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Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: PlantsPlants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: PlantsPlants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of PlantsThe Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

8 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease

9 Unit Overview – pages 556 - 557 Plants What Is a Plant? The Diversity of Plants Plant Structure and Function Reproduction in Plants

10 Chapter Contents – page x Chapter 22 The Diversity of PlantsThe Diversity of Plants 22.1: Nonvascular PlantsNonvascular Plants 22.1: Section CheckSection Check 22.2: Non-Seed Vascular PlantsNon-Seed Vascular Plants 22.2: Section CheckSection Check 22.3: Seed PlantsSeed Plants 22.3: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 22 SummarySummary Chapter 22 AssessmentAssessment

11 Chapter Intro-page 576 What Youll Learn You will identify the characteristics of the major plant groups.

12 Chapter Intro-page 576 What Youll Learn You will identify and compare the distinguishing features of vascular and nonvascular plants. You will analyze the advantages of seed production.

13 22.1 Section Objectives – page 577 Identify the structures of nonvascular plants. Section Objectives: Compare and contrast characteristics of the different groups of nonvascular plant.

14 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Because a steady supply of water is not available everywhere, nonvascular plants are limited to moist habitats by streams and rivers or in temperate and tropical rain forests. What is a nonvascular plant?

15 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Recall that a lack of vascular tissue also limits the size of a plant. What is a nonvascular plant? Nonvascular plants, such as moss are successful in habitats with adequate water.

16 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 As in all plants, the life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte. Alternation of generations However, nonvascular plant divisions include the only plants that have a dominant gametophyte generation.

17 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Sporophytes grow attached to and depend on gametophytes to take in water and other substances. Non- photosynthetic sporophytes depend on their gametophytes for food. Alternation of generations

18 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Gametophytes of nonvascular plants produce two kinds of sexual reproductive structures. The antheridium is the male reproductive structure in which sperm are produced. Alternation of generations

19 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 The archegonium is the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced. Fertilization, which begins the sporophyte generation, occurs in the archegonium. Alternation of generations

20 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 There are several divisions of nonvascular plants. The first division youll study are the mosses, or bryophytes. Mosses are small plants with leafy stems. Adaptations in Bryophyta

21 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta Mosses have rhizoids, colorless multicellular structures, which help anchor the stem to the soil. The leaves of mosses are usually one cell thick.

22 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Mosses usually grow in dense carpets of hundreds of plants. Some species have a few, long water- conducting cells in their stems. Adaptations in Bryophyta

23 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Some mosses form extensive mats that help retard erosion on exposed rocky slopes. Some have upright stems; others have creeping stems that hang from steep banks or tree branches. Moses grow in a wide variety of habitats. Adaptations in Bryophyta

24 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 They even grow in the arctic during the brief growing season where sufficient moisture is present. A well-known moss is Sphagnum, also known as peat moss. Adaptations in Bryophyta

25 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 This plant thrives in acidic bogs in northern regions of the world. It is harvested for use as fuel and is a commonly used soil additive. Adaptations in Bryophyta

26 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta Another division of nonvascular plants is the liverworts, or hepaticophytes. Liverworts are small plants that usually grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats.

27 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta The flattened body of a liverwort gametophyte is thought to resemble the shape of the lobes of an animals liver. A liverwort can be categorized as either thallose or leafy.

28 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta The body of a thallose liverwort is called a thallus. It is broad and ribbonlike and resembles a fleshy, lobed leaf. Thallose liverworts are usually found growing on damp soil.

29 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta Leafy liverworts grow close to the ground and usually are common in tropical jungles and areas with persistent fog. Their stems have flat, thin leaves arranged in three rowsa row along each side of the stem and a row of smaller leaves on the stems lower surface. Liverworts have rhizoids that are composed of only one elongated cell.

30 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta Anthocerophytes are the smallest division of nonvascular plants, currently consisting of only about 100 species. Also known as hornworts, these nonvascular plants are similar to liverworts in several respects.

31 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta Hornworts have a thallose body. The sporophyte of a hornwort resembles the horn of an animal. Sporophyte with sporangium (2n) Gametophyte (n)

32 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta Another feature unique to hornworts is the presence of one to several chloroplasts in each cell of the sporophyte depending upon the species. Unlike other nonvascular plants, the hornwort sporophyte, not the gametophyte, produces most of the food used by both generations.

33 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Origins of Nonvascular Plants Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that liverworts were the first land plants. Fossils that have been positively identified as nonvascular plants first appear in rocks from the early Paleozoic Era, more than 440 million years ago.

34 Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Origins of Nonvascular Plants Paleobotanists suspect that nonvascular plants were present earlier than current fossil evidence suggests. Both nonvascular and vascular plants probably share a common ancestor.

35 Section 1 Check Question 1 The only plants that have a dominant gametophyte generation are the _______. D. ferns C. nonvascular plants B. flowering plants A. vascular plants The answer is C.

36 Section 1 Check Question 2 The rhizoid in mosses has a function comparable to _______. D. The leaf in cycads C. The root in vascular plants B. The cone in conifers A. The flower in flowering plants

37 Section 1 Check The answer is C. Rhizoids anchor the stems of mosses to the soil as roots do in other plants.

38 Section 1 Check Question 3 What is the main functional difference between hornwort sporophytes and those of other nonvascular plants? Answer Hornwort sporophytes contain chloroplasts and produce most of the food for both generations of the plant.

39 22.2 Section Objectives – page 581 Evaluate the significance of plant vascular tissue to life on land. Section Objectives: Identify and analyze the characteristics of the non-seed vascular plant divisions.

40 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 What is a non-seed vascular plant? The obvious difference between a vascular and a nonvascular plant is the presence of vascular tissue. Vascular plants are able to adapt to changes in the availability of water, and thus are found in a variety of habitats. Vascular tissue is made up of tubelike, elongated cells through which water and sugars are transported.

41 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 PhloemXylem Cambium Xylem transports water and dissolved substances other than sugar throughout the plant. Phloem transports dissolved sugar throughout the plant. Cambium produces xylem and phloem as the plant grows. What is a non-seed vascular plant?

42 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations Vascular plants, like all plants, exhibit an alternation of generations.

43 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations Unlike nonvascular plants, the spore- producing vascular sporophyte is dominant and larger in size than the gametophyte. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

44 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations The mature sporophyte does not depend on the gametophyte for water or nutrients. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

45 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations A major advance in this group of vascular plants was the adaptation of leaves to form structures that protect the developing reproductive cells. In some non-seed vascular plants, sporebearing leaves form a compact cluster called a strobilus.

46 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations A fern gametophyte is called a prothallus. Gametophytes are relatively small and live in or on the soil. Antheridia and archegonia develop on the gametophyte. Sperm are released from antheridia and require a continuous film of water to reach eggs in the archegonia.

47 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations Egg Archegonium Prothallus Antheridium Sperm Rhizoids

48 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta Lycophytes are commonly called club mosses and spike mosses.

49 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta Their leafy stems resemble moss gametophytes, and their reproductive structures are club or spike shaped. However, unlike mosses, the sporophyte generation of the lycophytes is dominant.

50 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta It has roots, stems, and small leaflike structures. A single vein of vascular tissue runs through each leaflike structure. The stems of lycophytes may be upright or creeping and have roots growing from the base of the stem.

51 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta The club moss, Lycopodium, is commonly called ground pine because it is evergreen and resembles a miniature pine tree.

52 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta Some species of ground pine have been collected for decorative uses in such numbers that the plants have become endangered.

53 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta Arthrophytes, or horsetails, represent a second group of ancient vascular plants.

54 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta Early horsetails were tree-sized members of the forest community. Todays arthrophytes are much smaller than their ancestors. There are only about 15 species in existence, all of the genus Equisetum.

55 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta The name horsetail refers to the bushy appearance of some species. These plants also are called scouring rushes because they contain silica, an abrasive substance.

56 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta Most horsetails are found in marshes, in shallow ponds, on stream banks, and other areas with damp soil. The stem structure of horsetails is ribbed and hollow, and appears jointed. At each joint, there is a whorl of tiny, scalelike leaves.

57 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta Arthrophyte spores are produced in strobili that form at the tips of non-photosynthetic stems. After the spores are released, they can grow into gametophytes with antheridia and archegonia.

58 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 According to fossil records, fernsdivision Pterophytafirst appeared nearly 375 million years ago. Ancient ferns grew tall and treelike and formed vast forests. Adaptations in Pterophyta

59 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Pterophyta

60 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Ferns range in size from a few meters tall, like tree ferns, to small, floating plants that are only a few centimeters in diameter. Adaptations in Pterophyta

61 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Some ferns inhabit dry areas, becoming dormant when moisture is scarce and resuming growth and reproduction only when water is available again. Adaptations in Pterophyta

62 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Fern Structures As with most vascular plants, it is the sporophyte generation of the fern that has roots, stems, and leaves. The part of the fern plant that we most commonly recognize is the sporophyte generation. The gametophyte in most ferns is a thin, flat structure that is independent of the sporophyte.

63 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Fern Structures In most ferns, the main stem is underground. This thick, underground stem is called a rhizome. Fronds Root Rhizome

64 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the rhizome. The fronds are often divided into leaflets called pinnae, which are attached to a central rachis. The branched veins in ferns transport water and food to and from all the cells. Fern Structures

65 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Fern spores are produced in structures called sporangia. Fern Structures

66 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Clusters of sporangia form a structure called a sorus (plural, sori). Sori are usually found on the underside of fronds but in some ferns, spores are borne on modified fronds. Fern Structures

67 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Origins of Non-Seed Vascular Plants The earliest evidence of non-seed vascular plants is found in fossils from early in the Devonian Period, around 375 million years ago. Many of these species of non-seed vascular plants died out about 280 million years agoa time when Earths climate was cooler and drier.

68 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Origins of Non-Seed Vascular Plants Pterophytes 11 000 species Psilophytes 6 species Lepidodendron Calamites Protists Bryophytes 20 000 species Lycophytes 1150 species Arthrophytes 15 species Anthocerophytes 100 species Hepaticophytes 6500 species Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

69 Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Origins of Non-Seed Vascular Plants The evolution of vascular tissue enabled these plants to live on land and to maintain larger body sizes in comparison with nonvascular plants. Todays non-seed vascular plants are much smaller and less widespread in their distribution than their prehistoric ancestors.

70 Section 2 Check Using the figure, which structure would you assume the sporophyte grows from? Question 1 Egg Archegonium Antheridium Sperm Rhizoids Prothallus

71 Section 2 Check The answer is the archegonium. Sperm travel from the antheridium to the archegonium where they unite with an egg and form a zygote. The zygote grows into the sporophyte. Egg Archegonium Antheridium Sperm Rhizoids Prothallus

72 Section 2 Check A compact cluster of spore-bearing leaves is called a _______. D. strobilus C. prothallus B. rhizoid A. thallus The answer is D. Question 2

73 Section 2 Check The first plants to have evolved leaves with branching veins of vascular tissue are the _______. D. Anthocerophytes C. Lycophytes B. Arthrophytes A. Pterophytes The answer is A. Question 3

74 Section 2 Check The main stem of most ferns is called a _______. D. rhizome C. sorus B. frond A. rachis The answer is D. Question 4

75 22.3 Section Objectives – page 588 Section Objectives: Identify and analyze the characteristics of seed plants. Analyze the advantages of seed and fruit production.

76 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Some vascular plants produce seeds in which reduced sporophyte plants are enclosed within a protective coat. What is a seed plant?

77 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 In seed plants, as in all other plants, spores are produced by the sporophyte generation. These spores develop into the male and female gametophytes. Seed plants produce spores

78 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants produce spores The male gametophyte develops inside a structure called a pollen grain that includes sperm cells, nutrients, and a protective outer covering. anther filament stamen

79 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 The female gametophyte, which produces the egg cell, is contained within a sporophyte structure called an ovule. stigma style ovary ovule pistil anther filament stamen Seed plants produce spores

80 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Fertilization and reproduction The union of the sperm and egg, called fertilization, forms the sporophyte zygote. Because they do not require a continuous film of water for fertilization, seed plants are able to grow and reproduce in a wide variety of habitats that have limited water availability.

81 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 After fertilization, the zygote develops into an embryo. An embryo is an early stage of development of an organism. Embryos of seed plants include one or more cotyledons. Fertilization and reproduction

82 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Cotyledons usually store or absorb food for the developing embryo. Seed coat Cotyledon Cotyledons Fertilization and reproduction

83 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Advantages of seeds A seed consists of an embryo and its food supply enclosed in a tough, protective coat. The seed contains a supply of food to nourish the young plant during the early stages of growth. Embryo Seed coat Food supply

84 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 In conifers and some flowering plants, the embryos food supply is stored in the cotyledons. The embryo is protected during harsh conditions by a tough seed coat. The seeds of many species are also adapted for easy dispersal to new areas. Advantages of seeds

85 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Diversity of seed plants In some plants, seeds develop on the scales of woody strobili called cones.

86 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 This group of plants is sometimes referred to as gymnosperms. The gymnosperm plant divisions you will learn about are Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta. Diversity of seed plants

87 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Diversity of seed plants Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, produce seeds enclosed within a fruit. A fruit includes the ripened ovary of a flower.

88 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Diversity of seed plants The fruit provides protection for seeds and aids in seed dispersal. The Anthophyta division contains all species of flowering plants.

89 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Cycadophyta Cycads have male and female reproductive systems on separate plants.

90 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Cycdophyta The male system includes cones that produce pollen grains, which produce motile sperm. Cycads are one of the few seed plants that produce motile sperm. The female system includes cones that produce ovules.

91 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 All ginkgoes are cultivated trees, and they are not known to exist in the wild. Adaptations in Ginkgophyta

92 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Like cycads, gingko male and female reproductive systems are on separate plants. The male ginkgo produces pollen grains in strobiluslike cones that grow from the bases of leaf clusters. Ginkgo pollen grains produce motile sperm. Adaptations in Ginkgophyta

93 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 The female ginkgo produces ovules which, when fertilized, develop fleshy, apricot- colored seed coats. These soft seed coats give off a foul odor when broken or crushed. Ginkgoes often are planted in urban areas because they tolerate smog and pollution. Adaptations in Ginkgophyta

94 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 The division Gnetophyta contains only three genera, which have different structural adaptations to their environments. The genus Gnetum is composed of tropical climbing plants. The genus Ephedra contains shrublike plants and is the only gnetophyte genus found in the United States. Adaptations in Ginkgophyta

95 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Gnetophyta The third genus, Welwitschia, is a bizarre- looking plant found only in South Africa. It grows close to the ground, has a large tuberous root, and may live 1000 years.

96 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Coniferophyta The conifers are trees and shrubs with needlelike or scalelike leaves.

97 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 They are abundant in forests throughout the world, and include pine, fir, spruce, juniper, cedar, redwood, yew, and larch. Adaptations in Coniferophyta

98 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Coniferophyta The reproductive structures of most conifers are produced in cones. Male cones Female cone Wing Pollen grain Spores Pollen sac Ovule Two seeds Wing

99 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Most conifers have male and female cones on different branches of the same tree. The male cones produce pollen. Female cones are much larger. They stay on the tree until the seeds have matured. Adaptations in Coniferophyta

100 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Pine Needles The needles of pines have several adaptations that enable the plants to conserve water during the cold dry winter and the dry heat of the summer.

101 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Pine Needles Cross section of needle bundle Papery sheath Needle Epidermis Stoma Modified leaf cells Bundles of needles Recessed stomata

102 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Evergreen conifers Most conifers are evergreen plantsplants that retain some of their leaves for more than one year.

103 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Evergreen conifers Plants that retain some of their leaves year- round can photosynthesize whenever favorable environmental conditions exist. This is an advantage in environments where the growing season is short.

104 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Evergreen conifers Another advantage of leaf retention is that a plants food reserves are not depleted each spring to produce a whole set of new leaves. Evergreen leaves usually have a heavy coating of cutin, a water-insoluble, waxy material that helps reduce water loss.

105 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Deciduous trees lose their leaves A few conifers, including larches and bald cypress trees, are deciduous. Deciduous plants drop all their leaves each fall or when water is scarce or unavailable as in the tundra or in deserts.

106 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Deciduous trees lose their leaves Dropping all leaves is an adaptation for reducing water loss. However, a tree with no leaves cannot photosynthesize and must remain dormant during this time.

107 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Anthophyta Flowering plants are classified in the division Anthophyta.

108 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Adaptations in Anthophyta Like other seed plants, anthophytes have roots, stems, and leaves. But unlike the other seed plants, anthophytes produce flowers and form seeds enclosed in a fruit.

109 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Anthophyta is unique among plant divisions. It is the only division in which plants have flowers and produce fruits. A fruit develops from a flowers female reproductive structure(s). Fruit production

110 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Fruit production A fruit usually contains one or more seeds. One of the advantages of fruit- enclosed seeds is the added protection the fruit provides for the young embryo. Embryo Seed coat Food supply

111 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seeds of some species that are eaten pass through the animals digestive tract unharmed and are distributed as the animal wanders. In fact, some seeds must pass through a digestive tract before they can begin to grow a new plant. Fruit production

112 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Some fruits have structural adaptations that help disperse the seed by wind or water. Fruit production

113 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 The division Anthophyta is divided into two classes: monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Monocotyledons have one seed leaf; dicotyledons have two seed leaves. Moncots and dicots

114 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Moncots and dicots Distinguishing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots Seed Leaves Vascular Bundles in Leaves Vascular Bundles in Stems Flower Parts Monocots Dicots One cotyledonUsually parallelScattered Multiples of three Two cotyledons Usually netlikeArranged in ring Multiples of four and five

115 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Moncots include grasses, orchids, lilies, and palms. Moncots and dicots

116 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Dicot species include nearly all of the familiar shrubs and trees (except conifers), cacti, wildflowers, garden flowers, vegetables, and herbs. Moncots and dicots

117 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Life spans of anthophytes The life span of a plant is genetically determined and reflects strategies for surviving periods of harsh conditions.

118 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Life spans of anthophytes Annual plants live for only a year or less. They sprout from seeds, grow, reproduce, and die in a single growing season.

119 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Life spans of anthophytes Annuals form drought-resistant seeds that survive the winter.

120 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Life spans of anthophytes Biennial plants have life spans that last two years.

121 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Life spans of anthophytes During the first year, biennials grow many leaves and develop a strong root system. Many biennials develop large storage roots, such as carrots, beets, and turnips.

122 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 During the second spring, food stored in the root is used to produce new shoots that produce flowers and seeds. Over the winter, the aboveground portion of the plant dies back, but the roots remain alive. Life spans of anthophytes

123 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Perennials live for several years, producing flowers and seeds periodicallyusually once each year. Life spans of anthophytes

124 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 They survive harsh conditions by dropping their leaves or dying back to soil level, while their woody stems or underground storage organs remain intact and dormant. Life spans of anthophytes

125 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants first appeared about 360 million years ago during the Paleozoic Era. Some seed plants, such as ancient relatives of cycads and ginkgoes, shared Earths forest with the dinosaurs during the Mesozoic Era. About 65 million years ago, most members of the Ginkgophyta died out along with many organisms during a mass extinction. Origin of Seed Plants

126 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 According to fossil evidence, the first conifers emerged around 250 million years ago. Anthophytes first appeared about 140 million years ago late in the Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era. Origin of Seed Plants

127 Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Origin of Seed Plants Cycads 200 species Gnetums 65 species Ginkgoes 1 species Conifers 600 species Anthophytes 250 000 species Protists Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.

128 Section 3 Check A pollen grain contains a _______. Question 1 D. sporophyte C. gametophyte B. embryo A. seed The answer is C.

129 Section 3 Check Why are seeds adapted for easy dispersal to new areas an advantage for plants? Answer When the seeds germinate in new areas, the new plants do not have to compete with the parent plant for sunlight, water, soil nutrients, and living space. Question 2

130 Section 3 Check The strobilus in some non-seed vascular plants is comparable to what in gymnosperms? D. ovule C. pollen grain B. cone A. seed The answer is B. Question 3

131 Chapter Summary – 22.1 Nonvascular plants lack vascular tissue and reproduce by producing spores. The gametophyte generation is dominant. Nonvascular Plants There are three divisions of nonvascular plants: Bryophyta, Hepaticophyta, and Anthocerophyta.

132 Chapter Summary – 22.2 The non-seed vascular plants were predominant in Earths ancient forests. They are represented by modern species. Non-seed Vascular Plants Vascular tissues provide the structural support that enables vascular plants to grow taller than nonvascular plants. There are three divisions of non-seed vascular plants: Lycophyta, Arthrophyta, and Pterophyta.

133 Chapter Summary – 22.3 There are four divisions of vascular plants that produce naked seeds: Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Coniferophyta. Seed Plants Seeds contain a supply of food to nourish the young plant, protect the embryo during harsh conditions, and provide methods of dispersal.

134 Chapter Summary – 22.3 Fruits provide protection for the seeds and aid in their dispersal. Seed Plants Anthophytes produce flowers and have seeds enclosed in a fruit.

135 Chapter Summary – 22.3 Seed Plants Anthophytes are either monocots or dicots based on the number of cotyledons present in the seed. Anthophytes may be annuals, biennials, or perennials.

136 Chapter Assessment Cycadophytes and Ginkgophytes have the following in common except _______. B. Both divisions produce motile sperm. A. Both divisions have male and female reproductive systems on separate plants. Question 1

137 Chapter Assessment Cycadophytes and Ginkgophytes have the following in common except _______. C. Both divisions have only one species growing wild in the United States. D. Both divisions produce pollen grains in cones. Question 1

138 The answer is C. Ginkgophytes are not known to exist in the wild. They are cultivated plants. Chapter Assessment

139 Which of the following is not an advantage for evergreen conifers? A. They can photosynthesize whenever favorable environmental conditions exist. B. Their food reserves are not depleted each spring to produce a whole set of new leaves. Question 2

140 Chapter Assessment Which of the following is not an advantage for evergreen conifers? D. Their leaf shape helps reduce water loss. C. Their fruit protect their seeds against harsh environmental conditions. Question 2

141 The answer is C. Conifers have naked seeds with no fruit. Chapter Assessment

142 Why is winter an optimal time for deciduous plants to have no leaves? Answer Less water is available to plants in winter, so they must reduce water loss, the most of which is through leaves. Sunlight is reduced as well, so leaves would not photosynthesize as much in winter. Question 3

143 Chapter Assessment Most wood used for building in the United States comes from _______. D. Pterophytes C. Cycadophytes B. Coniferophytes A. Anthophytes Question 4

144 The answer is B. Most wooden building materials come from conifers. Chapter Assessment

145 Most grain crops are _______. Question 5 D. dicots C. perennials B. biennials A. annuals The answer is A.

146 Chapter Assessment Cactuses are examples of _______. Question 6 D. perennial monocots C. perennial dicots B. biennial dicots A. annual monocots The answer is C.

147 Chapter Assessment Palms are examples of which of the following divisions? D. perennial monocots C. deciduous monocots B. Gnetophytes A. Cycadophytes The answer is D. Question 7

148 Chapter Assessment The gametophyte generation is dominant in which of the following plants? D. birds nest ferns C. sphagnum B. club moss A. horsetails Question 8

149 The answer is C. The gametophyte generation is dominant in sphagnum moss. Chapter Assessment

150 Which of the following pairs are not related? D. pollen – gametophytes C. ovaries – fruits B. hornworts – rhizomes A. sorus – sporangia The answer is B. Question 9

151 Chapter Assessment What is the method of dispersal of seeds covered in burrs? D. insects C. animals B. wind A. water Question 10

152 The answer is C. Seeds covered in burrs are dispersed by clinging to the skin and fur of animals. Chapter Assessment

153 Photo Credits Digital Stock Carolina Biological Supply Co. Geoff Butler David M. Dennis Matt Meadows PhotoDisc Marty Pardo Amanita Pictures Studiohio Alton Biggs

154 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

155 End of Chapter 22 Show


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