qualified as users

38 Preparation and Implementation
Working group formed Test run in April – June 2010 Quality Assurance Exercise Revision of current Workflow and Procedure Full implementation in July 2010 Evaluate and collect feedback from LS/CMI users in March, 2011

39 Observation / Preliminary Findings
Until March 31, 2011, 1092 assessments conducted successfully Scored from 2 to 37 Average score = (High Risk)

40 Overall Risk / Need Level Nearly 60% of cases are High risk or above
Very Low Risk Low Medium High Very High Less than 1 % 5% 27% 49% 18%

41 Most Concerned Criminogenic factors
(High risk / need level or above) Leisure and Recreation (82.5%) Employment and Education (77.7%) Companions (59.5%) Alcohol / Drug Problem (36.9%)

42 Feedbacks from Social Worker
Helps to understand needs of client Helps to prioritize client’s needs Helps to formulate intervention plan Helps to Evaluate client’s rehabilitation progress Common language to communicate with colleagues

43 Translation of Chinese Version Treatment program development
Future Works Validation Translation of Chinese Version Treatment program development

44 ~ The End ~ Thank You

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