Presentation on theme: "SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?"— Presentation transcript:
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Not a Master…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygienist In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes.
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Law Codes Hammurabi
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 21:23-25 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life. 19 Anyone who maims another shall suffer the same injury in return: 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury inflicted is the injury to be suffered. Lev 24: LAW lex talionis
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene Elrich Ellenbog Wrote a pamphlet on occupational Diseases with the mining industry
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Magna Carta Year Year: 1215 Lead to Bill of Rights Some other clauses still used today! Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not only to the protection of nobles but to all subjects of the crown equally. He famously asserted: "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he will have no sovereign."
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225 Charter) Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may take any commodity such as corn, wood or transport without payment or consent or force a knight to pay for something the knight could do himself and that the king must return any lands confiscated from a felon within a year and a day. Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and right of entry and exit of foreign merchants. Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint royal officers where they are suitable for the post. Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of monasteries. Magna Carta Year
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs for loss of life or limb are to be free, that someone may use reasonable force to secure their own land and that no one can be tried on their own testimony alone. Magna Carta Year 1215 Edward Coke
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting sick workers and their families. In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when, in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. The book included suggestions for mine ventilation and worker protection, discussed mining accidents, and described diseases associated with mining occupations such as silicosis. History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History Mysticisms vrs Reality Late 1600s it was believed that demons lived in the mines Could be controlled with fasting and prayer!
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial hygiene gained further respectability in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at this time!) History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial hygiene received another major boost in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid. History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive proposals for eliminating unhealthful working conditions. Reference: Exploring the Dangerous Trades History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Child Labor Law
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 In 1916 Congress made its first effort to control child labour by passing the Keating-Owen Act. The legislation forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. In 1918 the Supreme Court ruled that the Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional. Laws that Changed
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 History 1966 Safety and Health - A managers prerogative
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Values… $208,000
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Federal Regulations December 9, 1970 OSHA –Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees –Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act.
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards? Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards. Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals. Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. (1) following proper procedures that minimize exposures (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good house-keeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited. Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present.
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding workers' health: (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. History…
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene What is it?
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Definition The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of factors and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces), which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort, and inefficiency among workers or among the citizens of a community - ACGIH
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 The science devoted to recognition (or identification), evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace, which could impair the health and well being of people at work, while also taking into account the possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygienist The person having a college or university degree or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics, health physics, nursing, medicine, or related field, by virtue of special studies, training, experience, and/or certification has acquired competence in IH.
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Scope of OH Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Anticipation What is Anticipation? –Design of process, equipment –Future legislation/regulations –Research
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Recognition Raw materials, by-product, products Process and operations Records of accidents and diseases Walk around – senses, talk to workers, etc Grab samples
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Evaluation Purpose – not losing focus. Sampling technique and strategy Instrumentation (Real time & non Rt) Standard, regulations etc
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Evaluation
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Control Principle of control measures Hierarchy of control measures ALARA
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Benefits of IH Program Improve health and hygiene Reduce compensation Improve job satisfaction Reduce absenteeism Improve productivity Improve workers attitude towards management
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Objectives To create awareness among employers and workers on the importance of OH practices in industry to preserve and protect the health of workers from being affected by hazards in the working environment. To investigate the effect of specific hazard on the health of workers so that the short and long term measures can be taken to control the hazard
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Activities Occupational Hygiene Inspection Monitoring of occupational hazards Biological monitoring Enforcement Investigation of complaints / accidents Training
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Statistics
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Industrial Hygiene Monitoring Monitoring of occupational hazards Chemical Biological Physical Ergonomic/mechanical Psychosocial
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Biological Monitoring Blood – Pb, Hg, Cd etc Lung Function Test HCP Textile workers mill workers Timber processing workers Audiometric testing
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environmental Factors Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards –radiation, pressure –noise, vibration, temperature Ergonomic Hazards Biological Hazards
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Chemical Hazards The majority of OHS are chemical MSDS (required by OSHA) The right to know act Proper labeling Hazards when machining / melting etc. How exposure effects the body
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Solvents Very commonly used How do solvents enter the body? Effect from physical contact Acute effects versus chronic effects Air displacement issues Flammability and flash point
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicity Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard. Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm when it reaches a certain concentration. Hazard is the probability that this contamination will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter 6
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Physical Hazards Noise –Psychological Effects –Interference with communication –Physiological effects Risk Criteria Permissible levels –(85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan) Temperature
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Ionizing Radiation What is ionizing radiation? How does it effect the body What are the sources of ionizing radiation? Internal versus external hazards Measuring radiation
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Non-Ionizing Radiation Definition Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves) Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody) Visible light –Well lit but not over lit –60 cycle flicker –Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Extremes of pressure Effects on gas absorption in the blood Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere components Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc. Effects of low pressure
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Everything is a poison? All are toxic to some quantifiable degree Sugar has an LD 50 of 30,000 mg/kg The foresters favorite – ethanol has an LD 50 of only 13,700 mg/kg Even water has a recognized LD 50 of slightly greater than 80,000 mg/kg
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Lethal Dose (LD50) - The dose necessary to kill 50% of the population
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology Variance between People? Gender differences? Background? Yes, because of metabolism
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Toxicology The route can make all the difference
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Routes of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption (intact skin) –Eyes Ingestion/Injection
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Exposure – Skin?
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Dusts ( um) –smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) –made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Russian Coal Workers
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Airborne Contaminates Mists –Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors –volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 LIMITS and Terms Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) –Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling)
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Concerns with Tox Data Sample Size Control Groups Characteristics of the groups
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature of Data 3 to 4 animals - Accuracy? –Length of study –0.01% response – humans to animals? –Organs to man
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature… Control Groups –Group not exposed to chemical –Permit proper interpretation –Confounding variables Smoking, age, drinking
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Nature… Characteristics –Fischer Rats - high spontaneous tumor rate –Closely controlled –Exact chemical –Dose concentration –Length of exposure –Compare to human exposure – accidents, suicides, case reports
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environmental and Occupational Disease False Positives False Negatives Errors in Extrapolation
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environment vrs Occupational Appearance of Disease Population with common exposure Clusters Unusual or uncommon disease patterns Symptoms or disease occurring in workers Appearance or disappearances of disease
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Environment Vrs Occupational Examples –Agricultural workers with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lacrimation- pesticide –Painter with weakness, headache, abdominal pain – volatile solvents –Employee at plastics manufacture – TDI –Truck mechanic with headaches, flushing of the face – CO or Trichloroethane
SSOIndustrial Hygiene 101 Class Practical A group of 25 individuals suddenly show leukemia in Albuquerque…