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IX. 3. Molecular Polarity p
Polar Molecules The bond between atoms with different electronegativities gives rise to a dipole Dipole-dipole bonds are stronger than London Forces
Ex: H-Cl Has dipoles Unbalanced/ asymmetrical Dipole-dipole bond between molecules Polar molecule
Ex: Cl-Cl no dipoles Balanced molecule only London forces present between molecules Non-polar molecule
Other examples: H 2 O BI 3 O 2 CCl 4 CCl 3 H
Boiling & Melting Temperature Ionic highest bp & mp Then if covalent: Polar molecule with a H-bond Polar molecule Higher # of electrons (atomic #)
Ex: N 2 (l) = C Covalent Non-polar Low mp & bp
O 2 (l) = C Covalent Non-polar More electrons than N
NO (l) = C Polar covalent So higher mp & bp than non-polar covalents
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