Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Modelling and Simulation 14. Januar 2014 / Dr. –Ing Naveed Ramzan 1 Instrumentation and control Department of Chemical Engineering, U.E.T. Lahore Pakistan.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Modelling and Simulation 14. Januar 2014 / Dr. –Ing Naveed Ramzan 1 Instrumentation and control Department of Chemical Engineering, U.E.T. Lahore Pakistan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modelling and Simulation 14. Januar 2014 / Dr. –Ing Naveed Ramzan 1 Instrumentation and control Department of Chemical Engineering, U.E.T. Lahore Pakistan Dr. –Ing. Naveed Ramzan Analytical Analysis in Chemical Process Control

2 Introduction Purpose of Measuring Physical Properties - Control Product Quality - Maintain Safe Operation - Process Optimization

3 Outline Instruments for measurement of: Composition pH Viscosity Optical properties

4 Composition Measurement: Analyzers in the Process Industry Purpose Control of chemical processes Requirements Low Maintenance Simplicity Ruggedness Few or no moving parts Reactor Control Environmental Monitoring Product Compositions

5 Challenges in Analyzer Design Exposure to corrosive environments Must withstand non-ideal concentrations of secondary components Maintenance only once every few months Reliability is key

6 Classification of Process Analyzers Analyzers Nonspecific (Inexpensive) Specific (Costly) Thermal Conductivity Gas Electrical Conductivity Liquid Gas Liquid Gas Chromatography IR/UV-VIS Spectroscopy

7 Sampling Systems Process Stream Sample Extraction Sample Conditioning Analyzer Sample Return

8 Sampling Systems In-line sampling Direct sampling in process line Advantage: no sampling delay Disadvantage: measurement affected by temperature and pressure variations On-line sampling Extract sample continuously and send to instrument Advantage: control of temperature, pressure Disadvantage: time lag before measurement

9 Modelling and Simulation CHROMATOGRAPHY Chromatography basically involves the separation of mixtures due to differences in the distribution coefficient (equilibrium distribution) of sample components between 2 different phases. One of these phases is a mobile phase and the other is a stationary phase.

10 Modelling and Simulation Definition: Different affinity of these 2 components to stationary phase causes the separation. Concentration of component A in stationary phase Concentration of component A in mobile phase Distribution Coefficient (Equilibrium Distribution )

11 Modelling and Simulation Kinds of Chromatography 1.Liquid Column Chromatography 2.Gas Liquid Chromatography 3.Thin-layer Chromatography

12 Modelling and Simulation LIQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY A sample mixture is passed through a column packed with solid particles which may or may not be coated with another liquid. With the proper solvents, packing conditions, some components in the sample will travel the column more slowly than others resulting in the desired separation.

13 Modelling and Simulation Diagram of Simple Liquid Column Chromatography

14 Modelling and Simulation The 4 basic liquid chromatography modes are named according to the mechanism involved: 1.Liquid/Solid Chromatography (adsorption chromatography) A.Normal Phase LSC B.Reverse Phase LSC 2.Liquid/Liquid Chromatography (partition chromatography) A.Normal Phase LLC B.Reverse Phase LLC 3.Ion Exchange Chromatography 4.Gel Permeation Chromatography (exclusion chromatography) FOUR BASIC LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

15 Modelling and Simulation Types of Chromatography

16 Schematic Diagram of Liquid Chromatography

17 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

18

19 Modelling and Simulation Chromatogram of Organic Compounds from Fermented Cabbage

20 Modelling and Simulation Chromatogram of Orange Juice Compounds

21 Modelling and Simulation 14. Januar 2014 / Dr. –Ing Naveed Ramzan 21


Download ppt "Modelling and Simulation 14. Januar 2014 / Dr. –Ing Naveed Ramzan 1 Instrumentation and control Department of Chemical Engineering, U.E.T. Lahore Pakistan."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google