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Weather & Climate Mr. Skirbst Life Science Topic 20
The condition of the atmosphere in terms of heat, pressure, wind, and moisture
Atmosphere - Mixture of gases surrounding the Earth
Atmosphere - Mixture of gases surrounding the Earth - Four (4) distinct layers in the atmosphere
4 Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere – (0 to 16 km) - lowest layer where most weather takes place - av. Temp. decreases - Tropopause is top boundary
4 Layers of Atmosphere Stratosphere – (16 – 48 km) - Ozone layer absorbs UV light - Av. Temp. increases - Stratopause is top boundary
4 Layers of Atmosphere Mesosphere – (48 – 80 km) - Protects us from meteoroids - Av. Temp. decreases (-100 o C) - Mesopause is top boundary
4 Layers of Atmosphere Thermosphere– (80 - 3200 km) - Av. Temp. increases (> 2000 o C ) - Lower layer – Ionosphere - bounces radio signals - Upper layer – Exosphere - satellites orbit here
Heat Energy -The sun is the sources of most of the heat in the atmosphere
Heat Energy -The sun is the sources of most of the heat in the atmosphere - Heat is spread in 3 ways:
Heat Energy -The sun is the sources of most of the heat in the atmosphere - Heat is spread in 3 ways: 1. Radiation – transfer by waves
Heat Energy -The sun is the sources of most of the heat in the atmosphere - Heat is spread in 3 ways: 1. Radiation – transfer by waves 2. Conduction – by contact
Heat Energy -The sun is the sources of most of the heat in the atmosphere - Heat is spread in 3 ways: 1. Radiation – transfer by waves 2. Conduction – by contact 3. Convection – by fluid (air too)
Air Pressure -Force of atmosphere pushing on the Earth’s surface -Depends on air’s density
Air Pressure -Force of atmosphere pushing on the Earth’s surface -Depends on air’s density -3 factors affecting air pressure
Air Pressure 1.Temperature - as temp increases, air pressure decreases
Air Pressure 2.Water Vapor - moisture in air - as water vapor increases, air pressure decreases
Air Pressure 3.Altitude - elevation above sea level - as altitude increases, air pressure decreases
Wind - Movement of air due to differences in air pressure resulting from unequal heating of the atmosphere
Wind 2 Types of wind: 1.Local Wind (short distances)
Wind 2 Types of wind: 1.Local Wind (short distances) Sea breeze – from sea to land
Wind 2 Types of wind: 1.Local Wind (short distances) Sea breeze – from sea to land Land breeze – from land to sea
Wind 2 Types of wind: 2.Global Wind (long distances) Coriolis Effect – shift in movement above surface resulting from Earth’s spin
Wind Coriolis Effect: Northern Hemisphere – Shift is always to the RIGHT
Wind Coriolis Effect: Northern Hemisphere – Shift is always to the RIGHT Southern Hemisphere – Shift is always to the LEFT
Wind Coriolis Effect:
Wind Global Wind Patterns:
Humidity Moisture in the air ( water vapor )
Humidity Moisture in the air ( water vapor ) Relative Humidity – a measure of the amount of moisture % RH = moisture in air Moisture air can hold
Humidity Psychrometer – instrument with a dry and wet bulb used to measure relative humidity
Clouds Collection of condensed moisture in the air (moisture condenses to dust particles)
Clouds 3 Types of Clouds:
Clouds 3 Types of Clouds: 1. Cumulus – white, tall and fluffy
Clouds 3 Types of Clouds: 2. Stratus – grey, flat and layered
Clouds 3 Types of Clouds: 3. Cirrus – feathery, high + wispy
Precipitation Rain Snow Sleet Hail Freezing rain Acid Rain
Weather Forcasting Weather map symbols Buy’s Ballots Law Orographic Effect
Climate General weather in an area over a long period of time
Weather Factors Chapter 16. What does the movement of heat in the atmosphere cause?
Energy in the Atmosphere Energy from the sun travels to Earth as electromagnetic waves – mostly visible light, infrared radiation (longer wavelengths)
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