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2012 İLKBAHAR. Pain is a highly subjective ---- that no two people experience in exactly the same way. A) regulationB) sensation C) reinforcement D) coincidence.

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Presentation on theme: "2012 İLKBAHAR. Pain is a highly subjective ---- that no two people experience in exactly the same way. A) regulationB) sensation C) reinforcement D) coincidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 2012 İLKBAHAR

2 Pain is a highly subjective ---- that no two people experience in exactly the same way. A) regulationB) sensation C) reinforcement D) coincidence E) inquiry Regulation:düzenleme Sensation :his,algılama Reinforcement: takviye Coincidence: tesadüfi Inquiry : sorgu

3 Even during its early phases, the French Revolution aroused ---- conflict throughout Europe. A) ignorant B) accessible C) significant D) durable E) fertile Ignorant :cahil,kof Accessible : ulaşılabilir,erişilebilir Significant : önemli,kayda değer Durable : dayanıklı,duyarlı Fertile : bereketli

4 KELİME BİLGİSİ 4+2(PHRASAL) GRAMER BİLGİSİ 3 PREPOSITIONS 3 CONJUNCTIONS 5 CLOZE TEST 5+5(2 CLOZE) CÜMLE TAMAMLAMA 10 İNGİLİZCE-TÜRKÇE 2 TÜRKÇE-İNGİLİZCE 2 OKUMA PARÇALARI 6 PARAGRAF*4(24) KARŞILIKLI KONUŞMA 5 PARAGRAF TAMAMLAMA 5 TOPLAM 80 SORU ÜDS SORU ANALİZİ

5 KELİME BİLGİSİ 4+1(PHRASAL) GRAMER BİLGİSİ 2 PREPOSITIONS 3 CONJUNCTIONS 4 CLOZE TEST 5+5(2 CLOZE) CÜMLE TAMAMLAMA 10 OKUMA PARÇALARI 5 PARAGRAF*4(20) KARŞILIKLI KONUŞMA 4 ANLAMCA EN YAKIN 4 DURUMA UYGUN DÜŞEN İFADE 4 PARAGRAF TAMAMLAMA 4 İNGİLİZCE-TÜRKÇE 3 TÜRKÇE-İNGİLİZCE 3 ANLAMI BOZAN CÜMLE 4 TOPLAM 80 SORU KPDS SORU ANALİZİ

6 A series of gas discoveries in recent years in the Western Desert of Egypt means that a range of new export projects must be developed ---- the country is to make full use of its new reserves. A) lest B) although C) after D) as if E) if E) if Must bir koşul cümlesini çağrıştırmaktadır ve 2. kısımda is to aynı şekilde if cümlesinde will anlamına gelmektedir.

7 ----, while just 1.7 tonnes of corn yields the same result. A) A team of scientists has claimed that the traditional methods of production in plastics are extremely costly and have an adverse impact on the environment B) It has been announced that a company in China, sponsored by the government, is planning to harvest plastics from crops of corn C) Eight tonnes of crude oil are currently needed to create one tonne of polyol, which is an alcoholic substance used in a number of plastics D) Scientists are now using a new type of microscope that lets them view internal structures of materials in greater detail than ever before E) The device the companys scientists use utilizes X-ray analysis technology and reveals chemical compositions of objects being studied

8 ----, while just 1.7 tonnes of corn yields the same result. Cümle tamamlama sorularında soru kökünde verilen sayısal ifadeler her zaman önemsememiz gereken ifadelerdir. Çoğunlukla tarihler üzerinde durulmasına rağmen bu defa 1.7 tonnes olarak bir ölçü birimi kullanılmış.Bu durumda şıklarda bu sayısal ifadeye uygun bir ifade aranması doğru olacaktır. C) Eight tonnes of crude oil are currently needed to create one tonne of polyol, which is an alcoholic substance used in a number of plastics

9 Missions to the Moons previously unvisited mountains and polar regions will aid the search for water, A) since the first crewed mission will be planned for the far side of the Moon B) whereby test landings are scheduled to begin in 2010 C) which is vital to any future lunar base to be set up by NASA D) even if the mission aims to land astronauts on the surface of the Moon by 2015 E) even though dense clouds of interstellar dust conceal the heart of our galaxy

10 Missions to the Moons previously unvisited mountains and polar regions will aid the search for water, Cümle tamamla sorularında bir ismin water ardından özellikle bir relative pronoun aramak gerekir bu soruda da relative pronoun aradığımızda, C) which is vital to any future lunar base to be set up by NASA

11 New radiocarbon dating of fossils suggests A) that mass extinctions of mammoths and wild horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural climate shifts B) whether humans were to blame for extensive destruction in the natural world and also for the pollution of the oceans C) how scientists began to understand clearly what dinosaurs ate and why they disappeared from the face of the Earth D) if an olive branch buried for thousands of years in volcanic ash could have revealed the fate of the great Minoan civilization on the Greek island of Thera E) when it was scientifically established that dinosaurs belonged to a large group of reptiles called archosauria

12 New radiocarbon dating of fossils suggests Daha önceki cümle tamamlama sorumuzda isimden Sonra bir relative pronoun aramamız gerktiğinden söz etmiştik bu soruda ise suggest bir fiildir ve Ardından bir noun clause devam etmesi çok uygun olacaktır ve that noun clause cümlemiz için en uygunu olacaktır. Fiilimiz sorgulayan bir fiil Olsaydı bu durumda soru kelimelerine ya da whether/ife gidilecekti. A) that mass extinctions of mammoths and wild horses 10,000 years ago were caused by natural climate shifts

13 The Africans who go abroad to work usually send money back home to pay for their relatives medical care, education, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign exchange earnings from such remittances. --- Without this subsidy, Africas dictators would have to face the political consequences of an angry population. A) In Africa, foreign aid goes mostly to those governments that have mismanaged their economies. B) There are over three million Nigerians in the US and another one million in Britain. C) From a quarter to almost 50% of universityeducated graduates from Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya leave their countries to work in the West. D) Ironically, African citizens abroad subsidize state corruption. E) About three million middle-class Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since 1999.

14 The Africans who go abroad to work usually send money back home to pay for their relatives medical care, education, and housing. Today, most African countries get the largest part of their foreign exchange earnings from such remittances. --- Without this subsidy, Africas dictators would have to face the political consequences of an angry population. Boşluktan sonra without this subsidy bizim cevabı armamız için gerekli yer olacaktır,özellikle this/these gibi kelimelere bakarak refer ettikleri kelime bulunmalıdır ancak burada zaten verilmiş olan subsidy işi kolaylaştırmaktadır. D) Ironically, African citizens abroad subsidize state corruption.Burada ayrıca African citizens ifadesi cümleler arasında genel/özel uyumunun devam ettiğini göstermektedir.

15 After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, US power companies are seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In addition, more than 300 reactors have been proposed worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to build their first nuclear plant A) In other parts of the world, some 40 reactors are already under construction, though many have been underway for decades with no end in sight. B) Annual emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to double by 2050, from a current 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year to more than 14 billion tonnes. C) According to a recent report, nuclear power is a major solution to the Wests growing electricity needs, and increased nuclear use can substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. D) On the contrary, a countrys use of nuclear power has much to do with government intervention, whether through state loans or streamlined regulations. E) Therefore, global electricity demand is estimated to nearly double by 2030, with nuclear power currently accounting for about 15 per cent of global use.

16 After more than 30 years without building a nuclear plant, US power companies are seeking licences for over 30 new reactors. In addition, more than 300 reactors have been proposed worldwide. Countries such as Egypt, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela have serious plans to build their first nuclear plant Son cümle genellikle bir toparlama cümlesi niteliğindedir.Son cümleden önce bir geçiş kelimesiyle farklı bir konuya geçilmişse bu cümlenin sonucu aranmaktadır aksi takdirde tüm paragrafın konusunu içerecek bir cevap gerekmektedir. A) In other parts of the world, some 40 reactors are already under construction, though many have been underway for decades with no end in sight.

17 For decades, China has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the countrys economy. But theres one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare Today, nearly 40 per cent of the population cant afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as much as an individuals annual per capita income in the country. Healthcare grievances have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent years. A) Some hospitals have had to hire security personnel to protect medical staff from angry mobs. B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket. C) So the government has recently developed a strategy to provide affordable medical insurance to 90 per cent of its population by D) In fact, the free market reforms in China were first initiated in the late 1970s and early 1980s. E) The Chinese government has already met many of its economic goals and is now beginning to address scientific and technological development.

18 For decades, China has been content to let the invisible hand of the market work its magic on the countrys economy. But theres one area where the government wants to reassert state control: healthcare Today, nearly 40 per cent of the population cant afford to see a doctor. The average hospital stay for a Chinese citizen costs nearly as much as an individuals annual per capita income in the country. Healthcare grievances have been at the heart of thousands of organized protests countrywide in recent years. Sorularda sayısal ifadeler önemlidir demiştik burada da iki şık bulunuyor ancak genel-özel kuralına dikkat edersek C dogru olacaktır. B) By comparison, Japanese pay just 15 per cent of their medical spending out of pocket. C) So the government has recently developed a strategy to provide affordable medical insurance to 90 per cent of its population by 2010.

19 Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, and elusive larger mammals. Especially the rugged eastern provinces and also the regions with thick forests harbour a large variety of these mammals The tulip is perhaps the most famous of these. The great diversity of plants stems not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as well as mountains and temperate woodlands, but also from Turkeys position as a biological watershed at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. A) There are huge tracts of unspoiled countryside, some of which have been set aside as national parks. B) Unfortunately, Turkish wetlands are under threat from dams, drainage, pollution, and climatic change. C) The countrys position on the migratory flyways makes it a paradise for birdwatchers. D) The country is also floristically rich, with more than 11,000 plant species recorded. E) In winter, the countrys lakes and wetlands hold thousands of wintering wildfowl.

20 Turkey offers much for the naturalist, with rich marine ecosystems, abundant birdlife, and elusive larger mammals. Especially the rugged eastern provinces and also the regions with thick forests harbour a large variety of these mammals The tulip is perhaps the most famous of these. The great diversity of plants stems not only from the variety of habitats, which include arid plains as well as mountains and temperate woodlands, but also from Turkeys position as a biological watershed at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Boşluktan sonra tulip bitki ile ilgili bilgi verirken boşluktan önce hayvanlardan söz edildiğinden bir geçişe ihtiyaç olacaktır ve also ile bu D şıkkında vardır. D) The country is also floristically rich, with more than 11,000 plant species recorded.

21 As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and, with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say: A) I am wondering whether all the committee members will be available to attend a meeting later today. B) This is your chairman calling. We are going to have a meeting, which I want you to attend without any excuse. C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. I am sorry about this, as it is contrary to our usual practice. D) Our committee needs to meet as soon as possible. I am sure you have no objection whatsoever. E) I am asking you and the other members to come to my office right away for a meeting. No one must be absent

22 As the chairman of a committee, you must call the members to an unscheduled but urgent meeting. So you phone them each and, with your apologies, inform them about the meeting. You say: Bu tip sorularda verilmiş olan apology,certain,possible,sure gibi ifadeler önemlidir. b çeldiricisinde de excuse bulunmaktadır ama without olumsuzlaştırmaktadır oysa c şıkkında sorry karşılığı vermektedir. B) This is your chairman calling. We are going to have a meeting, which I want you to attend without any excuse. C) As a committee, we have to come together immediately. I am sorry about this, as it is contrary to our usual practice.

23 You are lecturing on the Industrial Revolution and the economic changes it brought about in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.You conclude your lecture by saying: A) So, to wrap up, the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics. B) Moreover, one can suggest that Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries had ample supplies of coal and a well-developed network of canals, all of which proved important for industrialization. C) In fact, by the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, London had become the leading centre for international trade and a headquarters for the transfer of raw materials, capital, and manufactured products throughout the world. D) Actually, the Industrial Revolution began with dramatic technological leaps in a few industries towards the end of the 18th century and the early 19th century, the first of which was cotton textiles. E) Undoubtedly, at the end of the 18th century and during the early decades of the 19th century, expanding networks of trade and finance in Britain created new markets for goods and new sources of raw materials.

24 You are lecturing on the Industrial Revolution and the economic changes it brought about in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.You conclude your lecture by saying: wrap up özetlemek demektir ve conclude ifadesi bize A şıkkını işaret etmektedir.Ancak kelime anlamı bilmesek dahi Industrial Revolution ve economic kelimeleri biza A şıkkını göstermektedir. A) So, to wrap up, the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century and thereafter altered not only the foundations of the economy but also the very assumptions with which people approached economics.

25 Jane: What were you doing all day? I kept phoning but you were never in your office. Neil:_____ Jane: Was that really essential? Neil: It certainly was. Morale and the company spirit both have a bearing on productivity. A) The morning was taken up with meetings. And there was a staff party in the afternoon that I had to attend. B) I spend most of the day in the factory; we are reorganizing the assembly line. C) I wasnt out all that much, but I did have to go to the bank. D) What did you want me for, anyway? E) Meetings! Most of them related to the installation of the new boiler. I have doubts about the reliability of the contractors.

26 Jane: What were you doing all day? I kept phoning but you were never in your office. Neil:_____ Jane: Was that really essential? Neil: It certainly was. Morale and the company spirit both have a bearing on productivity. A) The morning was taken up with meetings. And there was a staff party in the afternoon that I had to attend. B) I spend most of the day in the factory; we are reorganizing the assembly line. C) I wasnt out all that much, but I did have to go to the bank. D) What did you want me for, anyway? E) Meetings! Most of them related to the installation of the new boiler. I have doubts about the reliability of the contractors.

27 Patrick: Why are so insistent that we must find a framework of collective security that does not rely on nuclear deterrence? Mark:_____ Patrick: Why is that? Mark: Surely its obvious: they have no cities that can be bombed in reply and they are not focused on self- preservation. A) I am convinced that reliance on nuclear weapons will be obsolete in the near future. B) Because the very existence of nuclear weapons gives rise to pursuit of them. C) Because we need to work towards global security. D) Actually, Im not: I dont think its feasible. E) Because the rise of terrorist groups makes this essential.

28 Patrick: Why are so insistent that we must find a framework of collective security that does not rely on nuclear deterrence? Mark:_____ Patrick: Why is that? Mark: Surely its obvious: they have no cities that can be bombed in reply and they are not focused on self- preservation. A) I am convinced that reliance on nuclear weapons will be obsolete in the near future. B) Because the very existence of nuclear weapons gives rise to pursuit of them. C) Because we need to work towards global security. D) Actually, Im not: I dont think its feasible. E) Because the rise of terrorist groups makes this essential.

29 The very term postcolonial underlines the fact that colonialisms legacies have endured in former colonies even after independence. A) As can be understood from the term postcolonial, the independence of former colonies has been undermined by the continuation of colonial practices. B) Although former colonies have gained their independence, it is true that, as the term postcolonial itself indicates, they still feel the impact of colonialism. C) What is meant by the term postcolonial is that former colonies, which are now independent, have failed to preserve their colonial institutions. D) The fact that former colonies, which have all gained their independence, have got rid of their colonial past is indicated by the term postcolonial. E) Since the independence of former colonies has enabled them to be aware of their colonial past, this is best defined by the term postcolonial.

30 66. The very term postcolonial underlines the fact that colonialisms legacies have endured in former colonies even after independence. A) As can be understood from the term postcolonial, the independence of former colonies has been undermined by the continuation of colonial practices. B) Although former colonies have gained their independence, it is true that, as the term postcolonial itself indicates, they still feel the impact of colonialism. C) What is meant by the term postcolonial is that former colonies, which are now independent, have failed to preserve their colonial institutions. D) The fact that former colonies, which have all gained their independence, have got rid of their colonial past is indicated by the term postcolonial. E) Since the independence of former colonies has enabled them to be aware of their colonial past, this is best defined by the term postcolonial. Cevap B seçeneğidir. even after -den sonra bile bize zıtlığı anlatmaktadır ve underlines yerine indicates kullanılmaktadır.

31 Though the Germans were not the most enthusiastic colonialists, they were still fascinated by other European powers imperial policies. A) The imperial policies put into effect by other European powers exceedingly exasperated the Germans who were themselves utterly indifferent to colonialism. B) The Germans did not cherish a keen interest in colonialism, but they were immensely interested in the imperial policies pursued by other European powers. C) Since colonialism did not appeal to the Germans,their interest in the imperial policies of other European powers was rather superficial. D) The Germans, for whom colonialism did not matter much, were fully aware of the imperial policies that other European powers were pursuing. E) While the Germans refused to practise colonialism, other European powers developed imperial policies that caught the German attention.

32 Though the Germans were not the most enthusiastic colonialists, they were still fascinated by other European powers imperial policies. A) The imperial policies put into effect by other European powers exceedingly exasperated the Germans who were themselves utterly indifferent to colonialism. B) The Germans did not cherish a keen interest in colonialism, but they were immensely interested in the imperial policies pursued by other European powers. C) Since colonialism did not appeal to the Germans,their interest in the imperial policies of other European powers was rather superficial. D) The Germans, for whom colonialism did not matter much, were fully aware of the imperial policies that other European powers were pursuing. E) While the Germans refused to practise colonialism, other European powers developed imperial policies that caught the German attention. Zıtlık anlatan 2 seçenek bulunmaktadır B ve E ancak enthusiastic ve fascinated karşılıkları E şıkkında bulunmamaktadır. Doğru cevap B olmalıdır.

33 PARAGRAFTA VERİLEN BİLGİYLE YETİNMEK, ANAHTAR KELİMEYİ PARÇA İÇERİSİNDE BULUP CÜMLEYİ KUTU İÇERİSİNE ALMA, SEÇENEKLERDEKİ ; * ONLY, NEVER, ALWAYS, THE MOST, GİBİ KELİMELERE DİKKAT!

34 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is suggested in the passage that, when Shakespeare acted, __________. A) he was always assigned the most crucial parts B) the audiences were thrilled by his acting C) the Globe Theatre was always crowded D) he could spare very little time for his writing E) the parts he played were mostly easy, unimportant ones

35 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is suggested in the passage that, when Shakespeare acted, __________. A) he was always assigned the most crucial parts B) the audiences were thrilled by his acting C) the Globe Theatre was always crowded D) he could spare very little time for his writing E) the parts he played were mostly easy, unimportant ones

36 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is pointed out in the passage that, although Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by the end of 1613,______________ A) it seems likely that he continued to act a little longer B) he sometimes revised some of his earlier plays C) he wanted to keep his company intact D) his company put pressure on him to continue writing E) he started again on his return to Stratford- upon-Avon

37 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is pointed out in the passage that, although Shakespeare had stopped writing plays by the end of 1613,______________ A) it seems likely that he continued to act a little longer B) he sometimes revised some of his earlier plays C) he wanted to keep his company intact D) his company put pressure on him to continue writing E) he started again on his return to Stratford- upon-Avon

38 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in We understand from the passage that we have no evidence __________ A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare played B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular in his day C) as to whether or not Shakespeare actually did rent out his property D) about when Shakespeare was writing his plays E) that the destruction of the Globe had any serious impact on Shakespeares life

39 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in We understand from the passage that we have no evidence __________ A) as to what sort of parts Shakespeare played B) to suggest that Shakespeare was popular in his day C) as to whether or not Shakespeare actually did rent out his property D) about when Shakespeare was writing his plays E) that the destruction of the Globe had any serious impact on Shakespeares life

40 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is clear from the passage that the Globe Theatre __________ A) was partly owned by Shakespeare himself B) was built on land that Shakespeare had bought C) was particularly spacious so as to accommodate large audiences D) was the most popular of the London theatres in Shakespeares time E) was designed and built especially for the staging of Shakespeares plays

41 We can only guess when Shakespeare wrote his plays. He may have had his own writing season perhaps in the quieter winter months, but never stopped acting, probably taking two or three minor parts instead of a major one. He seems to have chosen for himself the more static and undemanding roles in his plays, such as Old Adam in As You Like It and the Ghost in Hamlet. His audiences included many habitual playgoers, and many must have known Shakespeare and he must have known them. We can imagine, as a recent biographer has said, that there might have been a complex, subtle communicative exchange when he appeared in one of his plays.In spring 1613, he purchased his first property in London. He was renting it out by 1616, but may originally have entertained other intentions for the property. It would certainly have been a handy place to stay, being near the Globe, which was his theatre. Perhaps the destruction of the Globe in 1613, which probably prompted him to sell his share in the theatre company, altered his plans for it. He may not have given up acting, but his writing career was over by the end of that year. In 1614, he returned his hometown, Stratford- upon-Avon, and died there in It is clear from the passage that the Globe Theatre __________ A) was partly owned by Shakespeare himself B) was built on land that Shakespeare had bought C) was particularly spacious so as to accommodate large audiences D) was the most popular of the London theatres in Shakespeares time E) was designed and built especially for the staging of Shakespeares plays

42 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. According to the passage, public interest in Londons theatres ________. A) reflects the quality of each production B) has steadily increased over recent years C) has shifted away from straight plays D) is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste E) largely focuses on the activities of National Theatre

43 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. According to the passage, public interest in Londons theatres ________. A) reflects the quality of each production B) has steadily increased over recent years C) has shifted away from straight plays D) is a good indication of the decline in aesthetic taste E) largely focuses on the activities of National Theatre

44 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. We understand from the passage that the subsidized theatres in London_______. A) are often criticized for wasting public money. B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are small C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some time D) have been drawing large audiences for nearly two years. E) are more concerned about attendance than about the quality of performance

45 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. We understand from the passage that the subsidized theatres in London_______. A) are often criticized for wasting public money. B) manage to make a profit though their audiences are small C) have been specializing in musicals for quite some time D) have been drawing large audiences for nearly two years. E) are more concerned about attendance than about the quality of performance

46 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. It is clear from the passage that the musicals in London theatres ___________. A) depends largely on private sponsorship for production costs B) can only run for a limited period of time C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences D) cost less than straight plays do E) are popular on account of the singing and dancing in them

47 In Londons theatres, tastes seem to be changing. Though audiences are not falling, thats mostly thanks to the allure of musicals, not plays. The commercial London Theatres ran at 65% capacity in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available. But this disguises a big difference between musicals and plays. For the musicals, attendance averages 68% of capacity ; for plays attendance is somewhat lower, at 56%. So if a show doesnt contain some singing and plenty of dancing, half the chairs are likely to remain empty. And in a business in which the costs are all fixed, a few more tickets sold can make all the difference. However, Londons subsidized theatres are doing unusually well. For example, at the National Theatre, which receives around 14 million in public money every year, attendance has been running at over 90% capacity for the past 20 months. Thats partly thanks to sponsorship and partly to aggressive programming. It is clear from the passage that the musicals in London theatres ___________. A) depends largely on private sponsorship for production costs B) can only run for a limited period of time C) are not appreciated by serious theatre audiences D) cost less than straight plays do E) are popular on account of the singing and dancing in them

48 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. It is clear from the passage that the European discovery and conquest of the Canary Islands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries A) actually had no commercial and maritime significance, but became the major cause of rivalry between Portugal and Spain B) strategically paved the way for further explorations along coastal West Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean C) could have been prevented if the natives had been politically united to resist conversion and colonization D) caused so much excitement across Europe that especially Italian merchants were keen to use the islands as their commercial base E) had an adverse impact on the Netherlands maritime trade with England and other countries in northern Europe

49 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. It is clear from the passage that the European discovery and conquest of the Canary Islands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries A) actually had no commercial and maritime significance, but became the major cause of rivalry between Portugal and Spain B) strategically paved the way for further explorations along coastal West Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean C) could have been prevented if the natives had been politically united to resist conversion and colonization D) caused so much excitement across Europe that especially Italian merchants were keen to use the islands as their commercial base E) had an adverse impact on the Netherlands maritime trade with England and other countries in northern Europe

50 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As suggested in the passage, in medieval Europe before 1270, A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had attempted to explore the west coast of Africa and enslave the natives B) only Italian merchants had had the monopoly to import wool from England and the Netherlands C) some daring attempts had been made to conquer and colonize the Canaries and the Azores D) there had been two major zones for maritime trade: the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic E) there had been continual efforts especially by the Portuguese to convert West African natives toChristianity

51 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As suggested in the passage, in medieval Europe before 1270, A) Spanish and Portuguese sailors had attempted to explore the west coast of Africa and enslave the natives B) only Italian merchants had had the monopoly to import wool from England and the Netherlands C) some daring attempts had been made to conquer and colonize the Canaries and the Azores D) there had been two major zones for maritime trade: the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic E) there had been continual efforts especially by the Portuguese to convert West African natives toChristianity

52 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. It is asserted in the passage that, in the late thirteenth century, A) Italian merchants were first able to carry their Mediterranean trade into England and the Netherlands B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much strategic importance that it became a territorial issue between Spain and Portugal C) the Europeans soon realized that there was agreat deal of profit to be made by slave trade across the Atlantic D) both England and the Netherlands emerged as the only major colonizing powers in the North Atlantic E) the Italians absolutely dominated the trade in the Mediterranean and strongly opposed other nations attempts to benefit from it

53 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. It is asserted in the passage that, in the late thirteenth century, A) Italian merchants were first able to carry their Mediterranean trade into England and the Netherlands B) the Strait of Gibraltar gained so much strategic importance that it became a territorial issue between Spain and Portugal C) the Europeans soon realized that there was agreat deal of profit to be made by slave trade across the Atlantic D) both England and the Netherlands emerged as the only major colonizing powers in the North Atlantic E) the Italians absolutely dominated the trade in the Mediterranean and strongly opposed other nations attempts to benefit from it

54 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As stated in the passage, the Canary Islands A) were more densely populated than the Azores, which played no part in transatlantic trade B) had already been Christianized before they were discovered and colonized C) were not so important as the Azores in the increase of trade along the West African coast D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at all in his voyages across the Atlantic E) were subjected to colonization soon after they were discovered by the Genoese

55 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As stated in the passage, the Canary Islands A) were more densely populated than the Azores, which played no part in transatlantic trade B) had already been Christianized before they were discovered and colonized C) were not so important as the Azores in the increase of trade along the West African coast D) did not interest Christopher Columbus at all in his voyages across the Atlantic E) were subjected to colonization soon after they were discovered by the Genoese

56 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As can be inferred from the passage, Christopher Columbus A) hoped that his westward voyage across the Atlantic would ultimately take him to Asia B) learned much from Genoese sailors about the locations of the Canaries and the Azores C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa D) paid little attention to the strategic and economic importance of the Canary Islands E) always dreamed of completely controlling all the maritime commerce with Asia

57 Until the late thirteenth century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Starting around 1270, however, Italian merchants began to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar and on to the woolproducing regions of England and the Netherlands. This was the essential first step in the extension of Mediterranean commerce and colonization into the Atlantic Ocean. The second step was the discovery by Genoese sailors, during the fourteenth century, of the Atlantic island chains known as the Canaries and the Azores. Efforts to colonize the Canary Islands and to convert and enslave their inhabitants began almost immediately. But an effective conquest of the Canary Islands did not begin until the fifteenth century, when it was undertaken by Portugal and completed by Spain. The Canaries, in turn, became the base from which further Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa proceeded. They were also the jumping-off point from which Christopher Columbus would sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of reaching Asia. As can be inferred from the passage, Christopher Columbus A) hoped that his westward voyage across the Atlantic would ultimately take him to Asia B) learned much from Genoese sailors about the locations of the Canaries and the Azores C) had taken part earlier in Portuguese voyages down the west coast of Africa D) paid little attention to the strategic and economic importance of the Canary Islands E) always dreamed of completely controlling all the maritime commerce with Asia

58 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. 16. A)declares B) declaredC) has declared D) would have declaredE) would declare 17. A) in B) within C) on D) below E) of

59 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. 16. A)declares B) declaredC) has declared D) would have declaredE) would declare 17. A) in(result in=sonuçlanmak)B) within C) on D) below E) of

60 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. 18. A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion D) negotiation E) illusion 19. A) in case B) although C) even if D) when E) so far as

61 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. 18. A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion D) negotiation E) illusion 19. A) in case B) although C) even if D) when E) so far as(kadarıyla)

62 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. 18. A) purchase B) exclusion C) invasion D) negotiation E) illusion 19. A) in case B) although C) even if D) when E) so far as(kadarıyla)

63 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. interest=çıkar A) tedious (can sıkıcı/usandırıcı) B) irrelevant(ilgisiz,alakasız) C) redundant(luzumsuz,aqşırı) D) vague (anlaşılmaz,muğlak) E) vital (hayati)=crucial

64 Ever since Lord Curzon, a member of Britains World War I cabinet, (16)---- that the Allies had floated to victory on a sea of oil, major industrialized powers have sought oil security. For instance, an imperialist surge by Japan to secure oil supplies in East Asia resulted (17)---- the fateful attack on Pearl Harbour. The desire to control Middle East oil pushed the Soviet Union into Afghanistan, and led to Saddam Husseins (18)---- of Kuwait. And in his 1980 State of the Union speech, US President Jimmy Carter made clear Americas own oil-security policy (19)---- he described what would become known as the Carter Doctrine: Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the (20)---- interests of the United States of America. interest=çıkar A) tedious (can sıkıcı/usandırıcı) B) irrelevant(ilgisiz,alakasız) C) redundant(luzumsuz,aqşırı) D) vague (anlaşılmaz,muğlak) E) vital (hayati)=crucial

65 TEŞEKKÜR EDERİZ FUAT TURGUT


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