VISIT #2 Returned next day post u/s: Well seen and NORMAL liver, GB, ducts, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, aorta, para- aorta areas, bowel, uterus, overies, adnexa. No free fluid.
Repeat labs Bili 29 (down from 46) GGT 56 (down from 64) WBCs 12.2 (down from 13.5) K = 3.4 Dx: gastroenteritis
Visit #3 Returns 5 days later… Persistent diarrhea Malaise ABDO PAIN!! 9 lb wt loss in 10 days
OTHER HX? No travel No well water exposure No recent ABX No sick contacts No exposure to uncooked meats
Phx = healthy, no surgeries, PAP 6 months prior was normal No meds (was on OCP in past) Social = infrequent EtOH, no IVDU, No risky sexual behaviour 1 partner. Using condoms. Tattoo at end of June Fam Hx: No IBD
WBC: 19.9 (neuts 13, bands 4.2) GGT 109 ALP 175 Bili T = 23
Stool C + S = negative Stool O + P = negative Hep Serology = negative C. diff = negative Stool Fat Globules = negative
Speculum Exam: thick yellow d/c from cervical os Bimanual Exam: + cervical motion tenderness CT Abdo/Pelvis: complex fluid collection in pouch of Douglas, compressing rectum, consistent with large tubo-ovarian abscess
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Perihepatitis in association with pelvic inflammatory disease Originally described by Carlos Stajano (1919) in Uroguay. 1930s… re-described by Thomas Fitz- Hugh and Arthur Curtis.
Etiology Originally felt only to be secondary to N. gonorrhea (Fitz-Hugh discovered gram negative diplococci on smears taken from the liver capsule) 1970s, Chlamydia trachomatis implicated and remains the most common pathogen Case reports... strept milleri, tuberculosis
Organisms Associated with PID Aerobes: N. gonorrhea C. trachomatis U. urealyticum Mycoplasma sp. (genitalium, hominus) Gardnerella vaginalis Strept Pyogenes Coag – staph E. Coli H. influenzae S. pneumoniae Mycobacterium tuberculosis Anaerobes: B. fragilis Peptostreptococcus Clostridium bifermentans Fusobacterium sp. Viruses: HSV Echovirus Cocksackie
Diagnosis RULING IN pelvic inflammatory disease RULING OUT other causes of RUQ pain +/or elevated liver enzymes
Pathogenesis Multiple Theories: Direct Infection of Liver? Hematogenous Spread? Lymphatic Spread? Exaggerated Immune Response?
How Common? Studies show broad ranges 4%-27% of patients with PID RISK FACTORS: IUDs, pelvic surgery, multiple partners, lack of barrier protection etc.
Symptoms Symptoms of PID (fever, abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding) Right Upper Quadrant Painusually pleuritic. Possible for patient to present with RUQ pain only (subacute/chronic PID)
Atypical Presentations Ileus/obstruction Peri-splenitis Peri-appendicitis Fitz-Hugh-Curtis in a male Chilaiditi syndrome Ovarian Ca Perforated Ulcer Pleural effusion
Physical Exam Cervical motion tenderness Adnexal/uterine tenderness Lower Abdominal tenderness RUQ tenderness (may occur on its own) +/- friction rub over right anterior costal margin
Radiographic Studies Ultrasound: Excludes cholelithiasis, cholecystitis etc. Insensitive for FHC May demonstrate violin-string adhesions, loculated fluid in the hepatorenal space. Violin String also in Familial Mediterranean Fever, Diaphragmatic Endometriosis
Radiographic Studies CT Scan: Helpful IF can demonstrate contrast enhancement of the liver capsule Sensitivity of only 28%! (Joo et al. 2007) Depends if biphasic CT vs. portal phase only
LAB TESTS Liver Enzymes: often normal but can be elevated Litt and Cohen (JAMA, 1978) found ALT most likely, but cholestatic enzyme elevations also reported +/- ESR +/- Leukocytosis Cultures: N gonorrhea, C Trachomatis from cervix. Cultures from pelvic aspirates tend not to correlate. (mixed anaerobes, aerobes etc.)
Treatment Similar to that of PID Generally focused on N gonorrhea and C trachomatis, gram negative rods, anaerobes Direct therapy according to cultures Drain abscesses
PID tx Tx regimens: Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM/Doxy 100 bid x 14 days Levo od/Flagyl bid x 14 days Cefoxitin 2g IV q6/Doxy 100 bid IV for 48 hours afebrile, then PO Poor response to ABX = laparoscopy
Complications Those of PID: Infertility Adhesions Chronic pain Ectopic pregnancy Reiters syndrome
Culture results: Streptococcus milleri (heavy) B fragiles (moderate) E. Coli (scant) NAAT: Negative for both Chlamydea and Gonorrhea