3What was Italy like during the 1920s & 1930s? Democracies had been weakened by WWI and Great DepressionMany workers are crippled by WWI or unemployedItaly feels cheated by Versailles TreatyMany businessmen are worried about the communists seizing powerLed by a King-Victor Emmanuel III
4Who was Benito Mussolini? Son of a Communist blacksmith and a school teacherNamed after Mexican Revolutionary
5Continued… Communist Newspaper editor WWI veteran (wounded himself with a hand grenade)(against war 1911, then pro-Allies in WWI)
6How does he become Il Duce (“the Leader”)? Politician who founded the Fascist Party in 1919What is Fascism?
7What is Fascism? Fascism: Political Party Advocates totalitarianism Extreme NationalismThe State is more important than the individual like Communism-but doesn’t call for state ownership of property
8Slogans: “Believe, Obey, Fight” “The Country Is Nothing Without Conquest”
9What changes did Mussolini promise?: He promised :To revive the economy and rebuild the Armed ForcesAnti-communistAnti-democracy
10Industrialist picked him as the lesser of two evils Monarch or Fascist?Created the “Black Shirts” (Fascist Thugs)Mussolini’s private army (thousands)beat & sometimes killed communists and political rivals.
12How does he seize power? 1922- 30,000 to 40,000 Fascists march from Milan to Rome and demanded that Mussolini be named Prime Minister of Italy.The King of Italy was worried that the Fascist would start a civil war so he agreedMussolini therefore took power “legally.”
14What did Mussolini do while in power? Wanted to rebuild Italy into the Roman EmpireOutlawed strikesCensored the pressAllied with industrialists and large land ownersBuilt a strong militaryStarted public works project to help during the DepressionSecret police jailed opposition leaders(Summarize 2 or 3 of these facts in your notes)