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Chapter 8 Attitude Change and Interactive Communications

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1 Chapter 8 Attitude Change and Interactive Communications
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8e Michael Solomon

2 Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter you should understand why: The communications model identifies several important components for marketers when they try to change consumers’ attitudes toward products and services. The consumer who processes such a message is not necessarily the passive receiver of information marketers once believed him to be. Several factors influence a message source’s effectiveness. Prentice Hall, cr 2009

3 Chapter Objectives (cont.)
The way a marketer structures his message determines how persuasive it will be. Audience characteristics help to determine whether the nature of the source or the message itself will be relatively more effective. Prentice Hall, cr 2009

4 Changing Attitudes Through Communication
Persuasion: effectiveness of marketing communications to change attitudes What influences people to change their minds or comply: Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Consistency Liking Consensus Prentice Hall, cr 2009

5 Reciprocity Societies throughout the world abide by the norm of reciprocity the rule of reciprocity remains engaged for those we do not know and have not met (even to those whom we do not like ) “door-in-the-face” The “reciprocal concessions” tactic is a unique influence strategy because it actually empowers the requester through rejection! Prentice Hall, cr 2009

6 Scarcity Items and opportunities appear more attractive as they become less available THE DESIRABLE. First, items that are difficult to obtain are nearly always more desirable than those that require little effort (heuristic cue in decision making) THE FORBIDDEN. Desire to preserve our freedom of choice. (we will react against that interference ) Loss Framing E.g. limited edition, "deadline" technique, "limited number“, Prentice Hall, cr 2009

7 Authority Legitimate authorities are extremely influential sources
We have been raised from childhood to look to authorities for information and guidance Symbols of Authority: Titles, Tailors & Tone Uniforms are another universally recognized symbol of authority Credible Communicators (Expert power, Trustworthiness, ) Prentice Hall, cr 2009

8 Commitment & Consistency
The need for consistency (to be consistent/ to appear consistent) Once an individual takes establishes a position, there is a tendency to respond in ways that are stubbornly consistent with it. Foot-in-the-door, lowball, Even a penny will help, Labeling Tactics Existing Commitments & values (laddering) A commitment is likely to be maximally effective in producing consistent future behavior : voluntary, active or effortful ,public Prentice Hall, cr 2009

9 Liking It is hardly surprising that people prefer to say yes to those they know and like Physical attractiveness - Similarity – Compliments - Cooperation Tupperware’s "home party" Survey sender: Robert Greer - Bob Gregar while Cynthia Johnston - Cindy Johanson. Prentice Hall, cr 2009

10 Consensus (Social Validation)
We can use the actions of others (“social proof”) as a means to locate and validate correct choices Because the desire to choose correctly is powerful, and the time in which to choose is forever diminishing, the tendency to follow the crowd is both strong and widespread Uncertainty – similar others - “largest selling” or “fastest growing” in the market E.g. our salesmen are waiting on the phone >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>if the lines were busy, call again Prentice Hall, cr 2009

11 Tactical Communications Options
Who will be source of message? How should message be constructed? What media will transmit message? What target market characteristics will influence ad’s acceptance? Prentice Hall, cr 2009

12 Traditional Communication Model
Communications model: a number of elements are necessary for communication to be achieved Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Figure 8.1

13 Interactive Communications
Consumers have many more choices available and greater control to process messages Permission marketing: marketer will be much more successful in persuading consumers who have agreed to let him try Click to view Quicktime video on Sony Metreon’s interactive entertainment store Prentice Hall, cr 2009

14 Uses and Gratifications Theory
Consumers are active, goal-directed, and draw on mass media to satisfy needs Media compete with other sources of entertainment and information Advertising = entertainment, escaping, play, self-affirmation Prentice Hall, cr 2009

15 Updated Communications Model
Consumers are now proactive in communications process: VCRs, DVRs, video-on-demand, pay-per-view TV, Caller ID, Internet Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Figure 8.2

16 New Message Formats M-commerce (mobile commerce): marketers promote goods and services via wireless devices Blogging: people post messages to the Web in diary form New forms of blogging: Moblogging Video blogging (vlogging) Podcasting RSS (Really Simple Syndication) Flogs (fake blogs) Twittering Prentice Hall, cr 2009

17 The Source Source effects: the same words by different people can have very different meanings A “source”often a spokesperson in an ad—may be chosen because s/he is expert, famous, attractive, or a “typical” consumer What makes a good source? Source credibility: a source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness Source attractiveness: movie star, super model Prentice Hall, cr 2009

18 Sleeper Effect Sometimes sources become irritating or disliked
Sleeper effect: over time, disliked sources can still get a message across effectively We “forget” about negative source while changing our attitudes Prentice Hall, cr 2009

19 Source Biases Consumer beliefs about product can be weakened by a source perceived to be biased Knowledge bias: source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate Reporting bias: source has required knowledge but source’s willingness to convey it is compromised Prentice Hall, cr 2009

20 Hype versus Buzz Buzz: authentic message generated by customers
Hype: inauthentic message generated by corporate propaganda Hype Buzz Advertising Word-of-mouth Overt Covert Corporate Grass-roots Fake Authentic Skepticism Credibility Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Table 8.1

21 Source Attractiveness
Source attractiveness: perceived social value of source Physical appearance Personality Social status Similarity Prentice Hall, cr 2009

22 “What Is Beautiful Is Good”
Halo effect: people who rank high on one dimension are assumed to excel at other dimensions Example: good-looking people are thought to be smarter, cooler, happier Physically attractive source leads to attitude change Directs attention to marketing stimuli Beauty = source of information Prentice Hall, cr 2009

23 Star Power Celebrities as communications sources (Symbolizes important categories such as; status, social class, gender, age, and personality type) Tiger Woods—$62 million/year in endorsements! Famous faces capture attention and are processed more efficiently by the brain Enhance company image and brand attitudes Celebrities embody cultural and product meanings Q-Score for celebrity endorsers (familiarity level & No. Favorable) Match-up hypothesis: celebrity’s image and that of product are similar Prentice Hall, cr 2009

24 Discussion Many marketers use celebrity endorsers to persuade. These spokespeople often are “cool” musicians, athletes, or stars. Who would overall be the most effective celebrity endorser today, and why? Who would be the least effective, and why? Prentice Hall, cr 2009

25 Nonhuman Endorsers Often, celebrities’ motives are suspect as endorsers of mismatched products Thus, marketers seek alternative endorsers: Cartoon characters Mascots/animals Avatar: cyberspace character that can be moved around in a virtual world Prentice Hall, cr 2009

26 The Message Positive and negative effects of elements in TV commercials Most important feature: stressing unique product attribute/benefit Positive Effects Negative Effects Showing convenience of use Extensive information on components, ingredients, nutrition Showing new product/improved features Outdoor setting (message gets lost) Casting background (i.e., people are incidental to message) Large number of onscreen characters Indirect comparison to other products Graphic displays Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Table 8.2

27 The Message (cont.) Message: is it conveyed in words or pictures?
Message issues facing a marketer How often should message be repeated? Should it draw an explicit conclusion? Should it show both sides of argument? Should it explicitly compare product to competitors? Prentice Hall, cr 2009

28 Sending the Message Visual versus verbal communication of message
Visual images: big emotional impact Verbal message: high-involvement situations Factual information More effective when reinforced by a framed picture Require more frequent exposures (due to decay) Prentice Hall, cr 2009

29 Dual Component of Brand Attitudes
Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Figure 8.3

30 Vividness Powerful description/graphics command attention and are strongly embedded in memory Concrete discussion of product attribute Prentice Hall, cr 2009

31 Repetition: Mere Exposure: People tend to like things that are more familiar to them, even if they are not keen on them initially. Habituation: Consumer no longer pays attention to the stimulus because of boredom or fatigue Two-factor Theory: Explains the fine line between familiarity and boredom. Positive affect: Increases familiarity, reduces uncertainty Negative affect: Boredom increases with each exposure Prentice Hall, cr 2009

32 Repetition and the Two-Factor Theory
Two-factor theory: fine line between familiarity and boredom Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Figure 8.4

33 One- versus Two-Sided Arguments
One-sided: supportive arguments Two-sided: both positive and negative information Refutational argument: negative issue is raised, then dismissed Positive attributes should refute presented negative attributes Effective with well-educated and not-yet-loyal audiences Prentice Hall, cr 2009

34 Comparative Advertising
Comparative advertising: message compares two+ recognizable brands on specific attributes “Unlike McDonalds, all of Arby's chicken sandwiches are made with 100% all-natural chicken” But, confrontational approach can result in source derogation An ad for a new product should not: Merely, say it is better than leading brand Compare itself to an obviously superior competitor Prentice Hall, cr 2009

35 Emotional versus Rational Appeals
Appeal to the head or to the heart? Many companies use an emotional strategy when consumers do not find differences among brands Especially brands in well-established, mature categories (e.g., cars and greeting cards) Recall of ad contents tends to be better for “thinking” ads Although conventional ad effectiveness measures may not be entirely valid to assess emotional ads Prentice Hall, cr 2009

36 Sex Appeals Sexual appeals vary by country
Nude models generate negative feelings/tension among same-sex consumers Erotic ads draw attention, but strong sexual imagery may make consumers less likely to: Buy a product (unless product is related to sex) Process and recall ad’s content Prentice Hall, cr 2009

37 Discussion Name ads that rely on sex appeal to sell products
What benefits are communicated in the ad? Is the message implicit or explicit? How? Prentice Hall, cr 2009

38 Humorous Appeals Different cultures have different senses of humor
Humorous ads get attention They’re a source of distraction They inhibit counterarguing, thus increasing message acceptance Prentice Hall, cr 2009

39 Humorous Appeals (cont.)
Humor is more effective when it: Doesn’t “swamp” message of clearly defined brand Doesn’t make fun of potential consumer Is appropriate to product’s image Prentice Hall, cr 2009

40 Fear Appeals Emphasize negative consequences that can occur unless consumer changes behavior/attitude Fear is common in social marketing Most effective when: Threat is moderate Solution to problem is presented Source is highly credible The strongest threats are not always the most persuasive Prentice Hall, cr 2009

41 Message As Art Form Advertisers use literary elements to communicate benefits and meaning Allegory: story about an abstract concept personified in a fictional character Metaphor: two dissimilar objects in a close relationship (“A is B”) Simile: compares two objects (“A is like B”) Resonance: play on words with pictures Prentice Hall, cr 2009

42 Examples of Advertising Resonance
Product Headline Visual Embassy Suites “This Year, We’re Unwrapping Suites by the Dozen” Chocolate kisses with hotel names underneath each Toyota auto parts “Out Lifetime Guarantee May Come as a Shock” Man holding a shock absorber Bucks filter cigarettes “Herd of These?” Cigarette pack with a picture of a stag Bounce fabric softener “Is There Something Creeping Up Behind You?” Woman’s dress bunched up on her back due to static Pepsi “This Year, Hit the Beach Topless” Pepsi bottle cap lying on the sand ASICS athletic shoes “We Believe Women Should Be Running the Country” Woman jogging in a rural setting Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Table 8.3

43 Forms of Story Presentation
Lecture: speech in which the source speaks directly to the audience Attempts to persuade Cognitive responses may occur Drama: story that draws viewers into the action Characters indirectly address the audience Interact with each other in an imaginary setting Prentice Hall, cr 2009

44 Discussion Sell the steak or the sizzle?
What’s more important in an advertisement: What is said? or Who says it? Give examples of ads that use one strategy versus the other. What types of ads are more effective for each strategy? Prentice Hall, cr 2009

45 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion
ELM: assumes that once consumers receive message, they begin to process it Prentice Hall, cr 2009 Figure 8.5

46 Support for the ELM Variables crucial to the ELM:
Message-processing involvement Argument strength Source characteristics High-involvement consumers are swayed by powerful arguments Low-involvement consumers are swayed by source attractiveness Prentice Hall, cr 2009

47 Group homework! Design a print ad for 1 or 2
1. Social goal (University student’s behavior!) absenteeism, study hard, change Att to learn language...etc 2. Product/ service. Product or service may be real or fictitious. You may get as elaborate as you wish (employing graphic software) or the old-fashioned method of designing one by hand. You should apply the principles discussed in the chapter to make the ad an effective tool of persuasion Prentice Hall, cr 2009

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