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SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?

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Presentation on theme: "SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?"— Presentation transcript:

1 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?

2 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist

3 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Not a Master…

4 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

5 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History…

6 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygienist In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes.

7 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Law Codes Hammurabi

8 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 21:23-25 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life. 19 Anyone who maims another shall suffer the same injury in return: 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury inflicted is the injury to be suffered. Lev 24: 18-24 LAW lex talionis

9 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. History…

10 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 1473 Elrich Ellenbog Wrote a pamphlet on occupational Diseases with the mining industry

11 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Magna Carta Year Year: 1215 Lead to Bill of Rights Some other clauses still used today! Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not only to the protection of nobles but to all subjects of the crown equally. He famously asserted: "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he will have no sovereign."

12 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225 Charter) Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may take any commodity such as corn, wood or transport without payment or consent or force a knight to pay for something the knight could do himself and that the king must return any lands confiscated from a felon within a year and a day. Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and right of entry and exit of foreign merchants. Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint royal officers where they are suitable for the post. Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of monasteries. Magna Carta Year

13 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs for loss of life or limb are to be free, that someone may use reasonable force to secure their own land and that no one can be tried on their own testimony alone. Magna Carta Year 1215 Edward Coke

14 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting sick workers and their families. In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when, in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. The book included suggestions for mine ventilation and worker protection, discussed mining accidents, and described diseases associated with mining occupations such as silicosis. History…

15 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History Mysticisms vrs Reality Late 1600s it was believed that demons lived in the mines Could be controlled with fasting and prayer!

16 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial hygiene gained further respectability in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at this time!) History…

17 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial hygiene received another major boost in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid. History…

18 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive proposals for eliminating unhealthful working conditions. Reference: Exploring the Dangerous Trades History…

19 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Child Labor Law

20 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In 1916 Congress made its first effort to control child labour by passing the Keating-Owen Act. The legislation forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. In 1918 the Supreme Court ruled that the Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional. Laws that Changed

21 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History 1966 Safety and Health - A managers prerogative

22 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Values… $208,000

23 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Federal Regulations December 9, 1970 OSHA –Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees –Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act.

24 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards? Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards. Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals. Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. (1) following proper procedures that minimize exposures (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good house-keeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited. Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present.

25 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding workers' health: (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. History…

26 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

27 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene What is it?

28 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Definition The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of factors and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces), which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort, and inefficiency among workers or among the citizens of a community - ACGIH

29 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 The science devoted to recognition (or identification), evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace, which could impair the health and well being of people at work, while also taking into account the possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards

30 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygienist The person having a college or university degree or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics, health physics, nursing, medicine, or related field, by virtue of special studies, training, experience, and/or certification has acquired competence in IH.

31 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Scope of OH Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control

32 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

33 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Anticipation What is Anticipation? –Design of process, equipment –Future legislation/regulations –Research

34 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Recognition Raw materials, by-product, products Process and operations Records of accidents and diseases Walk around – senses, talk to workers, etc Grab samples

35 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Evaluation Purpose – not losing focus. Sampling technique and strategy Instrumentation (Real time & non Rt) Standard, regulations etc

36 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Evaluation

37 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Control Principle of control measures Hierarchy of control measures ALARA

38 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

39 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Benefits of IH Program Improve health and hygiene Reduce compensation Improve job satisfaction Reduce absenteeism Improve productivity Improve workers attitude towards management

40 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

41 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Objectives To create awareness among employers and workers on the importance of OH practices in industry to preserve and protect the health of workers from being affected by hazards in the working environment. To investigate the effect of specific hazard on the health of workers so that the short and long term measures can be taken to control the hazard

42 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Activities Occupational Hygiene Inspection Monitoring of occupational hazards Biological monitoring Enforcement Investigation of complaints / accidents Training

43 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Statistics

44 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Monitoring Monitoring of occupational hazards Chemical Biological Physical Ergonomic/mechanical Psychosocial

45 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Biological Monitoring Blood – Pb, Hg, Cd etc Lung Function Test HCP Textile workers mill workers Timber processing workers Audiometric testing

46 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environmental Factors Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards –radiation, pressure –noise, vibration, temperature Ergonomic Hazards Biological Hazards

47 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Chemical Hazards The majority of OHS are chemical MSDS (required by OSHA) The right to know act Proper labeling Hazards when machining / melting etc. How exposure effects the body

48 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Solvents Very commonly used How do solvents enter the body? Effect from physical contact Acute effects versus chronic effects Air displacement issues Flammability and flash point

49 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicity Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard. Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm when it reaches a certain concentration. Hazard is the probability that this contamination will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter 6

50 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Physical Hazards Noise –Psychological Effects –Interference with communication –Physiological effects Risk Criteria Permissible levels –(85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan) Temperature

51 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Ionizing Radiation What is ionizing radiation? How does it effect the body What are the sources of ionizing radiation? Internal versus external hazards Measuring radiation

52 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Non-Ionizing Radiation Definition Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves) Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody) Visible light –Well lit but not over lit –60 cycle flicker –Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output

53 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Extremes of pressure Effects on gas absorption in the blood Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere components Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc. Effects of low pressure

54 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Ergonomic Hazards Repetitive motion disorders Injury rate (guards and shields) Body stress –back –neck –eyes Workplace design

55 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Biological Hazards Bacterial Viral Engineered Bugs and snakes etc. Allergens The water fountain

56 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Routs of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption Ingestion

57 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Dusts (0.1 - 25 um) –smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) –made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols

58 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Mists –Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors –volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature

59 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Hazards of Airborne Contaminates Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) –Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling)


61 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Break!

62 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology

63 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Dose Makes the Poison - Paracelsus

64 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Anything is a poison – –The dose makes a poison

65 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Basic Terms: Lethal Dose (LD) Lethal Concentration (LC) Effective Dose (ED) Concentration Route of Entry

66 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Everything is a poison? All are toxic to some quantifiable degree Sugar has an LD 50 of 30,000 mg/kg The foresters favorite – ethanol has an LD 50 of only 13,700 mg/kg Even water has a recognized LD 50 of slightly greater than 80,000 mg/kg

67 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101

68 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Lethal Dose (LD50) - The dose necessary to kill 50% of the population

69 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology

70 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Variance between People? Gender differences? Background? Yes, because of metabolism

71 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology The route can make all the difference

72 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Routes of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption (intact skin) –Eyes Ingestion/Injection

73 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Exposure – Skin?

74 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Dusts (0.1 - 25 um) –smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) –made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols

75 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Russian Coal Workers

76 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Mists –Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors –volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature

77 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 LIMITS and Terms Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) –Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling)

78 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Dose Response Curves response Dose

79 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Non-Threshold Dose Response

80 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Threshold Dose Response No observed Response

81 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Comparison of Dose

82 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Comparing

83 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Acute - Immediate Effect from Exposure Chronic – Long term effect from exposure

84 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 LD50

85 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Effective Dose

86 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 No Observed Adverse Effect

87 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Dose Response

88 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Metabolism Bioactivation Detoxification Metabolites

89 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Tox Models One Compartment Model – BODY VOLUME Elimination

90 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Additive: 2+3=5 (2 OPs - cholinesterase inhibition) Synergistic: 2+2=20 (CCl4 + EtOH) Potentiation: 0+2=10 (isopropanol + CCl4) Antagonism: 4+6=8; 4+0=1

91 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Distribution

92 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Differences…

93 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Buildup -

94 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Which is more toxic? A B Response Dose Class Activity

95 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Break!

96 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology 2 Details…

97 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Beneficial Effects Curve Toxic Effects Curve TD 50 ED50 100 Effects % Dose 0.1 1.0 10 100 1000 Safety margin

98 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Concerns with Tox Data Sample Size Control Groups Characteristics of the groups

99 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature of Data 3 to 4 animals - Accuracy? –Length of study –0.01% response – humans to animals? –Organs to man

100 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature… Control Groups –Group not exposed to chemical –Permit proper interpretation –Confounding variables Smoking, age, drinking

101 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature… Characteristics –Fischer Rats - high spontaneous tumor rate –Closely controlled –Exact chemical –Dose concentration –Length of exposure –Compare to human exposure – accidents, suicides, case reports

102 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environmental and Occupational Disease False Positives False Negatives Errors in Extrapolation

103 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environment vrs Occupational Appearance of Disease Population with common exposure Clusters Unusual or uncommon disease patterns Symptoms or disease occurring in workers Appearance or disappearances of disease

104 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environment Vrs Occupational Examples –Agricultural workers with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lacrimation- pesticide –Painter with weakness, headache, abdominal pain – volatile solvents –Employee at plastics manufacture – TDI –Truck mechanic with headaches, flushing of the face – CO or Trichloroethane

105 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Class Practical A group of 25 individuals suddenly show leukemia in Albuquerque…

106 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Practical Youre assumption?

107 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Practical: Further research reveals: Each of them worked at Kirtland for a period of time 10 years ago. Conclusions?

108 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Disposition of Chemicals Does exposure to chemicals result in Toxicity?

109 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Disposition Absorption Distribution Biotransformation Elimination See Figure 2.3, page 25

110 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Disposition Where does the chemical stay? Figure 2.4, page 26.

111 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Skin Notation What Chemicals Have Skin notations? What does it mean?

112 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 General Rule- If substances are attracted to fats rather than water, Readily absorbed through the skin

113 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Step 2 Transport Bond to Blood Dissolved Reaching the Target Organ – the effect Waiting in storage

114 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Biotransformation Metabolism: –Oxidation –Reduction –Hydrolysis

115 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Elimination of Chemicals Major Routes Biliary (liver and Renal) Feces Exhaled –Milk, Sweat, saliva, hair, nails So what do we monitor? BEIs.

116 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Targets: Lungs Respiratory Circulatory Brain Kidneys Liver Immune System Nervous System Reproductive –Teratogenesis Embryogenesis

117 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Chemical Exposure

118 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Clusters Increase in apparent disease

119 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Clusters Cluster events are groupings of a particular disorder or a class of disorders that appear unusually frequent in a place.

120 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Clusters: High Power Lines and Cancer Cell phones and cancer Public Perception

121 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicological Testing Method – test organisms Keeping Up - 80,000 chemicals Transmitting the data What is done? Who decides? –CDC and Cr+6

122 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Translating to TLVs Methods Further discussion in the section on TLVs Application Time – 2 years on TLV list, years in study

123 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Activity: Youre the Committee 3 Groups of 3 Find the TLV. Handout Determine a TLV.

124 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene From Many Disciplines –Toxicology –Physiology –Physics Long History AREC

125 SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Questions?

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