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Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell CycleCellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

8 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease

9 Unit Overview – pages The Life of a Cell The Chemistry of Life A View of the Cell Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Energy in a Cell

10 Chapter Contents – page viii Chapter 8 Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle 8.1: Cellular TransportCellular Transport 8.1: Section CheckSection Check 8.2: Cell Growth and ReproductionCell Growth and Reproduction 8.2: Section CheckSection Check 8.3: Control of the Cell CycleControl of the Cell Cycle 8.3: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 8 SummarySummary Chapter 8 AssessmentAssessment

11 Chapter Intro-page 194 What Youll Learn You will discover how molecules are transported across the plasma membrane. You will sequence the stages of cell division. You will identify the relationship between the cell cycle and cancer.

12 8.1 Section Objectives – page 195 Explain how the processes of diffusion, passive transport, and active transport occur and why they are important to cells. Section Objectives: Predict the effect of a hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic solution on a cell.

13 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Osmosis: Diffusion of Water In a cell, water always moves to reach an equal concentration on both sides of the membrane.

14 Section 8.1 Summary – pages The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis. Osmosis: Diffusion of Water Regulating the water flow through the plasma membrane is an important factor in maintaining homeostasis within a cell.

15 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Unequal distribution of particles, called a concentration gradient, is one factor that controls osmosis. What controls osmosis? Before Osmosis After Osmosis Water molecule Sugar molecule Selectively permeable membrane

16 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Most cells whether in multicellular or unicellular organisms, are subject to osmosis because they are surrounded by water solutions. Cells in an isotonic solution H2OH2O H2OH2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

17 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in an isotonic solution In an isotonic solution, the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. H2OH2O H2OH2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

18 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in an isotonic solution In an isotonic solution, water molecules move into and out of the cell at the same rate, and cells retain their normal shape. H2OH2O H2OH2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

19 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in an isotonic solution A plant cell has its normal shape and pressure in an isotonic solution.

20 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in a hypotonic solution In a hypotonic solution, water enters a cell by osmosis, causing the cell to swell. H2OH2O H2OH2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

21 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in a hypotonic solution Plant cells swell beyond their normal size as pressure increases.

22 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in a hypertonic solution In a hypertonic solution, water leaves a cell by osmosis, causing the cell to shrink. H2OH2O H2OH2O Water Molecule Dissolved Molecule

23 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Cells in a hypertonic solution Plant cells lose pressure as the plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell wall.

24 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive Transport When a cell uses no energy to move particles across a membrane passive transport occurs. Concentration gradient Plasma membrane

25 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive Transport by proteins Passive transport of materials across the membrane using transport proteins is called facilitated diffusion. Plasma membrane Channel proteins Concentration gradient

26 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive Transport by proteins Some transport proteins, called channel proteins, form channels that allow specific molecules to flow through. Plasma membrane Channel proteins Concentration gradient

27 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive transport by proteins The movement is with the concentration gradient, and requires no energy input from the cell. Concentration gradient Plasma membrane Step 1Step 2 Carrier proteins

28 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive transport by proteins Carrier proteins change shape to allow a substance to pass through the plasma membrane. Concentration gradient Plasma membrane Step 1Step 2 Carrier proteins

29 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Passive transport by proteins In facilitated diffusion by carrier protein, the movement is with the concentration gradient and requires no energy input from the cell. Plasma membrane Step 1Step 2 Carrier proteins Concentration gradient

30 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Active Transport Movement of materials through a membrane against a concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell. Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Carrier proteins Cellular energy Step 1Step 2

31 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs In active transport, a transport protein called a carrier protein first binds with a particle of the substance to be transported. Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Carrier proteins Cellular energy Step 1Step 2

32 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs Click image to view movie.

33 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs Each type of carrier protein has a shape that fits a specific molecule or ion. Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Carrier proteins Cellular energy Step 1Step 2

34 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs When the proper molecule binds with the protein, chemical energy allows the cell to change the shape of the carrier protein so that the particle to be moved is released on the other side of the membrane. Step 1Step 2 Carrier proteins Cellular energy Plasma membrane Concentration gradient

35 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs Once the particle is released, the proteins original shape is restored. Step 1Step 2 Carrier proteins Cellular energy Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Active transport allows particle movement into or out of a cell against a concentration gradient.

36 Section 8.1 Summary – pages How active transport occurs Click image to view movie.

37 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Transport of Large Particles Endocytosis is a process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment. Endocytosis Exocytosis Digestion Nucleus Wastes

38 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Transport of Large Particles The material is engulfed and enclosed by a portion of the cells plasma membrane. Exocytosis Digestion Nucleus Wastes Endocytosis

39 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Transport of Large Particles The resulting vacuole with its contents moves to the inside of the cell. Exocytosis Digestion Nucleus Wastes Endocytosis

40 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Transport of Large Particles Exocytosis is the expulsion or secretion of materials from a cell. Endocytosis Exocytosis Digestion Nucleus Wastes

41 Section 8.1 Summary – pages Transport of Large Particles Endocytosis and exocytosis both move masses of material and both require energy. EndocytosisExocytosis Digestion Nucleus Wastes

42 Section 1 Check Question 1 B. endocytosis A. active transport The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called __________. Water molecule Sugar molecule Selectively permeable membrane

43 Section 1 Check Question 1 D. osmosis C. exocytosis The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called __________. Water molecule Sugar molecule Selectively permeable membrane

44 Section 1 Check The answer is D, osmosis. Regulating the water flow through the plasma membrane is an important factor in maintaining homeostasis within the cell. Water molecule Sugar molecule Selectively permeable membrane Before osmosisAfter osmosis

45 Section 1 Check What is the expected result of having an animal cell in a hypertonic solution? Question 2 D. The cell retains its normal shape. C. The cell swells up. A. The cell shrivels up. B. The plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell wall.

46 Section 1 Check The answer is A. In a hypertonic solution, cells experience osmosis of water out of the cell. Animal cells shrivel because of decreased pressure in the cells. H2OH2O H2OH2O Water molecule Sugar molecule

47 Section 1 Check A grocer mists the celery display with water to keep it looking fresh. What type of solution is the celery now in? Question 3 D. exotonic C. hypertonic B. hypotonic A. isotonic

48 Section 1 Check The answer is B. Plant cells contain a rigid cell wall and do not burst even in a hypotonic solution.

49 Plasma membrane Section 1 Check Transport of materials across the plasma membrane that does not require energy from the cell but does use transport proteins is called __________. Question 4 B. simple diffusion A. osmosis Concentration gradient Channel proteins

50 Section 1 Check Transport of materials across the plasma membrane that does not require energy from the cell but does use transport proteins is called __________. Question 4 D. active transport C. facilitated diffusion Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Channel proteins

51 Section 1 Check The answer is C. Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport and requires no energy from the cell. Plasma membrane Concentration gradient Channel proteins

52 Section 2 Objectives – page 201 Section Objectives Relate the function of a cell to its organization in tissues, organs, and organ systems. Sequence the events of the cell cycle.

53 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Cell Size Limitations The cells that make up a multicellular organism come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Considering this wide range of cells sizes, why then cant most organisms be just one giant cell?

54 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Diffusion limits cell size Although diffusion is a fast and efficient process over short distances, it becomes slow and inefficient as the distances become larger. Because of the slow rate of diffusion, organisms cant be just one giant-sized cell.

55 Section 8.2 Summary – pages DNA limits cell size The cell cannot survive unless there is enough DNA to support the protein needs of the cell. In many large cells, more than one nucleus is present. Large amounts of DNA in many nuclei ensure that cell activities are carried out quickly and efficiently.

56 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Surface area-to-volume ratio As a cells size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. Surface area = 6 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 Surface area = 24 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 1 mm 2 mm 4 mm

57 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Surface area = 6 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 Surface area = 24 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 1 mm 2 mm 4 mm If cell size doubled, the cell would require eight times more nutrients and would have eight times more waste to excrete. Surface area-to-volume ratio

58 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The surface area, however, would increase by a factor of only four. Surface area-to-volume ratio Surface area = 6 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 Surface area = 24 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 1 mm 2 mm 4 mm

59 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Surface area-to-volume ratio Surface area = 6 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 Surface area = 24 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 1 mm 2 mm 4 mm The cell would either starve to death or be poisoned from the buildup of waste products.

60 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Cell Reproduction Cell division is the process by which new cells are produced from one cell. Cell division results in two cells that are identical to the original, parent cell.

61 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The discovery of chromosomes Structures, which contain DNA and become darkly colored when stained, are called chromosomes. Chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells. Accurate transmission of chromosomes during cell division is critical.

62 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Centromere Chromosome Sister chromatids Supercoil within chromosome Continued coiling within supercoil Histone H1 Nucleosome DNA

63 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of growth and division of a cell. The majority of a cells life is spent in the growth period known as interphase. Interphase

64 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The Cell Cycle Following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division called mitosis. Following mitosis, the cytoplasm divides, separating the two daughter cells. Mitosis

65 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Interphase: A Busy Time Interphase, the busiest phase of the cell cycle, is divided into three parts. DNA synthesis and replication Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division Rapid growth and metabolic activity Interphase

66 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Interphase: A Busy Time During the first part, the cell grows and protein production is high. Rapid growth and metabolic activity Interphase

67 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Interphase: A Busy Time In the next part of interphase, the cell copies its chromosomes. DNA synthesis and replication Interphase

68 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Interphase: A Busy Time After the chromosomes have been duplicated, the cell enters another shorter growth period in which mitochondria and other organelles are manufactured and cell parts needed for cell division are assembled. Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division Interphase

69 Section 8.2 Summary – pages The Phases of Mitosis The four phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

70 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Prophase: The first phase of mitosis During prophase, the chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes. Spindle fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome

71 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Prophase: The first phase of mitosis The two halves of the doubled structure are called sister chromatids. Sister chromatids

72 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Prophase: The first phase of mitosis Sister chromatids are held together by a structure called a centromere, which plays a role in chromosome movement during mitosis. Centromere

73 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Metaphase: The second stage of mitosis During metaphase, the chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle. Centromere Sister chromatids

74 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Anaphase: The third phase of mitosis During anaphase, the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell.

75 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Telophase: The fourth phase of mitosis During telophase, two distinct daughter cells are formed. The cells separate as the cell cycle proceeds into the next interphase. Nuclear envelope reappears Two daughter cells are formed

76 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Cytokinesis Following telophase, the cells cytoplasm divides in a process called cytokinesis. Cytokinesis differs between plants and animals. Toward the end of telophase in animal cells, the plasma membrane pinches in along the equator.

77 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Cytokinesis Plant cells have a rigid cell wall, so the plasma membrane does not pinch in. A structure known as the cell plate is laid down across the cells equator. A cell membrane forms around each cell, and new cell walls form on each side of the cell plate until separation is complete.

78 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Results of Mitosis When mitosis is complete, unicellular organisms remain as single cells. In multicellular organisms, cell growth and reproduction result in groups of cells that work together as tissue to perform a specific function.

79 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Results of Mitosis Tissues organize in various combinations to form organs that perform more complex roles within the organism. Multiple organs that work together form an organ system.

80 Section 8.2 Summary – pages Results of Mitosis Click image to view movie.

81 Section 2 Check The stringy structures in the cell nucleus that contain DNA are __________. Question 1 D. chlorophylls C. genes B. chromosomes A. centromeres

82 Section 2 Check The answer is B. Chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material of the cell. A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein.

83 Section 2 Check Look at the diagram and identify the stage of mitosis that is depicted. Question 2 D. telophase C. anaphase B. metaphase A. prophase Centromere Sister chromatids

84 Section 2 Check The answer is B. Metaphase is the short second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to line up on the equator of the spindle. Centromere Sister chromatids

85 Section 2 Check What is the process by which a cell's cytoplasm divides? Question 3 D. mitosis C. meiosis B. telekinesis A. cytokinesis

86 Section 2 Check The answer is A. Cytokinesis follows telophase and allows the two new cells to separate.

87 Section 2 Check In multicellular organisms, groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function are called __________. Question 4 D. cell cycles C. tissues B. organs A. organ systems

88 Section 2 Check The answer is C. Tissues organize to form organs, which work with other organs to form organ systems.

89 Section 3 Objectives – page 211 Section Objectives Describe the role of enzymes in the regulation of the cell cycle. Distinguish between the events of a normal cell cycle and the abnormal events that result in cancer. Identify ways to potentially reduce the risk of cancer.

90 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Normal Control of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle is controlled by proteins called cyclins and a set of enzymes that attach to the cyclin and become activated. Occasionally, cells lose control of the cell cycle. Proteins and enzymes control the cell cycle

91 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Normal Control of the Cell Cycle Cancer is a malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division. This uncontrolled dividing of cells can result from the failure to produce certain enzymes, the overproduction of enzymes, or the production of other enzymes at the wrong time.

92 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Normal Control of the Cell Cycle Enzyme production is directed by genes located on the chromosomes. A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein.

93 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Cancer: A mistake in the Cell Cycle Currently, scientists consider cancer to be a result of changes in one or more of the genes that produce substances that are involved in controlling the cell cycle. Cancerous cells form masses of tissue called tumors that deprive normal cells of nutrients.

94 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Cancer: A mistake in the Cell Cycle In later stages, cancer cells enter the circulatory system and spread throughout the body, a process called metastasis, forming new tumors that disrupt the function of organs, organ systems, and ultimately, the organism.

95 Section 8.3 Summary – pages The causes of cancer The causes of cancer are difficult to pinpoint because both genetic and environmental factors are involved.

96 Section 8.3 Summary – pages The causes of cancer Environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke, air and water pollution, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, are all known to damage the genes that control the cell cycle.

97 Section 8.3 Summary – pages The causes of cancer Cancer may also be caused by viral infections that damage the genes.

98 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Cancer prevention Physicians and dietary experts agree that diets low in fat and high in fiber content can reduce the risk of many kinds of cancer. Vitamins and minerals may also help prevent cancer.

99 Section 8.3 Summary – pages Cancer prevention In addition to diet, other healthy choices such as daily exercise and not using tobacco also are known to reduce the risk of cancer.

100 Section 3 Check Explain cancer in terms of cell growth. Question 1 Answer Cancer is a malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division. The loss of control may be caused by environmental factors or changes in enzyme production that result from defective or changed genetic material. Cancerous cells form masses of tissue called tumors that deprive normal cells of nutrients.

101 Section 3 Check A(n) __________ is a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein. Question 2 D. chromosome C. enzyme B. cyclin A. gene

102 The answer is A. Genes control the production of proteins. Scientists think that cancer results from changes in one or more of the genes that produce substances controlling the cell cycle. Section 3 Check

103 Which of the following is thought to reduce the risk of developing cancer? Question 3 D. decrease dietary minerals C. decrease dietary fiber B. increase dietary fiber A. increase dietary fat

104 The answer is B. Health professionals believe that diets low in fat and high in fiber content can reduce the risk of many types of cancer. Section 3 Check

105 Chapter Summary – 8.1 Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Cellular Transport Passive transport moves a substance with the concentration gradient and requires no energy from the cell.

106 Chapter Summary – 8.1 Active transport moves materials against the concentration gradient and requires energy to overcome the flow of materials opposite the concentration gradient. Cellular Transport Large particles may enter a cell by endocytosis and leave by exocytosis.

107 Chapter Summary – 8.2 Cell size is limited largely by the diffusion rate of materials into and out of the cell, the amount of DNA available to program the cells metabolism, and the cells surface area-to-volume ratio. Cell Growth and Reproduction The life cycle of a cell is divided into two general periods: a period of active growth and metabolism known as interphase, and a period that leads to cell division known as mitosis.

108 Chapter Summary – 8.2 Mitosis is divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cell Growth and Reproduction The cells of most multicellular organisms are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems.

109 Chapter Summary – 8.3 The cell cycle is controlled by key enzymes that are produced at specific points in the cell cycle. Control of the Cell Cycle Cancer is caused by genetic and environmental factors that change the genes that control the cell cycle.

110 Chapter Assessment Question 1 Which of the following is a factor that controls osmosis? D. carrier proteins C. conditioning B. concentration gradient A. prophase

111 The answer is B. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Concentration gradients, unequal distributions of particles, result in water diffusing to the side of the membrane where the water concentration is lower. Chapter Assessment

112 Question 2 Predict the result of placing a fresh stalk of celery in a jar of salt water. Answer Salt water would be a hypertonic solution for the celery. Water will leave the cells by osmosis. As a result, the cells will lose pressure as the plasma membrane shrinks away from the cell wall and the celery will probably wilt.

113 Chapter Assessment Question 3 Magnification of a plant cell reveals centromeres that have split and sister chromatids being pulled to opposite poles of the cell. This cell is in which phase of mitosis? D. telophase C. anaphase B. metaphase A. prophase

114 The answer is C. The separation of sister chromatids marks the beginning of anaphase, and the final phase, telophase, begins as the chromatids reach the opposite poles of the cell. Chapter Assessment

115 Question 4 Which phase of mitosis is depicted in this diagram? D. telophase C. anaphase B. metaphase A. prophase Spindle Fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome

116 The answer is A. Prophase is the first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the long, stringy chromatin coils up into visible chromosomes. Sister chromatids have formed, but are not yet lined up along the equator of the spindle. Spindle Fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome Chapter Assessment

117 Question 5 What is the term used for the period of the cell cycle represented by the red arrow in this graph? D. interphase C. centrophase B. metaphase A. prophase DNA synthesis and replication Rapid growth and metabolic activity Centrioles replicate; cell prepares for division Cytokinesis Mitosis

118 The answer is D. Most of the time spent in the cell cycle is in interphase. Interphase Chapter Assessment

119 The structure depicted in this diagram forms during prophase of mitosis. During metaphase, doubled chromosomes will become attached to this by their centromeres. What is this structure? Chapter Assessment Question 6 D. chromatin C. chromatid B. centriole A. spindle Microtubule

120 The answer is A. This cage like structure is a spindle, consisting of thin fibers made of microtubules. The chromosomes will become attached to the spindle fibers by their centromeres, and will be pulled to the midline of the spindle. Microtubule Chapter Assessment

121 What is the level of organization that is missing in this diagram? Chapter Assessment Question 7 D. cycle C. tissue B. cluster A. mass ? Cell (muscle cell) Organ (stomach) Organ System (digestive tissue) Organism (Florida Panther)

122 The answer is C. In multicellular organisms, groups of cells that work together are tissues. Tissues are formed from different types of cells that are coded for by different parts of the original cell's genetic material. Cell (muscle cell) Organ (stomach) Organ System (digestive tissue) Organism (Florida Panther) Tissue (muscle tissue) Chapter Assessment

123 Which structure represents a cell in prophase of mitosis? Chapter Assessment Question 8 D. D C. C B. B A. A A BCD

124 The answer is C. The chromosomes have doubled but are still contained within the nucleus. C Chapter Assessment

125 Digital Stock KS Studios/Bob Mullenix Alton Biggs Photo Credits

126 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help

127 End of Chapter 8 Show


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