2Schools are ImprovingChanging WorldSchool Improvement
3The primary aim of education is not to enable students to do well in school, but to help them do well in the lives they lead outside of school.
4We’ve created false proxies for learning… Finishing a course or textbook has come to mean achievementListening to lecture has come to mean understandingGetting a high score on a standardized test has come to mean proficiency
5Learning should have its roots in.. Meaning, not just memoryEngagement, not simply transmissionInquiry, not only complianceExploration, not just acquisitionPersonalization, not simply uniformityCollaboration, not only competitionTrust, not fear
6Schools are ImprovingChanging WorldSchool Improvement
7Making a better “20th Century School” is not the answer.
8“The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating “The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. The paths are not found, but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination.” John Schaar
9Unless we unlearn some of our traditional practices, we will never get beyond an improvement mindset.
10We are getting better at things that do not matter as much anymore.
11I believe the future is not about the latest gadgets, it is about something more than gadgets, it’s about …LEARNING
12Broaden the definition of learning in your system to include adults. In an environment driven by results, the best strategy is to “DEVELOP YOUR PEOPLE.”Broaden the definition of learning in yoursystem to include adults.
14The focus must be on the way we work. Cooperation is what was valued in the past. It is about efficiency: “You do this and I will do that.”Collaboration is where we should focus. It is about shared creation, in which the focus is not on the process but on the specific results.
28A Story….Not a bad idea, but to earn a grade more than a C+, the idea has to be viable! (Yale Professor)Fredrick SmithThe idea FedEx28
29“In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities; in the expert’s mind there are few.” -Shurnyu Suzuki29
30Established organizations often embrace “sustaining innovations” but struggle with “disruptive innovations.”
31ExampleResearch in an established organization is aligned to someone studying aircraft built in the 1940’s…. All statistics and engineering data are based on what has been accomplished in the past, not what the organization might deliver in the future. “Travel faster than the speed of sound!”
48The Fundamental Attribution Error When looking at our own behavior, we tend to view the situation in the environment that surrounds our action. When looking at the behavior of others, we make assumptions about their personal qualities.
49The Effects of Praise Fixed or Growth Can’t hand confidence to learners on a silver platter.
50We live in a world obsessed with predictability and control, some people believe that if we can’t truly measure something it must not matter.We must consider the possibility that if we can’t truly measure something, it may be the most important thing.
51It’s not us against them! Talking with kids…It’s not us against them!
54Participation GapSelf-Worth: Self-Worth occurs when children know they are valued members of the community; have a person they can trust; believe they can achieve.Active Engagement: Active Engagement happens when children are deeply involved in the learning process.Purpose: Purpose exists when children take responsibility for who and what they want to become.
55STUDENT ASPIRATIONS / PARTICIPATION GAP BelongingSELF WORTHHeroesRelationshipsSense of AccomplishmentACTIVE ENGAGEMENTFun & ExcitementCuriosity & CreativityRelevanceSpirit of AdventurePURPOSELeadership & ResponsibilityRigorConfidence to Take Action
56NATIONAL DATA SELF WORTH Belonging Heroes Sense of Accomplishment STATEMENT54% 49% I am proud of my school.49% 49% I enjoy being at school.58% 41% Teachers care about my problems and feelings.54% 46% Teachers care about me as an individual.50% 45% Teachers care if I am absent from school.19% 21% I have never been recognized for something positive at school.52% 48% If I have a problem, I have a teacher with whom I can talk.68% 51% Teachers respect students.49% 37% Students respect teachers.36% 29% Students respect each other .Same kids say I am proud and I enjoy… high correlation…Teachers care is the one...3 is statistically significantEveryone wants to compare themselves.. It is meaningless…. The national data is not a comparison group because the numbers are so high…In the respect area every school in the nation has the same trends… teacher, student , studentCopyright 2008 Quaglia Institute5656
57NATIONAL DATA ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT Fun & Excitement Curiosity & CreativitySpirit of AdventureSTATEMENT42% 48% School is boring.68% 55% At school I am encouraged to be creative.47% 37% My classes help me understand what is happeningin my everyday life.67% 54% Teachers enjoy working with students47% 37% Teachers have fun at school.41% 28% Teachers make school an exciting place to learn.79% 71% My teachers present lessons in different ways .Again the same kids are happy and correlate …High stakes testing drives down the encourage to be creative.Kids see school as something you do rather than …. Teaching is not a job.. It is a profession….. You are trying to get kids to aspire to be!!!!Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute57
58NATIONAL DATA PURPOSE Leadership & Responsibility Confidence to Take ActionSTATEMENT62% 64% I am a good decision maker.54% 59% I see myself as a leader.30% 35% Other students see me as a leader.91% 91% I believe I can be successful.80% 77% Teachers expect me to be successful.58% 64% I believe I can make a difference in this world.79% 66% I put forth my best effort at school.44% 36% I know the goals my school is working on.41% 30% Students council represents all students at school.African Americans score high in “confidence to take action” .. We need to take care of ourselves…. They have been taught to survive….Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute58
59NATIONAL DATA Delusional Discrepancies Copyright 2008 Quaglia InstituteNATIONAL DATADelusional DiscrepanciesI am proud of my school. T = 85 S = 50I am excited to be working with students. T = 96Teachers enjoy working with students. S = 56Students have fun at school. T = 78School is boring. S = 47Students make school an exciting place to work. T = 87Teachers make school an exciting place to learn. S = 31I have fun at school. T = 85Teachers have fun at school. S = 39This is why school change doesn’t work.Middle and High dataTeachers must be having fun somewhere as the kids say only 39% have fun in school and teachers say they have fun 85% of time….Teachers enjoy being there…. 88%.. Only 50% of kids like being there.5959
60NATIONAL DATA I am excited to tell my colleagues Sad SimilaritiesI am excited to tell my colleagueswhen I do something well. T = 59I am excited to tell my friendswhen I get good grades. S = 57I feel comfortable asking questions in staff meetings. T = 66I feel comfortable asking questions in class. S = 66Colleagues see me as a leader is less than I see myself .. As well with student.Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute6060
74RelevanceTo determine a lessons level of Relevance you must ask the following questions…Is it application?Is it real world?Is it unpredictable?74
75Application Model 1 Knowledge of one discipline 2 Application within discipline3 Application across disciplines4 Application to real-world predictable situations5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations75
76Relevance of learning to life and work Action ContinuumAcquisitionof knowledgeApplicationof knowledgeRelevance of learning to life and work
78Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge.ApplicationAAcquisitionComprehension 2AwarenessLow-level Knowledge1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
79A Quadrant Verbs Products definition worksheet list quiz test workbook namelabeldefineselectidentifylistmemorizerecitelocaterecorddefinitionworksheetlistquiztestworkbooktrue-falsereproductionrecitation
80Quadrant AAsk questions to recall facts, make observations or demonstrate understanding.What is/are__?How many__?How do/does__?What did you observe__ ?What else can you tell me__?What does it mean__?What can you recall__?Where did you find that__?Who is/was__?In what ways_?How would you define that in your own terms?What did/do you notice about this __?What did/do you feel/see/hear/smell __?What do you remember about _?What did you find out about __?
81Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. ApplicationBApplicationComprehension 2AwarenessLow-level Application3Apply knowledge across disciplines5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation4Apply to real-world predictable situation
83Quadrant B Ask questions to apply or relate. How would you do that? Where will you use that knowledge?How does that relate to your experience?How can you demonstrate that?What observations relate__?Where would you locate that information?Calculate that for __?How would you illustrate that?How would you interpret?Who could you interview?How would you collect that data?How do you know it works?Can you show me?Can you apply what you know to this real world problem?How do you make sure it is done correctly?
84Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions.EvaluationCAssimilationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level KnowledgeApplication1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
86Quadrant C Ask questions to summarize, analyze, organize, or evaluate. How are these similar/different?How is this like___?What's another way we could say/explain/express that?What do you think are some reasons/causes that _____ ?Why did __ changes occur?How can you distinguish between__?What is a better solution to__?How would you defend your position about__?What changes to __ would you recommend?What evidence can you offer?How do you know?Which ones do you think belong together?What things/events lead up to __ ?What is the author’s purpose?
87Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.EvaluationDAdaptationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level ApplicationApplication3Apply knowledge across disciplines4Apply to real-world predictable situation5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation
89Quadrant D Ask questions to predict, design, or create. How would you design a __ to __?How would you compose a song about__?How would you rewrite the ending of the story?What would be different today, if that event occurred differently?Can you see a possible solution to__?How could you teach that to others?If you had access to all resources how would you deal with__?How would you devise your own way to deal with__?What new and unusual uses would you create for__?Can you develop a proposal which would_?How would you have handled__?How would you do it differently?
93Teaching How students learn Instructional strategies Content RelationshipsAssessment to guide instructionRigor and relevance
94Effective and Efficient Practices John Hattie… Effective and Efficient Practices John Hattie…. Visible Learning Synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement.
95Effect Size1.0 indicates one standard deviation typically associated with advancing children’s achievement by two or more years (improving the rate of learning by 50%)Hattie set a bench mark of .40 as the minimal desired effect
96Some data Student expectations of self 1.44 Providing formative evaluation .90Teacher Clarity .75Class size .21Retention .16
97Greatest Impact Culture of High Expectations Strong Instructional ModelRelevance of InstructionStrong Relationships
98TeachingEmbrace rigorous and relevant expectations for all students (+.75)Build strong relationship with students (+.72)Possess depth of content knowledge and make it relevant to students (+.69)Facilitate rigorous and relevant instruction based on how students learn (+1.28)Use assessments to guide and differentiate instruction (+.90)Demonstrate expertise in use of instructional strategies, technology, and best practices (+.60)Use Varied, ongoing Assessments to Inform and differentiate Instruction (+.90)Make content meaningful to llearners (+.69)CultivateCaringrelationship with students (+.72)Engage in Targeted and Sustained Professional Growth (+.62)Embrace rigorous and relevant expectations for all students (+.75)
99Organizational Leadership Structure and systemsBuild leadershipSelection, support, evaluationVisionData systemsCulture
100Organizational Leadership Create a cultureEstablish a shared visionAlign organizational structures and systems to visionBuild leadership capacityAlign teacher / administrator selection, support, and evaluationSupport decision making with data systemsAdjust the Organizational StructureLeverage Data Systems
101Instructional Leadership Literacy and mathData-drivenCurriculumProvide professional growthHigh expectations
102Instructional Leadership Use research to establish urgency for higher expectationsAlign curriculum to standardsIntegrate literacy and math across all content areasFacilitate data-driven decision making to inform instructionProvide opportunities for focused professional collaboration and growthUse Data to Guide InstructionCreate Teacher Selection, Support and Evaluation SystemIntegrate Literacy and Math across CurriculumAlign Curriculum to StandardsUse Data to set High Expectations
111What makes a “great” leader? Self-awarenessSelf-regulationMotivationEmpathySocial skills111
112Self-AwarenessAbility to understand your moods, emotions, drive and how they affect others.Self-confidenceSelf-assessmentSense of humor112
113Self-Regulation Ability to control impulses To think before you act Comfort with ambiguityOpenness to change113
114Motivation Passion to work for reasons beyond money and status Strong drive to achieveOptimism, even in the face of failureOrganizational commitment114
115Empathy Ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people Skill in treating people according to their emotional reactionsService to clients and customers115
116Social SkillsProficiency in managing relationships and building networksAbility to find common groundEffectiveness in leading changeExpertise in building and leading teams116
117“The fundamental task of a leader is to develop confidence in advance of victory, in order to attract the investments that make victory possible.”- Rosabeth Moss Kanter117
118So how do you make this all work... There’s too many moving parts! 118
119My ThemesQualities of Great LeadersThe Use of Mental Models119
120Mental ModelsMental models are similar in structure to the thing or concept they represent.Mental models allow a person to predict actions and shape approach.Mental models are simpler than the thing or concept they represent. They include only enough information to allow accurate predictions.120
122My Themes Qualities of Great Leaders Use of Mental Models Adaptive Leadership122
123International Center’s Definition of Leadership School leadership is a disposition for taking action. Adaptive leadership is the collaborative responsibility for taking action to reach the future oriented goal of the intellectual, emotional and physical needs of each learner.123
125D C A B Adaptive Leadership Assimilation Adaptation Acquisition 6AssimilationAdaptationD5CVISION43AcquisitionApplication2AB112345EMPOWERMENT125
126C D A B Four Quadrants of Leadership Adaptive Visionary Leadership HighABLowAuthoritativeLeadershipCollaborativeLeadershipLowHighEMPOWERMENT126
127Sports Roles as a Metaphor Adaptive LeadershipSports Roles as a MetaphorCDPlayerCoachVISIONHighABLowRefereeCheerleaderLowHighEMPOWERMENT127
128You don't want to work for a manager who is not a leader and you don't want to work for a leader who is not a manager. Adaptive leadership describes a manager and leader in a continuum.128
129Quadrant A – Acquisition (Position) Traditional leadershipSchool managerLeaders decide, others actAuthoritarian129
130Situations Where Quadrant A Is Effective Quadrant A LeadershipSituations Where Quadrant A Is EffectiveStudent safety and security issuesCompliance with ethical and legal requirementsDismissal of staffSignificant student behavior disruptionsIntroduction of new state mandatesNeed for fiscal controlsSchool maintenance issues130
131“Fierce conversations are about moral courage, clear requests, and taking action.” Susan Scott, Fierce Conversations131131
132Professional Dialogue Once a month evaluation discussions at Leadership Team meetings.Difficult cases are discussed by all.This was almost like medical “rounds” – Difficult cases brought forward, like case study analysis.132
133Quadrant B - Application Application of leadership by administration and staffThe staff works in a highly collaborative settingActions are aligned with school goals133
134Situations Where Quadrant B Is Effective Quadrant B LeadershipSituations Where Quadrant B Is EffectiveConditions of low morale, such as layoffs or fiscal cutsHiring and mentoring new staffChanges in school community, such as demographicsIntroduction of new programs, such as a reading programFrequent turnover in school leadership134
135The Issue: Quadrant B Is this the best we can be? Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and InnovateRestructuring Committee: The “think tank.” Every department represented with a mix of teachers and administratorsBalance of new teachers and veterans, new voices and voices of experience135135
136Quadrant C – Assimilation (Research and Best Practices) Reflective and innovativeVisionaryAnticipation of the futureStudent needs drive action136
137Situations Where Quadrant C Is Effective Quadrant C LeadershipSituations Where Quadrant C Is EffectiveGaps in achievement among different groups of learnersStaff clinging to status quo and traditional instructionPoor learner achievementLow learner expectations137
138Special ed failure: ELA 78% Math 98% The Issue: Quadrant C The performance of our students with disabilities.Special ed failure:ELA 78% Math 98%138138
139So, do you think what we’re doing is working??? Know what you can do, know when you need help! (MSC – Larry Gloeckler, Special Education Institute) Same standards, same curriculum, different approach to instruction139139
140Quadrant D - Adaptation (Disposition) Adaptive and collaborativeReflective and innovativeStaff and learners are empowered to take a significant leadership role140
141Situations Where Quadrant D Is Effective Quadrant D LeadershipSituations Where Quadrant D Is EffectiveNeed for innovative approachMoving from good to great schoolSustaining school improvement effortsLow learner engagementShortage of prospective leadersNew school planning141
142Sustaining the momentum! The Issue: Quadrant DSustaining the momentum!142142
143Faculty Investment Facilitated by Restructuring Committee members Structured Discussion GroupsFacilitated by Restructuring Committee membersGuided questions provided143143
144Structured Discussion Groups 1. What would you cite as the primary reason(s) why students fail?2. What procedures/ techniques/ strategies have you used that you feel have been most successful for our 9th and 10th graders in terms of academics and behavior?3. We have been successful at helping students over the MCAS “passing bar;” now we must move our target to proficiency. What do you see as the major obstacle our students face in achieving this goal? What suggestions would you make to help our students overcome those challenges to reach proficiency?144144144
145D C B A Four Quadrants of Leadership 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 VISION4Increasing Learner Leadership3Increasing Staff Leadership2BA112345EMPOWERMENT145
146Four Quadrants of Leadership 6DC5VISIONGreater ReflectionBestPracticesforFutureNeeds ofLearners432BA112345EMPOWERMENT146
147Quadrant D Leadership Framework Creativity65432Collaboration112345147
148Adaptive leaders function in each quadrant, continually striving to influence school stakeholders to spend most of their time in Quadrant D.148
149My Themes Qualities of Great Leaders Use of Mental Models Adaptive LeadershipThe Leadership It Takes149
150Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade ELA distribution
151Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade Math distribution
152MCAS math gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School Rank Percentile)
153MCAS ELA gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School rank percentile/100)
154Failure ELA – 5% Adv/Prof. (in 98 - 22%) MATH – 61% MCAS 2010 As bad as these were – it was even worse to look at our subgroups – in Special Education our ELA failure rate was 78%, in math it was 98%!
155Reading RiskMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
156Reading RiskMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
157Math RiskMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
158Math RiskMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
159The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director“The main lesson was that student achievement rose when leadership teams focused thoughtfully and relentlessly on improving the quality of instruction.”- Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report
160The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director“Leadership teams succeeded initially because they used their positional authority to effectively jump-start the change process. Then they built trust... With cultivated competence and earned authority, they were able to help their colleagues overcome the types of fear and resistance that so often prevent effective reforms in American schools.”Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report
161The Leadership It Takes Leadership that Combines Passion with Competence:All educators effectively cultivate not only a sense of urgency but also a sense of possibility, built on demonstrated expertise among people in key positions and their commitment to continuous improvement.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
162The Leadership It Takes Clear, Shared Conceptions of Effective Instruction:The district identifies key ideas concerning effective instructional and supervisory practice and works to establish them as a “common language” for approaching instructional improvement.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
163The Leadership It Takes Streamlined and Coherent Curriculum:The district purposefully selects curriculum materials and places some restrictions on school and teacher autonomy in curriculum decisions. The district also provides tools (including technology) and professional development to support classroom-level delivery of specific curricula and high yield strategies.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
164The Leadership It Takes Organizational Structures and Personnel that Embody Capacity to Teach and Motivate Adults:The district maintains routines and structures within which adult educators engage teachers and administrators in continuous improvement of instructional and supervisory practices. Coaching, observing, and sharing make it difficult for individuals to avoid the change process, and the push for adaptive change spurs resisters to leave their comfort zones or eventually depart from the district.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
165The Leadership It Takes Patient but Tough Accountability:The district develops tools and routines for monitoring teaching practices and learning outcomes, targeting assistance where needed, and sometimes replacing teachers or administrators who fail to improve.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
166The Leadership It Takes Data-Driven Decision Making and Transparency: Teachers and administrators analyze student performance for individual students and summarize data by grade level, special education status, English as a second language status, race/ethnicity, and gender. The district publicizes strategic goals for raising achievement levels and reducing gaps and tracks progress in visible ways. Educators identify, examine, and often emulate practices from successful schools.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
167To Do Leadership WellQuantitative DataQualitative DataAsk Great Questions
168Technical ChallengesCulture ChallengesLeading and Lagging Indicators
169Teacher – Student Comparisons T – I make learning exciting for my students.86%S – My teachers make learning fun.41%
170Teacher – Student Comparisons T – I am aware of my students’ interests outside of school.84%S – My teachers know my interests outside of school.28%Share to gauge idea of – is this valuable information for teachers to know? Is it important that students are aware that teachers know?170
1714 WE™ Surveys = 4 Perspectives on Teaching and Learning WE LeadCoherent Vision, Empowerment, Culture of Learning, School Management, Community PartnershipsWE TeachRigor, Relevance, RelationshipsWE Learn Rigor, Relevance, RelationshipsWE Support
172STRUCTURE of the SURVEYS IWETHEYCOMPANION INDICATORS172
173We Lead - Whole Staff Survey Coherent VisionTotal In AgreementFull-Time Dept. ChairsClassroom TeachersSupport StaffStaff morale at this school is high.50%53%52%173
174Years working in schools We Lead - Whole Staff SurveyYears working in schoolsCoherent Vision1st year2-5 years6-10 years11-20 yearsOver 20Staff morale is high at this school.69%57%52%48%49%What happens over time to our teachers?174
178Leadership Leverage Points Coherent VisionInstructional LeadershipEmpowermentGoal FocusDecisions Based on Reliable DataCurriculum and InstructionProfessional DevelopmentFidelity of ImplementationTrustCommunicationRelationships178
179Quick Review… The idea of the future Best Practices and Next Practices Key trends shaping (now and in the future) education (hardware section)Relationship / social skills (software section)Daggett System for Effective InstructionThe Adaptive Leader (Quad D)Tie it all together (reboot section)
181IF WE WANT…Children to be learners who think, read, reason and express themselves effectively in multiple ways…Then we must show them thoughtful people eager to take in and use new information.
182IF WE WANT.. Children to be brave and resourceful when confronted with the unknown…Then they must see us taking risksand finding new ways to move ahead.
183IF WE WANT.. Children to be loyal, patriotic and responsible…. Then let us show them that we can be true to our deepest principles.
184IF WE WANT..A new and better educational system that educates all our children for success in the 21st Century….We will have to be new and better leaders and learners so that we can be “FUTURE READY TODAY”