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Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a CellThe Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of LifeThe Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

8 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease

9 Unit Overview – pages The Life of a Cell The Chemistry of Life A View of the Cell Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Energy in a Cell

10 Chapter Contents – page viii Chapter 6 The Chemistry of LifeThe Chemistry of Life 6.1: Atoms and Their InteractionsAtoms and Their Interactions 6.1: Section CheckSection Check 6.2: Water and DiffusionWater and Diffusion 6.2: Section CheckSection Check 6.3: Life SubstancesLife Substances 6.3: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 6 SummarySummary Chapter 6 AssessmentAssessment

11 Chapter Intro-page 140 What Youll Learn You will relate an atoms interactions with other atoms to its structure. You will explain why water is important in life. You will compare the role of biomolecules in organisms.

12 6.1 Section Objectives – page 141 Relate the structure of an atom to the identity of elements. Section Objectives: Relate the formation of covalent and ionic chemical bonds to the stability of atoms.

13 6.1 Section Objectives – page 141 Section Objectives: Distinguish mixtures and solutions. Define acids and bases and relate their importance to biological systems.

14 An element is a substance that cant be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Section 6.1 Summary – pages Elements Everything – whether it is a rock, frog, or flower – is made of substances called elements.

15 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Of the naturally occurring elements on Earth, only about 25 are essential to living organisms. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up more that 96 percent of the mass of a human body. Natural elements in living things

16 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Trace elements Trace elements such as iron and copper, play a vital role in maintaining healthy cells in all organisms. Plants obtain trace elements by absorbing them through their roots; animals get them from the foods they eat.

17 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Table 6.1 Some Elements That Make Up the Human Body ElementSymbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Element Symbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Molybdenum Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Selenium Iron Zinc Copper Iodine Manganese Boron Chromium Cobalt Fluorine O C H N Ca P K S Na Cl Mg Fe Zn Cu I Mn B Cr Mo Co Se F trace

18 An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Section 6.1 Summary – pages Atoms: The Building Blocks of Elements Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.

19 All nuclei contain positively charged particles called protons (p + ). The center of an atom is called the nucleus (NEW klee us). Section 6.1 Summary – pages The structure of an atom Most contain particles that have no charge, called neutrons (n 0 ).

20 Section 6.1 Summary – pages The Structure of an atom Nucleus Electron energy levels The region of space surrounding the nucleus contains extremely small, negatively charged particles called electrons (e - ) This region of space is referred to as an electron cloud.

21 Section 6.1 Summary – pages The Structure of an atom Because opposites attract, the negatively charged electrons are held in the electron cloud by the positively charged nucleus.

22 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Electron energy levels Electrons exist around the nucleus in regions known as energy levels. The first energy level can hold only two electrons. The second level can hold a maximum of eight electrons. The third level can hold up to 18 electrons. Nucleus 8 protons (p+) 8 neutrons (n 0 ) Oxygen atom

23 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Electron energy levels Atoms contain equal numbers of electrons and protons; therefore, they have no net charge.

24 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Atoms of the same element always have the same number of protons but may contain different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes of an Element Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (I suh tophs) of that element.

25 Section 6.1 Summary – pages A compound is a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. Compounds and Bonding Table salt (NaCl) is a compound composed of the elements sodium and chlorine.

26 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Atoms combine with other atoms only when the resulting compound is more stable than the individual atoms. How covalent bonds form For many elements, an atom becomes stable when its outermost energy level is full. Sharing electrons with other atoms is one way for elements to become stable.

27 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Two hydrogen atoms can combine with each other by sharing their electrons. How covalent bonds form Each atom becomes stable by sharing its electron with the other atom. Hydrogen molecule

28 Section 6.1 Summary – pages How covalent bonds form Click image to view movie.

29 Section 6.1 Summary – pages How covalent bonds form The attraction of the positively charged nuclei for the shared, negatively charged electrons holds the atoms together. Hydrogen molecule

30 Section 6.1 Summary – pages A covalent bond holds the two hydrogen atoms together. How covalent bonds form A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. It has no overall charge. Water molecule

31 Section 6.1 Summary – pages An atom (or group of atoms) that gains or loses electrons has an electrical charge and is called an ion. An ion is a charged particle made of atoms. How ionic bonds form The attractive force between two ions of opposite charge is known as an ionic bond. Click image to view movie.

32 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Chemical reactions occur when bonds are formed or broken, causing substances to recombine into different substances. Chemical Reactions Ionic bond + Sodium atom + Chlorine atom Sodium + Ion + Chlorine ion Na atom: 11p + 11e Cl atom: 17p + 17e Na + ion: 11p + 10e Cl ion: 17p + 18e

33 All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism are referred to as that organisms metabolism. Section 6.1 Summary – pages Chemical Reactions Ionic bond + Sodium atom + Chlorine atom Sodium + Ion + Chlorine ion Na atom: 11p + 11e Cl atom: 17p + 17e Na + ion: 11p + 10e Cl ion: 17p + 18e

34 Section 6.1 Summary – pages In a chemical reaction, substances that undergo chemical reactions, are called reactants. Writing chemical equations Substances formed by chemical reactions, are called products.

35 Section 6.1 Summary – pages A molecule of table sugar can be represented by the formula: C 12 H 22 O 11. Writing chemical equations The easiest way to understand chemical equations is to know that atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. They are simply rearranged.

36 A mixture is a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties. Section 6.1 Summary – pages Mixtures and Solutions Neither component of the mixture changes.

37 Section 6.1 Summary – pages A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent). Mixtures and Solutions Sugar molecules in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water to form a solution.

38 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Chemical reactions can occur only when conditions are right. Acids and bases A reaction may depend on: - energy availability - temperature - concentration of a substance - pH of the surrounding environment

39 Section 6.1 Summary – pages The pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Acids and bases A scale with values ranging from below 0 to above 14 is used to measure pH. More acidic NeutralMore basic

40 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Substances with a pH below 7 are acidic. An acid is any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H + ) in water. Acids and bases A solution is neutral if its pH equals zero. More acidic NeutralMore basic

41 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Substances with a pH above 7 are basic. A base is any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH - ) in water. Acids and bases pH 11

42 Section 1 Check Question 1 Which of the following is an element? D. water C. sodium chloride B. carbon A. chlorophyll NC: 2.01

43 Section 1 Check The answer is B. An element can't be broken down into simpler chemical substances. Chemical elements combine in different ways to form a variety of substances useful to living things. NC: 2.01

44 Section 1 Check Table 6.1 Some Elements That Make Up the Human Body ElementSymbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Element Symbol Percent By Mass in Human Body Molybdenum Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chlorine Magnesium Selenium Iron Zinc Copper Iodine Manganese Boron Chromium Cobalt Fluorine O C H N Ca P K S Na Cl Mg Fe Zn Cu I Mn B Cr Mo Co Se F trace NC: 2.01

45 Section 1 Check The smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element is a(n) __________. Question 2 D. atom C. nucleus B. electron A. proton

46 Section 1 Check The answer is D. Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter and have the same general structure, including a nucleus and electrons. Elements found in both living and nonliving things are made of atoms. Nucleus Electron energy levels An atom has a nucleus and electrons in energy levels.

47 Section 1 Check Which of the following can contain two types of particles? D. electrons Question 3 B. protons C. neutrons A. nucleus

48 Section 1 Check The answer is A. The nucleus is the center of the atom and may contain both positively charged particles and particles that have no charge. Nucleus 8 protons (p+) 8 neutrons (n 0 ) Oxygen atom

49 Section 1 Check Question 4 B. Sodium and chlorine atoms have no overall electrical charge. A. Sodium and chlorine are sharing electrons in their outer energy levels. Sodium and chlorine combine to form table salt. What do you know to be true?

50 Section 1 Check Question 4 D. Sodium and chlorine atoms in table salt have full outer energy levels. C. Sodium and chlorine are less stable in the compound sodium chloride. Sodium and chlorine combine to form table salt. What do you know to be true?

51 Section 1 Check The answer is D. Sodium and chlorine atoms combine because the resulting compound, table salt, is more stable than the individual atoms. Sodium loses an electron in its outer energy level, chlorine gains that electron in its outer energy level, and an ionic bond is formed.

52 Section 2 Objectives – page 152 Section Objectives Identify how the process of diffusion occurs and why it is important to cells. Relate waters unique features to polarity.

53 Summary Section 2 – pages Water is perhaps the most important compound in living organisms. Water and Its Importance Water makes up 70 to 95 percent of most organisms.

54 Summary Section 2 – pages Water is Polar Sometimes, when atoms form covalent bonds they do not share the electrons equally. This is called a polar bond.

55 Summary Section 2 – pages Water is Polar A polar molecule is a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge; that is, each molecule has a positive end and a negative end. Water is an example of a polar molecule. Water can dissolve many ionic compounds, such as salt, and many other polar molecules, such as sugar.

56 Summary Section 2 – pages Water is Polar Water molecules also attract other water molecules. Weak hydrogen bonds are formed between positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged oxygen atoms. Hydrogen atom Oxygen atom

57 Summary Section 2 – pages Water resists changes in temperature. Therefore, water requires more heat to increase its temperature than do most other common liquids. Water resists temperature changes

58 Summary Section 2 – pages Water expands when it freezes Water is one of the few substances that expands when it freezes. Ice is less dense than liquid water so it floats as it forms in a body of water.

59 Summary Section 2 – pages Early observations: Bownian motion In 1827, Scottish scientist Robert Brown used a microscope to observe pollen grains suspended in water. He noticed that the grains moved constantly in little jerks, as if being struck by invisible objects. This motion is now called Brownian motion. Today we know that Brown was observing evidence of the random motion of atoms and molecules.

60 Summary Section 2 – pages The process of diffusion Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion results because of the random movement of particles (Brownian motion). Three key factorsconcentration, temperature, and pressureaffect the rate of diffusion.

61 Summary Section 2 – pages The results of diffusion When a cell is in dynamic equilibrium with its environment, materials move into and out of the cell at equal rates. As a result, there is no net change in concentration inside or outside the cell. Material moving out of cell equals material moving into cell

62 Summary Section 2 – pages Diffusion in living systems The difference in concentration of a substance across space is called a concentration gradient. Ions and molecules diffuse from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, moving with the gradient. Dynamic equilibrium occurs when there is no longer a concentration gradient.

63 Section 2 Check Explain why water is important to living organisms. Question 1 Living organisms must have water for life processes, because critical molecules and ions must be free to move and collide, which only happens when they are dissolved in water. Water also transports materials in living organisms, such as in blood or sap. Answer

64 Section 2 Check How does water's chemical structure impact its role in living organisms? Question 2 Positively charged end Negatively charged end + + NC: 2.03

65 Section 2 Check Because water is polar, it can dissolve many ionic compounds and polar molecules. Water has the property of capillary action that enables plants to get water from the ground. Water also resists temperature changes, which allows cells to maintain homeostasis. NC: 2.03

66 Section 2 Check Which of the following best describes diffusion? Question 3 B. net movement of particles from area of low concentration to area of high concentration A. slow process resulting from random movement of particles NC: 2.03

67 Section 2 Check D. net movement of particles from high to low concentrations that accelerates when pressure decreases C. rapid process that is unaffected by increases in temperature Which of the following best describes diffusion? Question 3 NC: 2.03

68 Section 2 Check The answer is A. Diffusion is a slow process resulting from the random movement of particles, and is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration. NC: 2.03

69 6.3 Section Objectives – page 157 Classify the variety of organic compounds. Section Objectives: Describe how polymers are formed and broken down in organisms. Compare the chemical structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and relate their importance to living things. Identify the effects of enzymes.

70 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A carbon atom has four electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level. In order to become stable, a carbon atom forms four covalent bonds that fill its outer energy level. The Role of Carbon in Organisms

71 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The Role of Carbon in Organisms Two carbon atoms can form various types of covalent bondssingle, double or triple. Single Bond Double BondTriple Bond

72 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Carbon compounds vary greatly in size. Molecular chains When carbon atoms bond to each other, they can form straight chains, branched chains, or rings.

73 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Molecular chains Small molecules bond together to form chains called polymers. A polymer is a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.

74 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A carbohydrate is a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom. The structure of carbohydrates

75 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The largest carbohydrate molecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many monosaccharide subunits. (ie. potatoes, liver) The structure of carbohydrates The simplest type of carbohydrate is a simple sugar called a monosaccharide (mah noh SA kuh ride). (ie. glucose, fructose)

76 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Lipids are large biomolecules that are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen. (ie. fats, oils, waxes) The structure of lipids They are insoluble in water because their molecules are nonpolar and are not attracted by water molecules.

77 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A protein is a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. The structure of proteins

78 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of proteins The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. There are about 20 common amino acids that can make literally thousands of proteins.

79 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Peptide bonds are covalent bonds formed between amino acids. The structure of proteins

80 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages Proteins are the building blocks of many structural components of organisms. The structure of proteins

81 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of proteins Enzymes are important proteins found in living things. An enzyme is a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. They speed the reactions in digestion of food. Click image to view movie.

82 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages A nucleic (noo KLAY ihk) acid is a complex biomolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code. The structure of nucleic acids Nucleic acids are polymers made of smaller subunits called nucleotides.

83 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of nucleic acids Nucleotides are arranged in three groupsa nitrogenous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate group. Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base

84 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid. The structure of nucleic acids Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base

85 6.3 Section Summary 6.3 – pages The structure of nucleic acids The information coded in DNA contains the instructions used to form all of an organisms enzymes and structural proteins. Another important nucleic acid is RNA, which stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is a nucleic acid that forms a copy of DNA for use in making proteins.

86 Section 3 Check How many covalent bonds does a carbon atom need to form in order to become stable? Question 1 D. 4 C. 3 B. 2 A. 1

87 The answer is D. A carbon atom has four electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level and needs to form four covalent bonds in order to become stable. Section 3 Check

88 A __________ is a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom. Question 2 D. fatty acid C. protein B. lipid A. carbohydrate Section 3 Check NC: 2.01

89 The answer is A. Lipids are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen, and proteins contain nitrogen in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Section 3 Check NC: 2.01

90 In which type of molecule will you find peptide bonds? Question 3 D. fatty acid C. protein B. lipid A. carbohydrate Section 3 Check

91 The answer is C. Amino acids are the basic building blocks of proteins and are linked together by peptide bonds. Section 3 Check

92 What biomolecule is represented in this diagram? Question 4 D. lipid C. protein B. nucleotide A. carbohydrate Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base Section 3 Check

93 The answer is B. Nucleotides are the smaller subunits that make up nucleic acids. Nucleotides are composed of three groups: a nitrogenous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate group. Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base Section 3 Check

94 Describe an enzyme and its function. Question 5 Section 3 Check NC: 2.04

95 An enzyme is a protein that enables other molecules to undergo chemical changes to form new products. Enzymes increase the speed of reactions that would otherwise proceed too slowly. Substrate Active site Section 3 Check NC: 2.04

96 Chapter Summary – 6.1 Atoms are the basic building block of all matter. Atoms and Their Interactions Atoms consist of a nucleus containing protons and usually neutrons. The positively charged nucleus is surrounded by rapidly moving, negatively charged electrons. Atoms become stable by bonding to other atoms through covalent or ionic bonds.

97 Chapter Summary – 6.1 Components of mixtures retain their properties. Atoms and Their Interactions Solutions are mixtures in which the components are evenly distributed. Acids are substances that from hydrogen ions in water. Bases are substances that form hydroxide ions in water.

98 Chapter Summary – 6.2 Water is the most abundant compound in living things. Water and Diffusion Water is an excellent solvent due to the polar property of its molecules. Particles of matter are in constant motion. Diffusion occurs from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.

99 Chapter Summary – 6.3 All organic compounds contain carbon atoms. Life Substances There are four principal types of organic compounds, or biomolecules, that make up living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid. The structure of a biomolecule will help determine its properties and functions.

100 Chapter Assessment Question 1 What is the difference between a compound and an element? Answer A compound is a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. An element is a substance that can't be broken down into simpler chemical substances.

101 Question 2 What is it called when atoms share electrons? D. diffusion C. hydrogen bonding B. ionic bonding Water molecule A. covalent bonding Chapter Assessment

102 The answer is A. Covalent bonds differ from ionic bonds in that the shared electrons move about the nuclei of both atoms of the covalent compound. Water molecule Chapter Assessment

103 Question 3 Which of the following combinations will produce a solution? D. oil and vinegar C. powdered drink mix and water B. sand and sugar crystals A. chocolate chips and cookie dough Chapter Assessment

104 The answer is C. All of the combinations are mixtures because the individual components retain their own properties. A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances is dissolved in another and will not settle out of solution. Water molecules Sugar molecules Sugar crystal Chapter Assessment

105 Question 4 What type of substance forms hydrogen ions in water? D. polar C. base B. acid A. enzyme Chapter Assessment

106 The answer is B. Any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H + ) in water is an acid. The pH of a substance is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Chapter Assessment

107 Question 5 Which of the following best describes a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge? D. diffuse C. basic B. acidic A. polar Chapter Assessment NC: 2.02

108 The answer is A. Each polar molecule has a positive end and a negative end. Polar water molecules attract ions and other polar molecules, and can dissolve many ionic compounds. Chapter Assessment NC: 2.02

109 Question 6 Name the chemical reaction illustrated in the diagram. B. condensation Glucose Fructose Sucrose CH 2 OH O OH CH 2 OH HO OH HO O HOCH 2 CH 2 OH + H2OH2O O OH HO OH O HOCH 2 OH HO O + CH 2 OH D. glycolysis C. Protein synthesis A. hydrolysis Chapter Assessment NC: 2.03

110 The answer is B. In condensation reactions, small molecules bond together to produce a polymer and water. Glucose Fructose Sucrose CH 2 OH O OH CH 2 OH HO OH HO O HOCH 2 CH 2 OH + H2OH2O O OH HO OH O HOCH 2 OH HO O + CH 2 OH Chapter Assessment NC: 2.03

111 Question 7 An oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 neutrons. How many electrons does it have? D. 0 C. 32 B. 18 A. 8 Chapter Assessment

112 The answer is A. Atoms contain equal numbers of electrons and protons and have no net charge. Nucleus 8 protons (p+) 8 neutrons (n 0 ) Oxygen atom Chapter Assessment

113 Question 8 Based on your knowledge of biomolecules, which of the following substances would be most effective at breaking down this polymer? B. lipase CH 2 OH O OH HO OH O HOCH 2 OH HO O CH 2 OH D. water C. pepsin A. nuclease Chapter Assessment NC: 2.01

114 The answer is D. This is a sucrose molecule, formed from glucose and fructose in a condensation reaction. The products of this reaction are the sucrose molecule and water. If water is added to sucrose, hydrolysis occurs and breaks the covalent bonds between the subunits. Chapter Assessment NC: 2.01

115 Photo Credits Aaron Haupt Corbis Digital Stock Elaine Shay Mark Thayer PhotoDisc Alton Biggs Photo Credits

116 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help

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