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Certificate IV in Training & Assessment (TAA) Desma Moshou.

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Presentation on theme: "Certificate IV in Training & Assessment (TAA) Desma Moshou."— Presentation transcript:

1 Certificate IV in Training & Assessment (TAA) Desma Moshou

2 AIMS OF TODAYS SESSION Revision of the VET-related acronyms Understanding the components of a Unit of Competency Understanding the principles of assessment Planning assessment tools

3 Assessment Definition: Assessment is the process of collecting evidence and making judgments about whether competency has been achieved to confirm that an individual can perform to the standard expected in the workplace as expressed in the relevant industry-endorsed competency standards, or the learning outcomes of an accredited course.

4 Why assess? To recognise current competence To determine language, literacy and numeracy needs To determine training gaps To establish the learners or candidates progress To gain formal recognition towards a qualification To meet organisational requirements for work To gain a license To operate equipment For recruitment For promotion

5 Who can assess? Any organisation may appoint staff to undertake assessment for their own purposes, and develop their own plan as to how this is done. However, in VET (vocational education and training), under the AQTF (Australian Quality Training Framework), only RTOs (Registered Training Organisations) can issue nationally recognised qualifications and Statements of Attainment

6 Assessment by RTOs AQTF includes the Standards for Registered Training Organisations, which all RTOs must meet in order to obtain and maintain their registration Definition AQTF means the nationally agreed quality arrangements for the VET system

7 Assessment by RTOs Among other requirements AQTF requires RTOs to ensure that assessment: Meets the requirements of the qualification as specified in the endorsed components of the Training Package Cover the full dimensions of competency Meets the principles of validity, fairness, flexibility and reliability and that Recognition of Prior Learning is offered to all applicants upon enrolment.

8 Assessment by RTOs More detail information can be found on the AQTF and copies of the standards can be found on the Department of Further Education, Employment, Science & Training (DFEEST) website at

9 Assessment by non-RTOs This type of organisation can have their own policies, practices and benchmarks but cannot provide nationally recognised training. This type of organisation can provide a relevant certificate but cannot provide a nationally recognised certificate or statement of attainment.

10 Purpose of Assessment SUMMATIVE Formal recognition classify skill level gain qualification recognise prior learning FORMATIVE Diagnose performance identify training gaps confirm learning progress evaluate training

11 Two Types of assessment NORM REFERENCED: This type of assessment is intrinsically competitive It compares individuals with each other and ranks them according to the number of places and opportunities available. An example of this is tertiary entrance rating (TER) related to senior secondary school assessment. CRITERION REFERENCED: Also know as standards-based assessment is against fixed criteria or standards. these predetermined criteria can take different forms EG: Units of competency (from Training Packages) Modules (from curriculum) Standard operating procedures Product specifications

12 Activity (1) NormCriterion 100-metre sprint Breathalyser test Job interview Best and Fairest in Hockey First Aid Certificate Best Film of the Year

13 Assessment must be Participatory In competency-based assessment, the assessor must: 1. Have the qualification to assess in (or be mentored by a colleague who has the qualification)* 2. Inform the candidate of the criteria which will be assessed 3. Inform the candidate of the assessment process or steps 4. Set a mutually-agreed time and place for assessment

14 Assessment through training This is where the candidate needs to learn the skills and knowledge first, and the assessment is conducted: During the course of training at different intervals (formative assessment) During, and on completion of training either on or off-the-job (summative assessment)

15 Assessment through RPL This is where the skills and knowledge have already been gained, and the candidate is ready to be assessed against the relevant criteria / benchmarks without needing to go through a training program. This assessment only pathway can be referred to as: Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) Recognition of Current Competencies (RCC) Skills recognition Recognition

16 Four Principles of assessment ValidityReliability FairnessFlexibility The four principles of assessment are crucial to effective assessment in VET. It is critical that all assessment situations reflect these principles.

17 Principles of assessment: Validity assesses what it claims to assess evidence collected is relevant to the activity demonstrates that the performance criteria have been met The validity of assessments is reflected by: Focusing on the appropriate areas of competence and skills Sampling a sufficient range of skills and performance assessment tasks that resemble workplace expectations Using multiple approaches to assessment

18 Principles of assessment: Reliability Refers to consistency or reproductive ability of the assessment Clearly specifying the performance criteria to be met A reliable assessment Shows consistent processes from one assessment event to the next. The reliability of assessments is reflected by: Comparing assessment processes of various assessors Collecting evidence across different locations and times Collecting evidence by various assessment methods

19 Principles of assessment: Fairness A fair assessment does not disadvantage any person takes into account the characteristics of the person being assessed. To be fair, an assessment should: Help the candidate understand clearly what is expected and what form the assessment will take Be equitable to all groups of people being assessed. Provide opportunities for review and an appeal of the assessment decision.

20 Principles of assessment: Flexibility allows for assessment either on or off the job at mutually convenient times and situations To be flexible assessment should: Provide for the recognition of competencies no matter how, where or when they were acquired Draw on a range of methods and be appropriate to the context, task, and person Be made accessible to the candidate so that they can proceed readily from one competency standard to another.

21 Activity: EXAMPLE 1 An assessor informs all candidates that she will be conducting assessments in two day's time at 2pm during their normal work routine. One candidate tells the assessor that she will not be available on that day as she is required to attend a meeting. The assessor tells her that she cannot make another time and that she will have to wait twelve months for the next assessment to take place. Which principle of assessment is missing in this example? What should the assessor have done?

22 Activity: EXAMPLE 2 Steve has just been assessed loading and unloading a small goods vehicle. The assessment was a fairly easy process and he didnt have to do anything too difficult. Three months later Steve is assessed again by a different assessor. This time the assessment seems much more difficult and he was required to do a variety of things. To his surprise, Steve is found to be not yet competent. What do you think is wrong with the first assessment? What should the assessor do to ensure the candidate is found competent by another assessor? Which principle of assessment has been ignored here?

23 Activity: EXAMPLE 3 An assessor has been working in the mining industry for 25 years, and conducting various assessments for the last ten. Recently he has become involved in CBT assessment of new recruits after they have undergone some training. He believes that every assessment conducted should include some written material, as good literacy is vital in performing a job well. He insists that all candidates either answer some written questions or write a short paper on the area of competency no matter what it is. What is the matter with this approach to assessment? What are the disadvantages of this approach to both the candidate and the assessor? What should the assessor consider before assessing the candidate in every assessment situation?

24 Activity: EXAMPLE 4 An assessment event has been organised for the coming Tuesday at a factory. The candidate arrives feeling incredibly nervous, and really does not feel well or up to the assessment. When he meets the assessor, she says not to worry its just nerves, they will pass. The candidate insists that he does not feel well, and does not think he can achieve competence. Disregarding that, the assessor wants to continue. They go through the assessment and the candidate is found to be not yet competent. What principle of assessment has been ignored in this scenario? How would this experience make the candidate feel about assessment and the assessor? What should the assessor have done in this situation?

25 Methods of Assessment: observation of the person doing the job inspection of finished product demonstration oral questioning written assessment projects, assignments, case studies third party feedback simulations portfolios of evidence feedback from other people they work with eg. supervisor, peer, etc.

26 Rules of Evidence: These state that assessment must produce evidence which is: Valid Sufficient Current Authentic Can be primary or secondary evidence

27 Rules of Evidence: Validity Evidence of competence must cover the broad range of knowledge and skills required to demonstrate competence Assessors need to ensure that the evidence meets all the specified criteria of the standards Evidence should also match or reflect the type of performance, which is being assessed.

28 Rules of Evidence: Sufficiency This relates to the amount of evidence Assessors must collect enough evidence to satisfy that the candidate is competent across all elements according to the performance criteria It means collecting evidence over a period of time and in different situations

29 Rules of Evidence: Currency An assessor needs to determine whether evidence of competence is recent The focus is on whether the person being assessed has current competencies This is particularly relevant to RPL evidence Currency of evidence can be an accumulation of historical and recent activities.

30 Rules of Evidence: Authenticity You must be able to ensure that the evidence to be gathered is the candidates work To determine authenticity, it may be necessary for a third party to validate may be necessary.

31 Assessor Biases: pre-judgements (halo & stereotypes) leniency similarities personality factors

32 The assessment plan in detail the unit/s of competency and elements or other benchmarks to be assessed - you will need to be familiar with these the purpose/s of assessment - this needs to be identified so that the stakeholders are well aware of the reason for the assessment a profile of the target group - characteristics and needs of the candidates others involved in the assessment process teachers/assessors, administrative staff Planning for assessment

33 how the assessment will occur - that is, the assessment methods and tools to be used. It can include a description of the method and examples of tools to be used for the assessment when and where the assessment will occur - this includes details of any due dates for submission of evidence, or dates and times of when the assessment will occur and the proposed location of the assessment. Planning for assessment

34 what resources or special arrangements are required - this outlines what is needed to carry out the assessment, given the special needs of candidates, organisational requirements, or other legislative or OHS considerations context for assessment - this outlines the details of the environment in which the assessment will take place and any changes which need to be made as a result. For example, will it be on-the-job, off-the-job or acombination of both? Or will the assessment be contextualised to the work setting? instructions for the candidate - this outlines information to be given to the candidate, related to the assessment exercise at hand. Planning for assessment

35 Planning (Case Study 1) Rosie is planning to assess a candidate in the retail industry. David, the candidate, has let her know he is ready to be assessed. Rosie has a quick look at the unit of competency against which she is assessing, since she has not done an assessment on this unit in a while. She thinks about the sorts of assessment methods she can use on the way home from work, and jots down some notes. She phones David and tells him that the assessment will involve observing him carrying out the job function and some question and answer time. When the day comes, she heads off to his workplace and is not expected by the employer. Nobody has told him an assessment is going to take place, but it goes ahead anyway. Rosie finds David and asks him to perform the job function. She has a copy of the competency unit with her and uses that as a reference, whilst taking notes on what he is doing. Then she asks him some questions. The phone in the office they are using rings, and Rosie lets David answer it. Then they continue with some discussion. Rosie tells David he is competent at that unit and heads back to her office, where she results him as a PA on the computer system.

36 David telephones his assessor, Rosie, to let her know he is ready to be assessed. Rosie and David discuss the details, when, where and how the assessment will be conducted, what evidence will be required and how the evidence will be gathered. Rosie contacts David's employer straight away to arrange the time away from work and the environment for assessment. Then she gets the unit of competency to be assessed and begins interpreting the standard for assessment. She asks herself what evidence is required to demonstrate competence and takes notes, designs a checklist and writes some questions she will ask him. She visualises the assessment event and what tools, resources, or people might be required to help it run smoothly. The following day Rosie discusses the upcoming assessment with a colleague as she has not assessed this unit for a while. They talk about the tools to use, the type of person David is, the work environment and so on. Rosie then organises the recording system she will use, gets the relevant documentation together, and checks to ensure she has everything. When Rosie arrives at David's office, David and his employer meet her and they discuss David's progress through his training. Rosie and David undertake the assessment and David is found to be competent. When Rosie arrives back at her office, she files the assessment checklist with a copy of the assessment instrument. This can be used at the end of the month when the organisation is evaluating their assessors for quality. Planning (Case Study 2)

37 Planning (Case Study Questions) What are the differences between these two examples of planning? Identify the positive aspects of Case Study 1 and Case Study 2. From Case Study 2, identify the six stages of assessment planning and list them

38 FOR INTERACTIVE DISCUSSION What do you think an assessment validation process is? How often do you participate in assessment validations?

39 VALIDATION The Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) requires that all RTOs conduct regular assessment validations Validations are intended to ensure consistency, fairness and equity with regard to assessment and assessment processes

40 ASSESSMENT Assessment for this unit will be based on: Your workshop participation and contribution levels The completion of the learning activities during the workshop Completion of the final assessment task

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