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Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: EcologyEcology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population BiologyPopulation Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

8 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease

9 Unit Overview – pages Ecology Principles of ecology Communities and Biomes Population Biology Biological Diversity and Conservation

10 Chapter Contents – page vii Chapter 4 Population BiologyPopulation Biology 4.1: Population DynamicsPopulation Dynamics 4.1: Section CheckSection Check 4.2: Human PopulationHuman Population 4.2: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 4 SummarySummary Chapter 4 AssessmentAssessment

11 Chapter Intro-page 90 What Youll Learn You will explain how populations grow. You will identify factors that inhibit the growth of populations. You will summarize issues in human population growth.

12 4.1 Section Objectives – page 91 Compare and contrast exponential and linear population growth. Section Objectives: Relate the reproductive patterns of different populations of organisms to models of population growth. Predict effects of environmental factors on population growth.

13 Section 4.1 Summary – pages A population is a group of organisms, all of the same species, that live in a specific area. A healthy population will grow and die at a steady rate unless it runs out of food or space, or is attacked in some way by disease or predators. Principles of Population Growth Scientists study changes in populations in a variety of ways.

14 Section 4.1 Summary – pages One method involves introducing organisms into an environment that contains abundant resources and then watching how the organisms react. Principles of Population Growth

15 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Studies of populations of larger organisms, such as an elk population in a national park, require methods such as the use of radio monitors. Principles of Population Growth

16 Section 4.1 Summary – pages The growth of populations is unlike the growth of pay you get from a job. Populations of organisms, do not experience linear growth. Rather, the graph of a growing population starts out slowly, then begins to resemble a J-shaped curve. How fast do populations grow?

17 Section 4.1 Summary – pages How fast do populations grow? Population Growth of Houseflies 1 million 500, One year Population size

18 Section 4.1 Summary – pages The initial increase in the number of organisms is slow because the number of reproducing individuals is small. Soon, however, the rate of population growth increases because the total number of individuals that are able to reproduce has increased. How fast do populations grow?

19 Section 4.1 Summary – pages A J-shaped growth curve illustrates exponential population growth. Exponential growth means that as a population gets larger, it also grows at a faster rate. Is growth unlimited? Exponential growth results in unchecked growth.

20 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Limiting factors, such as availability of food, disease, predators, or lack of space, will cause population growth to slow. Under these pressures, the population may stabilize in an S-shaped growth curve. What can limit growth?

21 Section 4.1 Summary – pages What can limit growth? Characteristics of Population Growth Exponential growth Carrying capacity J curve S curve Population Time 0 DISEASE SPACEPREDA- TORS FOOD

22 Section 4.1 Summary – pages The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its carrying capacity. When a population overshoots the carrying capacity, then limiting factors may come into effect. Carrying capacity Click image to view movie.

23 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Carrying capacity Deaths begin to exceed births and the population falls below carrying capacity. Carrying capacity

24 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Biologists study the factor that determines population growthan organisms reproductive pattern, also called its life- history pattern. Reproduction Patterns In nature, animal and plant populations change in size. A variety of population growth patterns are possible in nature.

25 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Rapid life-history organisms have a small body size, mature rapidly, reproduce early, and have a short life span. Rapid life-history patterns Rapid life-history patterns are common among organisms from changeable or unpredictable environments.

26 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Slow life-history patterns Large species that live in more stable environments usually have slow life-history patterns.

27 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Slow life-history organisms reproduce and mature slowly, and are long-lived. They maintain population sizes at or near carrying capacity. Slow life-history patterns

28 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Three patterns of dispersal are random, clumped, and uniform. Density factors and population growth How organisms are dispersed can be important. Random Clumped Uniform

29 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Population density describes the number of individuals in a given area. Density factors and population growth Ecologists have identified two kinds of limiting factors that are related to dispersal: density-dependent and density-independent factors.

30 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Disease, for example, can spread more quickly in a population with members that live close together. Density-dependent factors include disease, competition, predators, parasites, and food. Density factors and population growth

31 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Most density- independent factors are abiotic factors, such as temperature, storms, floods, drought, and major habitat disruption. Density-independent factors can affect all populations, regardless of their density. Density factors and population growth

32 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Population sizes are limited not only by abiotic factors, but also are controlled by various interactions among organisms that share a community.

33 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Predation affects population size When a predator consumes prey on a large enough scale, it can have a drastic effect on the size of the prey population. Populations of predators and their prey are known to experience cycles or changes in their numbers over periods of time.

34 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Predation affects population size The data in this graph reflect the number of hare and lynx pelts sold to the Hudsons Bay Company in northern Canada from 1845 through Lynx and Hare Pelts Sold to the Hudsons Bay Company Number of organisms(in thousands) Times (in years) Lynx Hare

35 Section 4.1 Summary – pages In field studies, predation increases the chance that resources will be available for the remaining individuals in a prey population. Predation affects population size

36 Section 4.1 Summary – pages Competition within a population Competition is a density-dependent factor. When only a few individuals compete for resources, no problem arises. When a population increases to the point at which demand for resources exceeds the supply, the population size decreases.

37 Section 4.1 Summary – pages The effects of crowding and stress When populations of certain organisms become crowded, individuals may exhibit symptoms of stress. As populations increase in size in environments that cannot support increased numbers, individual animals can exhibit a variety of stress symptoms.

38 Section 4.1 Summary – pages These include aggression, decrease in parental care, decreased fertility, and decreased resistance to disease. They become limiting factors for growth and keep populations below carrying capacity. The effects of crowding and stress

39 Section 1 Check Question 1 Exponential growth means that as a population gets larger, it also _____. D. stabilizes in an S-shaped growth curve C. grows at a steady rate B. grows at a faster rate A. grows at a slower rate NC: 5.01

40 Section 1 Check The answer is B. A J-shaped growth curve illustrates exponential growth. Population Growth of Houseflies 1 million 500, One year Population size NC: 5.01

41 Section 1 Check Question 2 Which of the following would you expect to observe after a population exceeds its carrying capacity? D. population growth rate is unaffected by limiting factors C. deaths exceed births B. births exceed deaths A. population increases exponentially NC: 5.01

42 Section 1 Check The answer is C. Limiting factors may come into effect after a population exceeds its carrying capacity. Deaths begin to exceed births and the population falls below carrying capacity. Characteristics of Population Growth Exponential growth J curve S curve Population Time 0 DISEASE SPACE PREDATORS FOOD Carrying capacity NC: 5.01

43 Section 1 Check Question 3 Offspring per Individual Organism Life Span mosquito 2501 month elephant humans oak tree years 77 years 100 years D. stabilizes in an S-shaped growth curve C. grows at a steady rate B. grows at a faster rate A. grows at a slower rate NC: 5.01

44 Section 1 Check The answer is A. Rapid life-history organisms have a small body size, mature rapidly, reproduce early, and have a short life span. Offspring per Individual Organism Life Span mosquito 2501 month elephant humans oak tree years 77 years 100 years NC: 5.01

45 Section 1 Check Question 4 The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support indefinitely is its _____. D. carrying capacity C. demographic B. growth rate A. life-history pattern NC: 5.01

46 Section 1 Check The answer is D. If population size rises above the carrying capacity, more organisms die than are born and the population drops back below the carrying capacity. Carrying capacity NC: 5.01

47 Section 1 Check Question 5 Compare the terms density-dependent factors and density-independent factors. NC: 5.01

48 Section 1 Check Both are limiting factors for organisms. Density-dependent factors have an increasing effect as the population increases and include disease, competition, parasites, and food. Density-independent factors can affect all populations regardless of density. Most are abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and major habitat destruction. NC: 5.01

49 4.2 Section objectives– page 100 Identify how the birthrate and death rate affect the rate at which a population changes. Section Objectives: Compare the age structure of rapidly growing, slow-growing, and no-growth countries. Explain the relationship between a population and the environment.

50 Section 4.2 Summary – page In the United States, a census is taken every ten years. World Population One of the most useful pieces of data is the rate at which each countrys population is growing or declining. These figures are the basis for demography, the study of human population size, density and distribution, movement, and its birth and death rates.

51 Section 4.2 Summary – page Human population growth is different because humans have the ability to change their environment. Human population growth People live longer and are able to produce offspring that live long enough to produce offspring, hence, a population grows.

52 Section 4.2 Summary – page There are a number of factors that determine population growth rate. Calculating growth rate These are births, deaths, immigration and emigration. Birthrate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a given year.

53 Section 4.2 Summary – page Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 population in a given year. Movement of individuals into a population is immigration. Calculating growth rate

54 Section 4.2 Summary – page Movement out of a population is emigration. Birthrate – Death rate = Population Growth Rate (PGR) If the birth rate of a population equals its death rate, then the population growth rate is zero. Calculating growth rate

55 Section 4.2 Summary – page If the PGR is above zero, more new individuals are entering the population than are leaving, so the population is growing. A PGR can also be less than zero. Calculating growth rate

56 Section 4.2 Summary – page Another quantitative factor that demographers look at is the doubling time of a population. Doubling time is the time needed for a population to double in size. The time it takes for a population to double varies depending on the current population and growth rate. Doubling time

57 Section 4.2 Summary – page Doubling time can be calculated for the world, a country, or even a small region, such as a city. Doubling time

58 Section 4.2 Summary – page Age structure Population Distribution Per Age Range for Several Countries Age Stable growth Rapid growth Slow growth Male Female Reproductive years Population (percent of total for each country)

59 Section 4.2 Summary – page The needs of populations differ greatly throughout the world. Sometimes, a population grows more rapidly than the available resources can handle. Ecology and growth

60 Section Summary – page Ecology and growth Resources that are needed for life, such as food and water, become scarce or contaminated.

61 Section Summary – page The amount of waste produced by a population becomes difficult to dispose of properly. These conditions can lead to stress on current resources and contribute to the spread of diseases that affect the stability of human populations both now and to come. Ecology and growth

62 Section 2 Check What is the study of human population size, density and distribution, movement, and birth and death rates called? Question 1 D. biodiversity C. phylogeny B. demography A. ecology NC: 5.03

63 Section 2 Check The answer is B. When various demographic data are monitored, societies are able to improve environmental conditions and quality of life. NC: 5.03

64 Section 2 Check Question 2 D. Declining at a decreasing rate each year C. Growing at a decreasing rate each year B. Declining at a greater rate each year A. Growing at a greater rate each year Year BirthrateDeath rate NC: 5.03

65 Section 2 Check The answer is C. In each of these years, the population growth rate is above zero, but is decreasing. Year BirthrateDeath rate NC: 5.03

66 Section 2 Check Which interval in the diagram below represents the population reaching equilibrium near carrying capacity? Question 3 D. 4 C. 3 B. 2 A. 1 NC: 5.01

67 Section 2 Check The answer is D. The number of organisms tends to rise above and fall below the carrying capacity due to limiting factors. NC: 5.01

68 Chapter Summary – 4.1 Populations of some organisms do not exhibit linear growth. If there is nothing to stop or slow growth, a populations growth appears as a J-shaped curve on a graph. Populations grow slowly at first, then more rapidly as more and more individuals begin to reproduce. Population Dynamics

69 Chapter Summary – 4.1 Under normal conditions, with limiting factors, populations show an S-shaped curve as they approach the carrying capacity of the environment where they live. Population Dynamics

70 Chapter Summary – 4.1 If a population overshoots the environments carrying capacity, deaths exceed births and the total population falls below the environments carrying capacity. The number of individuals will fluctuate above and below the carrying capacity. Population Dynamics

71 Chapter Summary – 4.1 Density-dependent factors and density- independent factors affect population growth. Density-dependent factors include disease, competition for space, water, and food supply. Density-independent factors are volcanic eruptions and changes in climate that result in catastrophic incidents such as floods, drought, hurricanes, or tornadoes. Population Dynamics

72 Chapter Summary – 4.2 Demography is the study of population characteristics such as growth rate, age structure, and movement of individuals. Human Population Birthrate, death rate, immigration, emigration, doubling time, and age structures differ considerably among different countries. There are uneven population growth patterns throughout the world.

73 Chapter Assessment Question 1

74 The answer is B. The graph of exponential growth is a J-shaped curve. Chapter Assessment

75 Question 2 What shape of age structure graph represents a rapidly growing population? D. square C. circle B. thin rectangle A. steep triangle NC: 5.03

76 The answer is A. Chapter Assessment Population Distribution Per Age Range for Several Countries Age Stable growthRapid growthSlow growth Male Female Reproductive years Population (percent of total for each country) NC: 5.03

77 Population Growth of Houseflies 1 million 500, One year Population size Chapter Assessment Question 3 What type of growth is shown in this graph? D. equilibrium C. exponential B. slowly decreasing A. slowly increasing

78 The answer is C. Exponential growth is rapid and is represented on a graph by a J-shaped curve. Chapter Assessment Population Growth of Houseflies 1 million 500, One year Population size

79 Characteristics of Population Growth Exponential growth J curve S curve Population Time 0 DISEASE SPACE PREDATORS FOOD Carrying capacity Chapter Assessment Question 4 D. 9 years C. 5 years B. 4 years A. 2 years Assume that each time interval on the graph is equal to one year. How long did it take this population to reach carrying capacity? NC: 5.01

80 The answer is D. After 9 years, this population has nearly reached carrying capacity. Chapter Assessment Characteristics of Population Growth Exponential growth J curve S curve Population Time 0 DISEASE SPACE PREDA- TORS FOOD Carrying capacity NC: 5.01

81 Chapter Assessment Question 5 Which of the following is characteristic of a species having a slow life-history pattern? D. mature rapidly C. small body size B. long life span A. short life span NC: 5.01

82 The answer is B. Rapid life-history organisms have a small body size, short life span, and mature rapidly. Chapter Assessment NC: 5.01

83 Chapter Assessment Question 6 During which time period was population growth the most rapid? B to 1960A to 1930 NC: 5.03

84 Chapter Assessment Question 6 During which time period was population growth the most rapid? D to 1987C to 1975 NC: 5.03

85 The answer is D. World population grew by 1 billion in just 12 years. Chapter Assessment NC: 5.03

86 Chapter Assessment Question 7 If the birthrate is 125 and the death rate is 135, what is the population growth rate? D. -10 C. 10 B A. 260 NC: 5.01

87 The answer is D. Use the formula: Chapter Assessment Birthrate – Death rate = Population Growth Rate NC: 5.01

88 Chapter Assessment Corbis Carolina Biological Supply Co. Digital Stock Matt Meadows PhotoDisc Alton Biggs Photo Credits

89 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

90 End of Chapter 4 Show


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