Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration BIOLOGY What is Cellular Respiration? Step-by-step breakdown of high- energy glucose molecules to release energy Takes place day."— Presentation transcript:
Cellular Respiration BIOLOGY
What is Cellular Respiration? Step-by-step breakdown of high- energy glucose molecules to release energy Takes place day and night in all living cells Occurs in stages, controlled by enzymes
Where does it occur? In the Cell Mitochondrion Outer Membrane Inner Membrane
Different types of Cellular Respiration Aerobic respiration Occurs in the presence of oxygen When chemically breaking down glucose completely, this process releases large amounts energy Anaerobic respiration Usually occurs when there is no oxygen available When partially breaking down glucose, this process releases a very small amount of energy.
Stage 1: Glycolysis means "splitting sugars" ….6 carbon glucose is split into two 3 carbon molecules (pyruvate) Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells With or Without O 2 not required (anaerobic) Some ATP produced Net yield = 2 ATPs
The Krebs Cycle (a.k.a. citric acid cycle) Occurs in the mitochondria O 2 required (aerobic) CO 2 (waste) Some ATP produced Net yield = 2 ATPs
Krebs cycle CoA acetyl coenzyme A citric acid CO 2 NADHNAD + oxaloacetic acid ketoglutaric acid CO 2 NAD + malic acid NADH FADH 2 FAD + succinic acid ATP -ketoglutaric acid derivative ADP 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 electron transport chain CO 2 2 ATP GLYCOLYSIS SUMMARY OF THE KREBS CYCLE
Electron Transport Chain series of electron carriers in the membrane of the mitochondria Occurs in the inner membrane of mitochondria O 2 required (aerobic) A lot of ATP produced Net yield = 32 ATPs
GLYCOLYSIS ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN O2O2 H2OH2O 32 ATP KREBS CYCLE ATP SYNTHESIS mitochondrion inner compartment outer compartment inner membrane outer compartment inner membrane NADH ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP synthesis ADP + P ATP NAD + 2 H + + 1/2 O 2 H2OH2O inner compartment H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+
Cellular Respiration Review…... 3 Stages: Stage 1: Glycolysis O 2 not required (anaerobic) Some ATP produced Stage 2: Krebs Cycle O 2 required (aerobic) Some ATP produced Stage 3: Electron Transport System O 2 required (aerobic) Much ATP produced Q. Where does each Stage occur? A. Cytoplasm of the cell A.Mitochondrion (matrix) A. Mitochondrial innermembrane TOTAL: 36ATP 2 ATPs 32 ATPs
GLYCOLYSIS KREBS CYCLE Insert 1 Glucose 2 energy tokens (ATP) 2 energy tokens 32 energy tokens ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN reactants products GLYCOLYSIS glucose OxygenWater 2 ATP 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 32 ATP KREBS CYCLE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN glucose derivatives carbon dioxide carbon dioxide cytosol mitochondrion
Aerobic Respiration Oxygen combines with glucose to convert it into energy Releasing carbon dioxide and water as waste products. glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + lots of heat energy
Anaerobic Respiration Occurs if there is a lack of oxygen available for aerobic respiration Glucose is incompletely broken down In this type of respiration a lot less energy is produced and most of it is lost as heat.
Anaerobic Energy Production: Fermentation Lactic Acid Formed mainly by animal muscle cells Occurs in some unicellular organisms Glucose lactic acid + a tiny amount of heat energy Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast cells, Bacteria Glucose alcohol + carbon dioxide + a tiny amount of heat energy
Summary: Aerobic & Anaerobic Similarities: Glucose is broken down. Carbon dioxide is released. Energy is liberated. Differences: Aerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration Lots of energy releasedLittle energy is released Water is the end product Lactic Acid or alcohol is the end product Glucose is completely broken down Glucose is partially broken down Is dependent on oxygenIs not dependent on oxygen