Schools are Improving School Improvement Changing World
The primary aim of education is not to enable students to do well in school, but to help them do well in the lives they lead outside of school.
Weve created false proxies for learning… Finishing a course or textbook has come to mean achievement Listening to lecture has come to mean understanding Getting a high score on a standardized test has come to mean proficiency
Learning should have its roots in.. Meaning, not just memory Engagement, not simply transmission Inquiry, not only compliance Exploration, not just acquisition Personalization, not simply uniformity Collaboration, not only competition Trust, not fear
Schools are Improving School Improvement Changing World
Making a better 20 th Century School is not the answer.
The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. The paths are not found, but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination. --John Schaar
Unless we unlearn some of our traditional practices, we will never get beyond an improvement mindset.
We are getting better at things that do not matter as much anymore.
I believe the future is not about the latest gadgets, it is about something more than gadgets, its about … LEARNING
In an environment driven by results, the best strategy is to DEVELOP YOUR PEOPLE. Broaden the definition of learning in your system to include adults.
The focus must be on the way we work. Cooperation is what was valued in the past. It is about efficiency: You do this and I will do that. Collaboration is where we should focus. It is about shared creation, in which the focus is not on the process but on the specific results.
Themes 1.Best and Next Practices 2.Three key trends impacting us 3.Technologies to watch 4.Non-techie stuff / Relationships 5.Daggett System for Effective Instruction 6.The Adaptive Leader QUAD D 7.Closing remarks
A Story…. Not a bad idea, but to earn a grade more than a C+, the idea has to be viable! (Yale Professor) Fredrick Smith The idea FedEx
-Shurnyu Suzuki In the beginners mind there are many possibilities; in the experts mind there are few.
Established organizations often embrace sustaining innovations but struggle with disruptive innovations.
Example Research in an established organization is aligned to someone studying aircraft built in the 1940s…. All statistics and engineering data are based on what has been accomplished in the past, not what the organization might deliver in the future. Travel faster than the speed of sound!
The Fundamental Attribution Error When looking at our own behavior, we tend to view the situation in the environment that surrounds our action. When looking at the behavior of others, we make assumptions about their personal qualities.
The Effects of Praise Fixed or Growth Cant hand confidence to learners on a silver platter.
We live in a world obsessed with predictability and control, some people believe that if we cant truly measure something it must not matter. We must consider the possibility that if we cant truly measure something, it may be the most important thing.
Participation Gap Self-Worth: Self-Worth occurs when children know they are valued members of the community; have a person they can trust; believe they can achieve. Active Engagement: Active Engagement happens when children are deeply involved in the learning process. Purpose: Purpose exists when children take responsibility for who and what they want to become.
STUDENT ASPIRATIONS / PARTICIPATION GAP SELF WORTH ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT PURPOSE Belonging Heroes Sense of Accomplishment Fun & Excitement Curiosity & Creativity Spirit of Adventure Leadership & Responsibility Confidence to Take Action Relationships Relevance Rigor
SELF WORTH Belonging Heroes Sense of Accomplishment 6-89-12STATEMENT 54%49%I am proud of my school. 49%49%I enjoy being at school. 58%41%Teachers care about my problems and feelings. 54%46%Teachers care about me as an individual. 50%45%Teachers care if I am absent from school. 19%21%I have never been recognized for something positive at school. 52%48%If I have a problem, I have a teacher with whom I can talk. 68%51%Teachers respect students. 49%37%Students respect teachers. 36%29%Students respect each other. NATIONAL DATA Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute
6-89-12STATEMENT 42%48%School is boring. 68%55%At school I am encouraged to be creative. 47%37%My classes help me understand what is happening in my everyday life. 67%54%Teachers enjoy working with students 47%37%Teachers have fun at school. 41%28%Teachers make school an exciting place to learn. 79%71%My teachers present lessons in different ways. ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT Fun & Excitement Curiosity & Creativity Spirit of Adventure NATIONAL DATA Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute
6-89-12STATEMENT 62%64%I am a good decision maker. 54% 59%I see myself as a leader. 30% 35%Other students see me as a leader. 91%91%I believe I can be successful. 80%77%Teachers expect me to be successful. 58%64%I believe I can make a difference in this world. 79%66%I put forth my best effort at school. 44%36%I know the goals my school is working on. 41%30%Students council represents all students at school. PURPOSE Leadership & Responsibility Confidence to Take Action NATIONAL DATA Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute
I am proud of my school.T = 85 S = 50 I am excited to be working with students.T = 96 Teachers enjoy working with students.S = 56 Students have fun at school.T = 78 School is boring.S = 47 Students make school an exciting place to work.T = 87 Teachers make school an exciting place to learn.S = 31 I have fun at school.T = 85 Teachers have fun at school.S = 39 NATIONAL DATA Delusional Discrepancies Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute
I am excited to tell my colleagues when I do something well.T = 59 I am excited to tell my friends when I get good grades.S = 57 I feel comfortable asking questions in staff meetings.T = 66 I feel comfortable asking questions in class. S = 66 NATIONAL DATA Sad Similarities Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute
To determine a lessons level of Relevance you must ask the following questions… 1. Is it application? 2. Is it real world? 3. Is it unpredictable?
Application Model 1 Knowledge of one discipline 2 Application within discipline 3 Application across disciplines 4 Application to real-world predictable situations 5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations
Acquisition of knowledge Application of knowledge Action Continuum Relevance of learning to life and work
Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline A Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Low-level Knowledge
A Quadrant name label define select identify list memorize recite locate record definition worksheet list quiz test workbook true-false reproduction recitation Verbs Products
Quadrant A Ask questions to recall facts, make observations or demonstrate understanding. What is/are__? How many__? How do/does__? What did you observe__ ? What else can you tell me__? What does it mean__? What can you recall__? Where did you find that__? Who is/was__? In what ways_? How would you define that in your own terms? What did/do you notice about this __? What did/do you feel/see/hear/smell __? What do you remember about _? What did you find out about __?
Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 B Application 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. Low-level Application
Quadrant B Ask questions to apply or relate. How would you do that? Where will you use that knowledge? How does that relate to your experience? How can you demonstrate that? What observations relate__? Where would you locate that information? Calculate that for __? How would you illustrate that? How would you interpret? Who could you interview? How would you collect that data? How do you know it works? Can you show me? Can you apply what you know to this real world problem? How do you make sure it is done correctly?
Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline C Assimilation Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions. High-level Knowledge
Quadrant C Ask questions to summarize, analyze, organize, or evaluate. How are these similar/different? How is this like___? What's another way we could say/explain/express that? What do you think are some reasons/causes that _____ ? Why did __ changes occur? How can you distinguish between__? What is a better solution to__? How would you defend your position about__? What changes to __ would you recommend? What evidence can you offer? How do you know? Which ones do you think belong together? What things/events lead up to __ ? What is the authors purpose?
3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 D Adaptation Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge. High-level Application
D Quadrant evaluate validate justify rate referee infer rank dramatize argue conclude evaluation newspaper estimation trial editorial radio program play collage machine adaptation poem debate new game invention VerbsProducts
Quadrant D Ask questions to predict, design, or create. How would you design a __ to __? How would you compose a song about__? How would you rewrite the ending of the story? What would be different today, if that event occurred differently? Can you see a possible solution to__? How could you teach that to others? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with__? How would you devise your own way to deal with__? What new and unusual uses would you create for__? Can you develop a proposal which would_? How would you have handled__? How would you do it differently?
Rigor and relevance Relationships Content Teaching How students learn Instructional strategies Assessment to guide instruction
Effective and Efficient Practices John Hattie…. Visible Learning Synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement.
Effect Size 1.0 indicates one standard deviation typically associated with advancing childrens achievement by two or more years (improving the rate of learning by 50%) Hattie set a bench mark of.40 as the minimal desired effect
Some data Student expectations of self 1.44 Providing formative evaluation.90 Teacher Clarity.75 Class size.21 Retention.16
Greatest Impact Culture of High Expectations Strong Instructional Model Relevance of Instruction Strong Relationships
Embrace rigorous and relevant expectations for all students (+.75) Cultivate Caring relationship with students (+.72) Make content meaningful to l learners (+.69) Teaching Use Varied, ongoing Assessments to Inform and differentiate Instruction (+.90) Engage in Targeted and Sustained Professional Growth (+.62) 1.Embrace rigorous and relevant expectations for all students (+.75) 2.Build strong relationship with students (+.72) 3.Possess depth of content knowledge and make it relevant to students (+.69) 4.Facilitate rigorous and relevant instruction based on how students learn (+1.28) 5.Use assessments to guide and differentiate instruction (+.90) 6.Demonstrate expertise in use of instructional strategies, technology, and best practices (+.60)
Culture Vision Structure and systems Selection, support, evaluation Organizational Leadership Data systems Build leadership
Adjust the Organizational Structure Leverage Data Systems Organizational Leadership 1.Create a culture 2.Establish a shared vision 3.Align organizational structures and systems to vision 4.Build leadership capacity 5.Align teacher / administrator selection, support, and evaluation 6.Support decision making with data systems
High expectations Curriculum Literacy and math Data-driven Provide professional growth Instructional Leadership
Use Data to set High Expectations Align Curriculum to Standards Integrate Literacy and Math across Curriculum Use Data to Guide Instruction Create Teacher Selection, Support and Evaluation System Instructional Leadership 1.Use research to establish urgency for higher expectations 2.Align curriculum to standards 3.Integrate literacy and math across all content areas 4.Facilitate data-driven decision making to inform instruction 5.Provide opportunities for focused professional collaboration and growth
What makes a great leader? Self-awareness Self-regulation Motivation Empathy Social skills
Self-Awareness Ability to understand your moods, emotions, drive and how they affect others. Self-confidence Self-assessment Sense of humor
Self-Regulation Ability to control impulses To think before you act Comfort with ambiguity Openness to change
Motivation Passion to work for reasons beyond money and status Strong drive to achieve Optimism, even in the face of failure Organizational commitment
Empathy Ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people Skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions Service to clients and customers
Social Skills Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks Ability to find common ground Effectiveness in leading change Expertise in building and leading teams
The fundamental task of a leader is to develop confidence in advance of victory, in order to attract the investments that make victory possible. - Rosabeth Moss Kanter
So how do you make this all work... Theres too many moving parts!
My Themes Qualities of Great Leaders The Use of Mental Models
Mental Models Mental models are similar in structure to the thing or concept they represent. Mental models allow a person to predict actions and shape approach. Mental models are simpler than the thing or concept they represent. They include only enough information to allow accurate predictions.
My Themes Qualities of Great Leaders Use of Mental Models Adaptive Leadership
School leadership is a disposition for taking action. Adaptive leadership is the collaborative responsibility for taking action to reach the future oriented goal of the intellectual, emotional and physical needs of each learner. International Centers Definition of Leadership
VISIONVISION AB D C Acquisition Adaptive Leadership Application Assimilation Adaptation 1 EMPOWERMENT 2 3 4 5 6 12345
VISIONVISION AB DC Authoritative Leadership Four Quadrants of Leadership Collaborative Leadership Visionary Leadership Adaptive Leadership HighLow High EMPOWERMENT
VISIONVISION AB DC Adaptive Leadership HighLow High EMPOWERMENT Sports Roles as a Metaphor Referee Cheerleader Player Coach
You don't want to work for a manager who is not a leader and you don't want to work for a leader who is not a manager. Adaptive leadership describes a manager and leader in a continuum.
Quadrant A – Acquisition (Position) Traditional leadership School manager Leaders decide, others act Authoritarian
Quadrant A Leadership Situations Where Quadrant A Is Effective Student safety and security issues Compliance with ethical and legal requirements Dismissal of staff Significant student behavior disruptions Introduction of new state mandates Need for fiscal controls School maintenance issues
Fierce conversations are about moral courage, clear requests, and taking action. Susan Scott, Fierce Conversations
Once a month evaluation discussions at Leadership Team meetings. Difficult cases are discussed by all. Professional Dialogue
Quadrant B - Application Application of leadership by administration and staff The staff works in a highly collaborative setting Actions are aligned with school goals
Quadrant B Leadership Situations Where Quadrant B Is Effective Conditions of low morale, such as layoffs or fiscal cuts Hiring and mentoring new staff Changes in school community, such as demographics Introduction of new programs, such as a reading program Frequent turnover in school leadership
The Issue: Quadrant B Is this the best we can be? Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Restructuring Committee: The think tank. Every department represented with a mix of teachers and administrators Balance of new teachers and veterans, new voices and voices of experience
Quadrant C – Assimilation (Research and Best Practices) Reflective and innovative Visionary Anticipation of the future Student needs drive action
Quadrant C Leadership Situations Where Quadrant C Is Effective Gaps in achievement among different groups of learners Staff clinging to status quo and traditional instruction Poor learner achievement Low learner expectations
The Issue: Quadrant C The performance of our students with disabilities. Special ed failure: ELA 78% Math 98%
So, do you think what were doing is working??? Know what you can do, know when you need help! (MSC – Larry Gloeckler, Special Education Institute) Same standards, same curriculum, different approach to instruction
Quadrant D - Adaptation (Disposition) Adaptive and collaborative Reflective and innovative Staff and learners are empowered to take a significant leadership role
Quadrant D Leadership Situations Where Quadrant D Is Effective Need for innovative approach Moving from good to great school Sustaining school improvement efforts Low learner engagement Shortage of prospective leaders New school planning
The Issue: Quadrant D Sustaining the momentum!
Faculty Investment Structured Discussion Groups Facilitated by Restructuring Committee members Guided questions provided
144 1. What would you cite as the primary reason(s) why students fail? 2. What procedures/ techniques/ strategies have you used that you feel have been most successful for our 9 th and 10 th graders in terms of academics and behavior? 3. We have been successful at helping students over the MCAS passing bar; now we must move our target to proficiency. What do you see as the major obstacle our students face in achieving this goal? What suggestions would you make to help our students overcome those challenges to reach proficiency? Structured Discussion Groups
VISIONVISION A B D C Four Quadrants of Leadership 1 EMPOWERMENT 2 3 4 5 6 12345 Increasing Staff Leadership Increasing Learner Leadership
VISION VISION A B D C Four Quadrants of Leadership 1 EMPOWERMENT 2 3 4 5 6 12345 Greater Reflection Best Practices for Future Needs of Learners
Adaptive leaders function in each quadrant, continually striving to influence school stakeholders to spend most of their time in Quadrant D.
My Themes Qualities of Great Leaders Use of Mental Models Adaptive Leadership The Leadership It Takes
Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade ELA distribution
Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade Math distribution
MCAS math gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School Rank Percentile)
MCAS ELA gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School rank percentile/100)
MCAS 2010 Failure ELA – 5% (in 98 - 44%) MATH – 14% (in 98 – 75%) MCAS 2010 Adv/Prof. ELA – 74% (in 98 - 22%) MATH – 61% (in 98 – 7%) MCAS 2010 Adv/Prof. ELA – 74% (in 98 - 22%) MATH – 61% (in 98 – 7%)
Reading Risk Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
Reading Risk Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
Math Risk Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
Math Risk Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
The main lesson was that student achievement rose when leadership teams focused thoughtfully and relentlessly on improving the quality of instruction. - Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director
Leadership teams succeeded initially because they used their positional authority to effectively jump-start the change process. Then they built trust... With cultivated competence and earned authority, they were able to help their colleagues overcome the types of fear and resistance that so often prevent effective reforms in American schools. Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report
The Leadership It Takes Leadership that Combines Passion with Competence: All educators effectively cultivate not only a sense of urgency but also a sense of possibility, built on demonstrated expertise among people in key positions and their commitment to continuous improvement. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Leadership It Takes Clear, Shared Conceptions of Effective Instruction: The district identifies key ideas concerning effective instructional and supervisory practice and works to establish them as a common language for approaching instructional improvement. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Leadership It Takes Streamlined and Coherent Curriculum: The district purposefully selects curriculum materials and places some restrictions on school and teacher autonomy in curriculum decisions. The district also provides tools (including technology) and professional development to support classroom-level delivery of specific curricula and high yield strategies. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Leadership It Takes Organizational Structures and Personnel that Embody Capacity to Teach and Motivate Adults: The district maintains routines and structures within which adult educators engage teachers and administrators in continuous improvement of instructional and supervisory practices. Coaching, observing, and sharing make it difficult for individuals to avoid the change process, and the push for adaptive change spurs resisters to leave their comfort zones or eventually depart from the district. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Leadership It Takes Patient but Tough Accountability: The district develops tools and routines for monitoring teaching practices and learning outcomes, targeting assistance where needed, and sometimes replacing teachers or administrators who fail to improve. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
The Leadership It Takes Data-Driven Decision Making and Transparency: Teachers and administrators analyze student performance for individual students and summarize data by grade level, special education status, English as a second language status, race/ethnicity, and gender. The district publicizes strategic goals for raising achievement levels and reducing gaps and tracks progress in visible ways. Educators identify, examine, and often emulate practices from successful schools. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
1.To Do Leadership Well 2.Quantitative Data 3.Qualitative Data 4.Ask Great Questions
1.Technical Challenges 2.Culture Challenges 3.Leading and Lagging Indicators
Teacher – Student Comparisons T – I make learning exciting for my students. 86% S – My teachers make learning fun. 41%
Teacher – Student Comparisons T – I am aware of my students interests outside of school. 84% S – My teachers know my interests outside of school. 28%
4 WE Surveys = 4 Perspectives on Teaching and Learning WE Lead – Coherent Vision, Empowerment, Culture of Learning, School Management, Community Partnerships WE Teach – Rigor, Relevance, Relationships WE Learn Rigor, Relevance, Relationships WE Support – Rigor, Relevance, Relationships
STRUCTURE of the SURVEYS I WE THEY COMPANION INDICATORS
Coherent Vision Total In Agreement Full-Time Dept. Chairs Classroom Teachers Support Staff Staff morale at this school is high. 50%53%50%52% We Lead - Whole Staff Survey
Years working in schools Coherent Vision 1 st year2-5 years 6-10 years 11-20 years Over 20 Staff morale is high at this school. 69%57%52%48%49% We Lead - Whole Staff Survey
1 2 3 45 CollaborationCollaboration CreativityCreativity 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quadrant D Leadership FrameworkQuadrant D Leadership Framework
Coherent Vision Instructional Leadership Empowerment Goal Focus Decisions Based on Reliable Data Curriculum and Instruction Professional Development Fidelity of Implementation Trust Communication Relationships Leadership Leverage Points
Quick Review… 1.The idea of the future 2.Best Practices and Next Practices 3.Key trends shaping (now and in the future) education (hardware section) 4.Relationship / social skills (software section) 5.Daggett System for Effective Instruction 6.The Adaptive Leader (Quad D) 7.Tie it all together (reboot section)
IF WE WANT… Children to be learners who think, read, reason and express themselves effectively in multiple ways… Then we must show them thoughtful people eager to take in and use new information.
IF WE WANT.. Children to be brave and resourceful when confronted with the unknown… Then they must see us taking risks and finding new ways to move ahead.
IF WE WANT.. Children to be loyal, patriotic and responsible…. Then let us show them that we can be true to our deepest principles.
IF WE WANT.. A new and better educational system that educates all our children for success in the 21 st Century…. We will have to be new and better leaders and learners so that we can be FUTURE READY TODAY