Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Table of Contents – pages iv-v

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body Table of Contents – pages iv-v

3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell Table of Contents – pages iv-v

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Table of Contents – pages iv-v

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v
Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease Table of Contents – pages iv-v

8 The Life of a Cell The Chemistry of Life A View of the Cell
Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Energy in a Cell Unit Overview – pages

9 Chapter Contents – page viii
Chapter 9 Energy in a Cell 9.1: The Need for Energy 9.1: Section Check 9.2: Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun’s Energy 9.2: Section Check 9.3: Getting Energy to Make ATP 9.3: Section Check Chapter 9 Summary Chapter 9 Assessment Chapter Contents – page viii

10 What You’ll Learn You will recognize why organisms need a constant supply of energy and where that energy comes from. You will identify how cells store and release energy as ATP. You will describe the pathways by which cells obtain energy. Chapter Intro-page 220

11 What You’ll Learn You will compare ATP production in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. Chapter Intro-page 220

12 9.1 Section Objectives – page 221
Explain why organisms need a supply of energy. Describe how energy is stored and released by ATP. 9.1 Section Objectives – page 221

13 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Cell Energy All living organisms must be able to obtain energy from the environment in which they live. Plants and other green organisms are able to trap the light energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

14 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Cell Energy Other organisms cannot use sunlight directly. They eat green plants. In that way, they obtain the energy stored in plants. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

15 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Work and the need for energy Active transport, cell division, movement of flagella or cilia, and the production, transport, and storage of proteins are some examples of cell processes that require energy. There is a molecule in your cells that is a quick source of energy for any organelle in the cell that needs it. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

16 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Work and the need for energy The name of this energy molecule is adenosine triphosphate or ATP for short. ATP is composed of an adenosine molecule with three phosphate groups attached. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

17 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Forming and Breaking Down ATP The charged phosphate groups act like the positive poles of two magnets. Bonding three phosphate groups to form adenosine triphosphate requires considerable energy. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

18 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Forming and Breaking Down ATP When only one phosphate group bonds, a small amount of energy is required and the chemical bond does not store much energy. This molecule is called adenosine monophosphate (AMP). When a second phosphate group is added, more energy is required to force the two groups together. This molecule is called adenosine diphosphate, or ADP. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

19 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Forming and Breaking Down ATP An even greater amount of energy is required to force a third charged phosphate group close enough to the other two to form a bond. When this bond is broken, energy is released. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

20 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
Forming and Breaking Down ATP The energy of ATP becomes available to a cell when the molecule is broken down. P P P Adenosine Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P P Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P Adenosine Section 9.1 Summary – pages

21 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP When ATP is broken down and the energy is released, the energy must be captured and used efficiently by cells. Many proteins have a specific site where ATP can bind. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

22 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP Then, when the phosphate bond is broken and the energy released, the cell can use the energy for activities such as making a protein or transporting molecules through the plasma membrane. ATP Protein P Energy ADP ADP Section 9.1 Summary – pages

23 Section 9.1 Summary – pages 221-224
How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP When ATP has been broken down to ADP, the ADP is released from the binding site in the protein and the binding site may then be filled by another ATP molecule. Section 9.1 Summary – pages

24 Question 1 What is the primary difference in the ways that plants and animals obtain energy? Answer All living organisms need energy. Plants can trap light energy in sunlight and store it for later use. Animals cannot trap energy from sunlight and must eat plants that contain stored energy. NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

25 Question 2 Why does the formation of ATP require energy? NC: 4.02
Section 1 Check

26 One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, which are charged particles. Energy is required to bond the phosphate groups onto the same molecule because they behave the same way that the poles of magnets do and repel groups with like charges. When the ATP molecule is broken down, the chemical energy stored in it becomes available to the cell for life processes. NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

27 Question 3 A molecule of adenosine that has one phosphate group bonded to it is ______. A. AMP B. ADP C. ATP D. ACP NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

28 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
The answer is A. AMP is adenosine monophosphate. P P P Adenosine The addition and release of a phosphate group on adenosine diphosphate creates a cycle of ATP formation and breakdown. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P P Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P Adenosine NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

29 Question 4 What is the function of the protein molecule shown in this diagram? ATP Protein P Energy ADP ADP NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

30 This protein molecule has a specific binding site for ATP
This protein molecule has a specific binding site for ATP. In order to access the energy stored ATP, the protein molecule binds the ATP and uncouples one phosphate group. This action releases energy that is then available to the cell. ATP Protein P Energy ADP ADP NC: 4.02 Section 1 Check

31 9.2 Section Objectives – page 225
Relate the structure of chloroplasts to the events in photosynthesis. Describe light-dependent reactions. Explain the reactions and products of the light-independent Calvin cycle. 9.2 Section Objectives – page 225

32 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Trapping Energy from Sunlight The process that uses the sun’s energy to make simple sugars is called photosynthesis. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

33 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Trapping Energy from Sunlight Photosynthesis happens in two phases. The light-dependent reactions convert light energy into chemical energy. 2. The molecules of ATP produced in the light-dependent reactions are then used to fuel the light-independent reactions that produce simple sugars. The general equation for photosynthesis is written as 6CO2 + 6H2O→C6H12O6 + 6O2 Section 9.2 Summary – pages

34 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Trapping Energy from Sunlight Click image to view movie. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

35 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The chloroplast and pigments To trap the energy in the sun’s light, the thylakoid membranes contain pigments, molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight. Although a photosystem contains several kinds of pigments, the most common is chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most wavelengths of light except green. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

36 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Light-Dependent Reactions As sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules in a photosystem of the thylakoid membrane, the energy in the light is transferred to electrons. These highly energized, or excited, electrons are passed from chlorophyll to an electron transport chain, a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

37 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Sun Light-Dependent Reactions Light energy transfers to chlorophyll. At each step along the transport chain, the electrons lose energy. Chlorophyll passes energy down through the electron transport chain. Energized electrons provide energy that splits H2O bonds P to ADP forming ATP H+ oxygen released NADP+ NADPH for the use in light-independent reactions Section 9.2 Summary – pages

38 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Light-Dependent Reactions This “lost” energy can be used to form ATP from ADP, or to pump hydrogen ions into the center of the thylakoid disc. Electrons are re-energized in a second photosystem and passed down a second electron transport chain. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

39 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Light-Dependent Reactions The electrons are transferred to the stroma of the chloroplast. To do this, an electron carrier molecule called NADP is used. NADP can combine with two excited electrons and a hydrogen ion (H+) to become NADPH. NADPH will play an important role in the light-independent reactions. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

40 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Restoring electrons To replace the lost electrons, molecules of water are split in the first photosystem. This reaction is called photolysis. Sun _ 1 Chlorophyll O2 + 2H+ 2 _ 2e- 1 H2O ®2H+ + O2 + 2e- H2O 2 Section 9.2 Summary – pages

41 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
Restoring electrons The oxygen produced by photolysis is released into the air and supplies the oxygen we breathe. The electrons are returned to chlorophyll. The hydrogen ions are pumped into the thylakoid, where they accumulate in high concentration. Section 9.2 Summary – pages

42 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
(CO2) (CO2) The Calvin Cycle (Unstable intermediate) (RuPB) ADP + ATP ATP ADP + NADPH NADP+ (PGAL) (PGAL) (PGAL) (Sugars and other carbohydrates) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

43 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The Calvin Cycle Carbon fixation The carbon atom from CO2 bonds with a five-carbon sugar called ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) to form an unstable six-carbon sugar. (CO2) The stroma in chloroplasts hosts the Calvin cycle. (RuBP) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

44 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The Calvin Cycle Formation of 3-carbon molecules The six-carbon sugar formed in Step A immediately splits to form two three-carbon molecules. (Unstable intermediate) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

45 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The Calvin Cycle Use of ATP and NADPH A series of reactions involving ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions converts the three-carbon molecules into phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), three-carbon sugars with higher energy bonds. ATP ADP + NADPH NADP+ (PGAL) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

46 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The Calvin Cycle Sugar production One out of every six molecules of PGAL is transferred to the cytoplasm and used in the synthesis of sugars and other carbohydrates. After three rounds of the cycle, six molecules of PGAL are produced. (PGAL) (Sugars and other carbohydrates) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

47 Section 9.2 Summary – pages 225-230
The Calvin Cycle RuBP is replenished Five molecules of PGAL, each with three carbon atoms, produce three molecules of the five-carbon RuBP. This replenishes the RuBP that was used up, and the cycle can continue. ADP+ P ATP (PGAL) Section 9.2 Summary – pages

48 Question 1 The process that uses the sun’s energy to make simple sugars is ________. A. cellular respiration B. glycolysis C. photosynthesis D. photolysis NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

49 The answer is C. Photosynthesis happens in two phases to make simple sugars and convert the sugars into complex carbohydrates for energy storage. NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

50 Question 2 The function accomplished by the light-dependent reactions is ________. A. energy storage B. sugar production C. carbon fixation D. conversion of sugar to PGAL NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

51 Sun The answer is A. The light-dependent reactions transfer energy from the sun to chlorophyll, and pass energized electrons to proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane for storage in ATP and NADPH molecules. Light energy transfers to chlorophyll. Chlorophyll passes energy down through the electron transport chain. Energized electrons provide energy that splits H2O bonds P to ADP forming ATP H+ oxygen released NADP+ NADPH for the use in light-independent reactions NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

52 Question 3 The first step in the Calvin cycle is the ________.
A. replenishing of ribulose biphosphate B. production of phosphoglyceraldehyde C. Splitting of six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon molecules D. Bonding of carbon to ribulose biphosphate NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

53 The answer is D. The carbon atom from CO2 bonds with a five-carbon sugar to form an unstable six-carbon sugar. This molecule then splits to form two three-carbon molecules. NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

54 Question 4 How many rounds of the Calvin cycle must occur in order for one molecule of PGAL to be transferred to the cell’s cytoplasm? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 NC: 4.02 Section 2 Check

55 The answer is C. Each round of the Calvin cycle produces two molecules of PGAL.
Section 2 Check

56 9.3 Section Objectives – page 231
Compare and contrast cellular respiration and fermentation. Explain how cells obtain energy from cellular respiration. 9.3 Section Objectives – page 231

57 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Cellular Respiration The process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. There are three stages of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

58 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Cellular Respiration The first stage, glycolysis, is anaerobic—no oxygen is required. The last two stages are aerobic and require oxygen to be completed. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

59 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Glycolysis Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three-carbon compound. 4ATP 2ADP 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 4ADP + 4P Glucose 2PGAL 2NAD+ 2NADH + 2H+ Section 9.3 Summary – pages

60 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Glycolysis Glycolysis is not very effective, producing only two ATP molecules for each glucose molecule broken down. 4ATP 2ADP 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 4ADP + 4P Glucose 2PGAL 2NAD+ 2NADH + 2H+ Section 9.3 Summary – pages

61 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Glycolysis Before citric acid cycle and electron transport chain can begin, pyruvic acid undergoes a series of reactions in which it gives off a molecule of CO2 and combines with a molecule called coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA. Mitochondrial membrane CO2 Outside the mitochondrion Inside the mitochondrion Coenzyme A - CoA Pyruvic acid Pyruvic acid Intermediate by-product Acetyl-CoA NAD+ NADH + H+ Section 9.3 Summary – pages

62 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also called the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions similar to the Calvin cycle in that the molecule used in the first reaction is also one of the end products. For every turn of the cycle, one molecule of ATP and two molecules of carbon dioxide are produced. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

63 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The Citric Acid Cycle (Acetyl-CoA) NAD+ Oxaloacetic acid Citric acid NADH + H+ NADH + H+ O= =O Citric Acid Cycle NAD+ (CO2) The mitochondria host the citric acid cycle. NAD+ NADH + H+ O= =O (CO2) ADP + ATP FADH2 FAD Section 9.3 Summary – pages

64 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The citric acid cycle Citric acid The two-carbon compound acetyl-CoA reacts with a four-carbon compound called oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid, a six-carbon molecule. Acetyl-CoA Citric acid Oxaloacetic acid Section 9.3 Summary – pages

65 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The citric acid cycle Formation of CO2 A molecule of CO2 is formed, reducing the eventual product to a five-carbon compound. In the process, a molecule of NADH and H+ is produced. NAD+ NADH + H+ O= =O (CO2) Section 9.3 Summary – pages

66 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The citric acid cycle Formation of the second CO2 Another molecule of CO2 is released, forming a four-carbon compound. One molecule of ATP and a molecule of NADH are also produced. NAD+ NADH + H+ O= =O ADP + (CO2) ATP Section 9.3 Summary – pages

67 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Recycling of oxaloacetic acid The four-carbon molecule goes through a series of reactions in which FADH2, NADH, and H+ are formed. The carbon chain is rearranged, and oxaloacetic acid is again made available for the cycle. The citric acid cycle NADH + H+ NAD+ FAD FADH2 Section 9.3 Summary – pages

68 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The electron transport chain In the electron transport chain, the carrier molecules NADH and FADH2 gives up electrons that pass through a series of reactions. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Space between inner and outer membranes Electron carrier proteins Enzyme Inner membrane Electron pathway e - 4H+ + O2 H2O NADH NAD+ ADP + ATP + 4 electrons FADH2 FAD H2O Center of mitochondrion Section 9.3 Summary – pages

69 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
The electron transport chain Overall, the electron transport chain adds 32 ATP molecules to the four already produced. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

70 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Fermentation During heavy exercise, when your cells are without oxygen for a short period of time, an anaerobic process called fermentation follows glycolysis and provides a means to continue producing ATP until oxygen is available again. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

71 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Lactic acid fermentation Lactic acid fermentation is one of the processes that supplies energy when oxygen is scarce. In this process, the reactions that produced pyruvic acid are reversed. Two molecules of pyruvic acid use NADH to form two molecules of lactic acid. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

72 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Lactic acid fermentation This releases NAD+ to be used in glycolysis, allowing two ATP molecules to be formed for each glucose molecule. The lactic acid is transferred from muscle cells, to the liver that converts it back to pyruvic acid. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

73 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Alcoholic fermentation Another type of fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, is used by yeast cells and some bacteria to produce CO2 and ethyl alcohol. Section 9.3 Summary – pages

74 Section 9.3 Summary – pages 231-237
Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Table 9.1 Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Food synthesized Food broken down Energy from sun stored in glucose Energy of glucose released Carbon dioxide taken in Carbon dioxide given off Oxygen given off Oxygen taken in Produces sugars from PGAL Produces CO2 and H2O Requires light Does not require light Occurs only in presence of chlorophyll Occurs in all living cells Section 9.3 Summary – pages

75 Question 1 What do the Calvin cycle and the Citric acid cycle have in common? A. The molecule used in the first reaction is also one of the end products. B. Both require input of ATP molecules. C. Both generate ADP. D. From every turn of the cycle, two molecules of carbon dioxide are produced. NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

76 The answer is A. In the Calvin cycle, RuBP bonds to carbon in the first step and is produced in the last step. In the citric acid cycle, oxaloacetic acid reacts in the first step and is recycled in the last step. NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

77 Question 2 The process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP is called ________. A. photosynthesis B. cellular respiration C. the light-independent reaction D. the Calvin cycle NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

78 The answer is B. Photosynthesis, light-independent reactions, and the Calvin cycle all occur in plants. NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

79 Question 3 The three stages of cellular respiration are ________.
A. glycolysis, the Calvin cycle, and the electron transport chain B. carbon fixation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

80 Question 3 The three stages of cellular respiration are ________.
C. glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain D. the light-dependent reactions, the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

81 The answer is C. The first stage is anaerobic, but the last two stages require oxygen to be completed. NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

82 Question 4 Which of the following yields the greatest net ATP?
A. Lactic acid fermentation B. Alcoholic fermentation C. Calvin cycle D. Cellular respiration NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

83 The answer is D. Cellular respiration is far more efficient in ATP production than the fermentation reactions. Comparison of Fermentation to Cellular Respiration Lactic Acid Alcoholic Cellular respiration glucose glucose glucose glycolysis (pyruvic acid) glycolysis (pyruvic acid) glycolysis (pyruvic acid) carbon dioxide carbon dioxide lactic acid alcohol water 2 ATP 2 ATP 38 ATP NC: 4.02 Section 3 Check

84 The Need for Energy ATP is the molecule that stores energy for easy use within the cell. ATP is formed when a phosphate group is added to ADP. When ATP is broken down, ADP and phosphate are formed and energy is released. Green organisms trap the energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules for later use. Chapter Summary – 9.1

85 The Need for Energy Organisms that cannot use sunlight directly obtain energy by consuming plants or other organisms that have consumed plants. Chapter Summary – 9.1

86 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun’s Energy
Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use light energy to make simple sugars. Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of plant cells traps light energy needed for photosynthesis. The light reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP and result in the splitting of water molecules. Chapter Summary – 9.2

87 Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun’s Energy
The reactions of the Calvin Cycle make carbohydrates using CO2 along with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions. Chapter Summary – 9.2

88 Getting Energy to Make ATP
In cellular respiration, cells break down carbohydrates to release energy. The first stage of cellular respiration, glycolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen. The citric acid cycle takes place in mitochondria and requires oxygen. Chapter Summary – 9.3

89 Question 1 Name two differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

90 Although both processes use electron carriers and form ATP, they accomplish quite different tasks as shown in the table. Table 9.1 Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Food synthesized Food broken down Energy from sun stored in glucose Energy of glucose released Carbon dioxide taken in Carbon dioxide given off Oxygen given off Oxygen taken in Produces sugars from PGAL Produces CO2 and H2O Requires light Does not require light Occurs only in presence of chlorophyll Occurs in all living cells NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

91 D. ribulose biphosphate
Question 2 Choose the word from this list that does NOT belong with the others. A. oxaloacetic acid B. FADH2 C. Acetyl-CoA D. ribulose biphosphate NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

92 The answer is D. RuBP is utilized in the Calvin cycle; the others are part of the citric acid cycle.
Chapter Assessment

93 Question 3 Six molecules of glucose would give a net yield of _____ ATP following glycolysis. A. 8 B. 16 C. 6 D. 12 NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

94 The answer is D. Glycolysis produces two ATP molecules for each glucose molecule broken down.
NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

95 Question 4 In which of the following structures do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place? A. C. B. D. NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

96 The answer is D. The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

97 Question 5 In which stage of photosynthesis is carbon from CO2 used to form a six-carbon sugar? A. Calvin cycle B. glycolysis C. citric acid cycle D. electron transport chain NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

98 The answer is A. NC: 4.02 (CO2) (Unstable intermediate) (RuPB) ADP +
ATP ATP ADP + NADPH NADP+ (PGAL) (PGAL) (PGAL) (Sugars and other carbohydrates) NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

99 Question 6 What component of thylakoid membranes absorbs specific wavelengths of sunlight? A. electrons B. pigments C. chloroplasts D. mitochondria NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

100 The answer is B. Pigments are arranged within the thylakoid membranes in photosystems; the most common pigment is chlorophyll. NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

101 Question 7 Which of the following is a product of cellular respiration? A. lactic acid B. alcohol C. glucose D. carbon dioxide NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

102 The answer is D. Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP are the products of cellular respiration.
NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

103 which takes place in stroma
Question 8 Complete the concept map using the following terms: RuBP replenishing, formation of 3-carbon molecules, Calvin cycle, carbon fixation. 1 2 3 are steps in 4 which takes place in stroma NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

104 Completed concept map should reflect carbon fixation, RuBP replenishing, and formation of 3-carbon molecules as steps in the Calvin cycle which takes place in stroma. NC: 4.02 Chapter Assessment

105 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

106 End of Chapter 9 Show


Download ppt "Table of Contents – pages iv-v"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google