Presentation on theme: "Metodologi dan Metode Penelitian Mata kuliah Metode Penelitian 1 9 Oktober 2008 Tamara A. Susetyo-Salim,S.S.,M.A."— Presentation transcript:
Metodologi dan Metode Penelitian Mata kuliah Metode Penelitian 1 9 Oktober 2008 Tamara A. Susetyo-Salim,S.S.,M.A.
METODE PENELITIAN METODE adalah setiap prosedur yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan akhir. METODE PENELITIAN: 1.Tujuan akhirnya adalah: Data-data yang terkumpul 2. Metodenya adalah: Alat mengumpulakan data-data tersebut. (Sulistyo, 2006: 92)
METODE Cara yang teratur dan terpikir baik untuk mencapai maksud, cara kerja sistematis untuk memudahkan pelaksanaan penelitian guna mencapai tujuan yang ditentukan.
METODE PENELITIAN Mengungkapkan cara teknis tentang metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian. Membahas konsep teoritis berbagai metode, kelebihan dan kelemahannya.
Logika atau teori deduktif dan induktif Deduktif: mencerminkan pandangan paling umum tentang hubungan antara teori dan penelitian. Induktif: menekankan pentingnya menempatkan teori sebagai hasil dari proses penelitian. (Pendit, 2003: )
Objektif dan Subjektif OBJEKTIF: hasil penelitian menceriminkan keadaan sesungguhnya tanpa pandangan pribadi peneliti, harus “bebas nilai”. Peneliti adalah analis netral, tidak memihak, tak berkepentingan memberi pendapat pribadi. SUBJEKTIF: peneliti memiliki penilaian, perasaan, terhadap yang diteliti karena berinteraksi hingga memiliki interpretasi tentang yang diteliti. Peneliti bertindak sebagai peneliti dan yang diteliti.
GENERALSASI Kebenaran yang dapat diberlakukan seluas mungkin
Kehandalan, keterulangan, kesahihan Kehandalan (reliability): Memastikan bahwa alat untuk meneliti dapat dipercaya untuk objek yang diteliti. Keterulangan (replication): Penelitian dapat diulang di tempat dan waktu berbeda dan menghasilkan kesimpulan yang konsisten Kesahihan (validity): Peneliti menjaga integritas dari kesimpulan penelitian.
Research methodology tends to govern, or at least limit, the range of choices: 1.how the data will be collected, 2.how it will be analyzed, 3.how results will be reported, and 4.the nature of the conclusions that may reasonably be drawn from the results.
Selection of a research methodology What is (a)the most practical, (b) the most efficient, (c) The most promising, and (d) the most readily available way to solve the research problem or answer the research question? The methodology choice influences the outcomes of the research.
The types of research
1. Analytical Classes of data are collected, and studies are conducted to discern and explicate principles that might guide action. Special subtypes under this heading include micro-, macro-, and policy analysis. Examples: State court interpretations of permissive legislation on nonschool use of school property Criteria for accepting applicants in housing cooperatives Management of extremes of human behavior in hospital emergency rooms Employment of handicapped high school graduates in an economically depressed region
2. Case study The background, development, current conditions,and environmental interactions of one or more individuals, groups, communities, businesses, or institutions are observed, recorded, and analyzed for stages or patterns in relation to internal and external influences. Examples: A case study of open admissions in an American junior college The development of cognitive functions in three autistic children: case records analyses Establishment and growth of the National Association of Retired Persons The National Association of Manufacturers’ labor policy; a case study of development
3. Comparative Two or more existing situations are studied to determine and explicate their likenesses and differences. Examples: Concepts taught in secondary school chemistry in Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, and the United States Self-control of children and adults during cardiac diagnostic procedures Bid specification procedures for public playground and recreation supply and equipment purchases in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and California
4. Correlational-predictive Statistically significant correlation coefficients between and among relevant phenomena are sought and interpreted; this type includes the determination of the extent to which variations in one or more factors correspond with variations in one or more other factors and the use of such findings in making predictions. Examples: Interaction of gasoline prices and automobile travel for business and vacation purposes Relationships between nature of crime and amount of recidivism Relationships among size of family, age, and use of home health agencies Relationships between teacher backgrounds and their attitudes toward international cooperation
5. Design and demonstration New operationally related business systems, personnel training curricula, professional education programs, instructional materials, disease control plans, and the like are constructed and described; this type is often called action research and includes, at least, formative evaluation. Examples: A literacy program for the Sudan Feasibility of a lighter-than-air freight transport system for Africa A curriculum in motor development for the period birth to 3 years of age A cytotoxicity test for insoluble dusts Design and establishment of a comprehensive health information system for western Australia
6. Evaluation A program or a project is expected to be carried out in a certain way and expected to produce a certain result; research is intended to determine whether the anticipated procedure and the outcome are realized. Evaluation research that focuses on the procedure is called formative, and that which attends particularly to the outcome is called summative. Examples: Effectiveness of mental health programs that serve hearing-impaired children Evaluation of a regional family planning program Impact of county drug and alcohol programs Evaluation of a rural marketing plan for fire insurance Effectiveness of rehabilitation counseling: an evaluation
7. Developmental The changes over time in one or more observable factors, patterns, or sequences of growth or decline may be traced or charted and reported. Examples: Growth of child care centers in American business and industry Emergence and spread of credit card utilization The written language development of children The computer and the knowledge explosion: a developmental study
8. Experimental One or more variables may be deliberately manipulated and the results analyzed and rationalized—“true” experiments requiring tight controls and subject randomization. Examples: Reduction of separation anxiety through use of mental imagery Use of programmed instruction to correct errors in the written language of deaf adolescents The effects of listening training on salesperson effectiveness Effects of a parental intervention strategy on reading skill development Effects of different options for continued employment on retirement decisions
9. Exploratory Investigations into new or relatively unknown territory for the purpose of searching out or closely scrutinizing objects or phenomena to lead to a better understanding of them. Examples: Telescopic and satellite observations of the composition of the surface of the moons of Jupiter The parasitic life in the feces of wild horse herds of the Rocky Mountain region The behavior of molten metals under conditions of virtually zero gravity The characteristics of “private” languages used by twins and triplets in communication between and among themselves The study of extraterrestrial objects for evidences of life forms
10. Historical Individuals or activities are studied to reconstruct the past accurately and without bias to ascertain, document, and interpret their influences or to check the tenability of an hypothesis. Examples: The relevance of the thought of Albert Camus for education Sources of individual differences in solutions to management problems Historical landmarks in the management of environmental noise The search for the perpetual motion machine: its contribution to engineering Origins and status of the Montessori movement in the United States
11. Meta-analysis A procedure for combining results of research across areas in which measurement systems are not precise by adding together sources of variance to get a population value of the standard deviation as the basis for establishing effect sizes. Used both in assembling meaningful literature reviews and in testing hypotheses. Examples: How “real” is the gender gap in aptitude test results? What is the evidence that air pollution is associated with human illnesses? Are large automobiles safer? The effectiveness of hypnosis in curing addiction
12. Methodological These studies examine new approaches (methods) with potential advantages over present approaches (methods). The study content includes, but is not limited to, building, measuring, observing, organizing, displaying, and communicating. Such studies frequently make use of both developmental and evaluative procedures. Examples: The relative advantages and disadvantages of digital and analog television Longitudinal versus cross-sectional age cohort approaches in studying personality development Advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis in gauging the import of past research Prestructured or self-designed majors in collegiate education: pros and cons
Specific Procedures What will be done in the conduct of the study: 1.correspondence, 2.the design of questionnaires, 3.pilot studies to be mounted before the complete study, 4.the application of some treatment, 5.the conduct of interviews, 6.the distribution of inquiry forms or other instruments designed to gather appropriate data, 7.obtaining permissions, 8.the use of consultation, or other actions.
Research Population or Sample 1.What is the population to be studied? Is it a type of flora? Is it a group of research reports on which you will conduct a meta-analysis? Is it a form of virus? Is it a group of people? 2. What are its characteristics? Will the universe (everyone or everything in thepopulation group) be studied, or will there be a sample? 3. If a sample, how will it be selected from the whole? What is the justification for selecting the sample? Is it possible to determine the representativeness of the sample? If not, does that fact constitute a prohibition or just a limitation? 4. How does one gain access to the sample population, and how difficult a problem is that expected to be?
Instrumentation 1.tests, 2.apparatus, 3.interview protocols, 4.Questionnaires. Review the potentialities in contemporary technology for ways to enhance the speed, the accuracy, and the reliability of instrumentation. Example computer programs for administering questionnaires..