1.Pendekatan Medis (1920-1960) Diperkenalkan oleh Sigmund Freud (Psikoanalisa) Klien sebagai pasien dengan masalah-masalah internal. “the medical model approach emphasized entraphysic process and focused on enabling patients to adapt and adjust to their social situation” 1
2. Perspectif Ekologis (1960 -…) “ecology is the scientific study of the relationships of living organic with each other and with their environment” (Charles H Southwide) The ecological perspective tends to place greater emphasis on individuals and individual family systems. Ecosystem theory is systems theory used to describe and analyze people and other living systems and their transactions Systems theories. On the other hand. Assume a broader perspective. They can be used to describe the dynamics in a social service agency or the fuctioning of a human family Perspektif Ekosistem : interrelatedness dan interdependency 2
Ekologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan antar mahluk hidup dalam alam dan hubungan antara mahluk hidup dengan lingkungannya hubungan dinamis & berubah: ekosistem Human ecology refers to the study of continuing transaction between people and their environments and accomodations that they mutually make ( Magaly,h 16) 3
Perspektif Sistem Terbuka : the theory remains popular in the field because its conceptual base is highly compatible with generalist practice, as it elucidates the many areas of commonality among individuals, families, groups, organizations, communities and societies as a whole and emphasizes the relationship between people and their environment (Alex Gitterman dalam Magaly, h.19) Both general system theory and ecological perspective provide useful means for Social Workers to view the world. Both focus on systems within environment and describe how the systems interact with and effect people”( Zastrow ) 4
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