2Module Objective Understanding Windows 2000 enumeration How to Connect via Null SessionHow to disguise NetBIOS EnumerationDisguise using SNMP enumerationHow to steal Windows 2000 DNS information using zone transfersLearn to enumerate users via CIFS/SMBActive Directory enumerations
3What is EnumerationIf acquisition and non intrusive probing have not turned up any results, then an attacker will next turn to identifying valid user accounts or poorly protected resource shares.Enumeration involves active connections to systems and directed queries.The type of information enumerated by intruders:Network resources and sharesUsers and groupsApplications and banners
4Net Bios Null SessionsThe null session is often refereed to as the Holy Grail of Windows hacking. Null Sessions take advantage of flaws in the CIFS/SMB (Common Internet File System/ Server Messaging Block).You can establish a Null Session with a Windows (NT/2000/XP) host by logging on with a null user name and password.Using these null connections allows you to gather the following information from the host:List of users and groupsList of machinesList of sharesUsers and host SIDs (Security Identifiers)
5So What's the Big Deal?Anyone with a NetBIOS connection to your computer can easily get a full dump of all your usernames, groups, shares, permissions, policies, services and more using the Null user.The above syntax connects to the hidden Inter Process Communication 'share' (IPC$) at IP address with the built- in anonymous user (/u:'''') with ('''') null password.The attacker now has a channel over which to attempt various techniques.The CIFS/SMB and NetBIOS standards in Windows 2000 include APIs that return rich information about a machine via TCP port even to unauthenticated users.C: \>net use \\ \IPC$ '''' /u: '''‘
6Null Session Countermeasure Null sessions require access to TCP 139 and/ or TCP 445 ports.You could also disable SMB services entirely on individual hosts by unbinding WINS Client TCP/IP from the interface.Edit the registry to restrict the anonymous user.1. Open regedt32, navigate to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\LSA2. Choose edit | add valuevalue name: ResticAnonymousData Type: REG_WORDValue: 2
7NetBIOS EnumerationNBTscan is a program for scanning IP networks for NetBIOS name information.For each responded host it lists IP address, NetBIOS computer name, logged-in user name and MAC address.The first thing a remote attacker will try on a Windows 2000 network is to get list of hosts attached to the wire.1. net view / domain,2. nbstat -A <some IP>
8Hacking Tool: DumpSecDumpSec reveals shares over a null session with the target computer.
9Hacking Tool: NATThe NetBIOS Auditing Tool (NAT) is designed to explore the NetBIOS file-sharing services offered by the target system.It implements a stepwise approach to gather information and attempt to obtain file system-level access as though it were a legitimate local client.If a NETBIOS session can be established at all via TCP port 139, the target is declared "vulnerable“.Once the session is fully set up, transactions are performed to collect more information about the server including any file system "shares" it offers.
10SNMP EnumerationSNMP is simple. Managers send requests to agents, and the agents send back replies.The requests and replies refer to variables accessible to agent software.Managers can also send requests to set values for certain variables.Traps let the manager know that something significant has happened at the agent's end of things:a rebootan interface failure,or that something else that is potentially bad has happened.Enumerating NT users via SNMP protocol is easy using snmputil
13SNMP Enumeration Countermeasures Simplest way to prevent such activity is to remove the SNMP agent or turn off the SNMP service.If shutting off SNMP is not an option, then change the default 'public' community name.Implement the Group Policy security option called Additional restrictions for anonymous connections.Access to null session pipes and null session shares, and IPSec filtering should also be restricted.
14Windows 2000 DNS Zone transfer For clients to locate Win 2k domain services such as Ad and kerberos, Win 2k relies on DNS SRV records.Simple zone transfer (nslookup, ls -d <domainname>) can enumerate lot of interesting network information.An attacker would look at the following records closely:1. Global Catalog Service (_gc._tcp_)2. Domain Controllers (_ldap._tcp)3. Kerberos Authentication (_kerberos._tcp)
15Blocking Win 2k DNS Zone transfer You can easily block zone transfers using the DNS property sheet as shown here.
16Identifying Accounts Two powerful NT/2000 enumeration tools are: 1.sid2user2.user2sidThey can be downloaded at (www.chem.msu.su/^rudnyi/NT/)These are command line tools that look up NT SIDs from username input and vice versa.
17Hacking Tool: EnumAvailable for download fromenum is a console-based Win32 information enumeration utility.Using null sessions, enum can retrieve user lists, machine lists, share lists, name lists, group and membership lists, password and LSA policy information.enum is also capable of rudimentary brute force dictionary attack on individual accounts.
18Hacking tool: Userinfo Userinfo is a little function that retrieves all available information about any known user from any NT/Win2k system that you can hit 139 on.Specifically calling the NetUserGetInfo API call at Level 3, Userinfo returns standard info likeSID and Primary grouplogon restrictions and smart card requirementsspecial group informationpw expiration information and pw ageThis application works as a null user, even if the RA set to 1 to specifically deny anonymous enumeration.
19Hacking Tool: GetAcctGetAcct sidesteps "RestrictAnonymous=1" and acquires account information on Windows NT/2000 machines.Downloadable from (www.securityfriday.com)
20Active Directory Enumeration All the existing users and groups could be enumerated with a simple LDAP query.The only thing required to perform this enumeration is to create an authenticated session via LDAP.Connect to any AD server using ldp.exe port 389Authenticate yourself using Guest /pr any domain accountNow all the users and built in groups could be enumerated.
21AD Enumeration countermeasures How is this possible with a simple guest account?The Win 2k dcpromo installations screen prompts if the user wants to relax access permissions on the directory to allow legacy servers to perform lookup:1.Permission compatible with pre-Win2k2.Permission compatible with only with Win2kChoose option 2 during AD installation.
22SummaryEnumeration involves active connections to systems and directed queries.The type of information enumerated by intruders includes network resources and shares, users and groups and applications and banners.Null sessions are used often by crackers to connect to target systems.NetBIOS and SNMP enumerations can be disguised using tools such as snmputil, nat etc.Tools such as user2sid, sid2user and userinfo can be used to identify vulnerable user accounts.