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UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?

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Presentation on theme: "UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?"— Presentation transcript:

1 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygiene Whats an Industrial Hygienist?

2 UCMSafety 5120 A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist

3 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygienist There has been an awareness of industrial hygiene since antiquity. The environment and its relation to worker health was recognized as early as the fourth century BC

4 UCMSafety 5120 Not a Master…

5 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygienist In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes.

6 UCMSafety 5120 Law Codes Hammurabi

7 UCMSafety 5120 If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 21:23-25 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life. 19 Anyone who maims another shall suffer the same injury in return: 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury inflicted is the injury to be suffered. Lev 24: 18-24 LAW lex talionis

8 UCMSafety 5120 In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. History…

9 UCMSafety 5120 Galens Thoughts

10 UCMSafety 5120 This illustration accompanying Galens work shows the surgical procedures described by Galenon the head, eye, leg, mouth, bladder and genitals still practiced in the 16th century.

11 UCMSafety 5120 Galen states that animal bodies are an unequal mixture of hot, cold, wet, and dry an elaboration of the Hippocratic Pythagorean concept that the cosmos consists of four geometrically interacting primary life elements: earth, air, water, and fire. (509) These mixtures can become "ill balanced" and these imbalances can be vectored in various configurations. Mixtures also define and measure objects, qualities, and other subjects, such as climate for example.

12 UCMSafety 5120 1473 Elrich Ellenbog Wrote a pamphlet on occupational Diseases with the mining industry

13 UCMSafety 5120 Magna Carta Year Year: 1215 Lead to Bill of Rights Some other clauses still used today! Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not only to the protection of nobles but to all subjects of the crown equally. He famously asserted: "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he will have no sovereign."

14 UCMSafety 5120 Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225 Charter) Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may take any commodity such as corn, wood or transport without payment or consent or force a knight to pay for something the knight could do himself and that the king must return any lands confiscated from a felon within a year and a day. Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and right of entry and exit of foreign merchants. Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint royal officers where they are suitable for the post. Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of monasteries. Magna Carta Year

15 UCMSafety 5120 Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs for loss of life or limb are to be free, that someone may use reasonable force to secure their own land and that no one can be tried on their own testimony alone. Magna Carta Year 1215 Edward Coke

16 UCMSafety 5120 In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting sick workers and their families. In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when, in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. The book included suggestions for mine ventilation and worker protection, discussed mining accidents, and described diseases associated with mining occupations such as silicosis. History…

17 UCMSafety 5120 Agricola suggested ventilation!

18 UCMSafety 5120 Diseases of the Mines!

19 UCMSafety 5120 Ventilation Horse Powered!

20 UCMSafety 5120 History Mysticisms vrs Reality Late 1600s it was believed that demons lived in the mines Could be controlled with fasting and prayer!

21 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial hygiene gained further respectability in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at this time!) History…

22 UCMSafety 5120 The book contained accurate descriptions of the occupational diseases of most of the workers of his time. Ramazzini greatly affected the future of industrial hygiene because he asserted that occupational diseases should be studied in the work environment rather than in hospital wards. The First one to ask: What is your trade? Ramazzini…

23 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial hygiene received another major boost in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid. History…

24 UCMSafety 5120 Sir George Baker Colic related to lead in cider Industry.

25 UCMSafety 5120 In England in the 18th century, Percival Pott, as a result of his findings on the insidious effects of soot on chimney sweepers, was a major force in getting the British Parliament to pass the Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788. The passage of the English Factory Acts beginning in 1833 marked the first effective legislative acts in the field of industrial safety. The Acts, however, were intended to provide compensation for accidents rather than to control their causes. Later, various other European nations developed workers' compensation acts, which stimulated the adoption of increased factory safety precautions and the establishment of medical services within industrial plants. History…

26 UCMSafety 5120 In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive proposals for eliminating unhealthful working conditions. Reference: Exploring the Dangerous Trades History…

27 UCMSafety 5120 Child Labor Law

28 UCMSafety 5120 In 1916 Congress made its first effort to control child labour by passing the Keating-Owen Act. The legislation forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. In 1918 the Supreme Court ruled that the Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional. Laws that Changed


30 UCMSafety 5120 At about the same time, U.S. federal and state agencies began investigating health conditions in industry. In 1908, the public's awareness of occupationally related diseases stimulated the passage of compensation acts for certain civil employees. States passed the first workers' compensation laws in 1911. And in 1913, the New York Department of Labor and the Ohio Department of Health established the first state industrial hygiene programs. All states enacted such legislation by 1948. In most states, there is some compensation coverage for workers contracting occupational diseases. History…

31 UCMSafety 5120 History 1966 Safety and Health - A managers prerogative

32 UCMSafety 5120 The Time Line Agriculture 1930 Manufacturing Standardized systems WW II 1941 Korea 11 Million Workers Iron/Steel Vietnam WW I Crash OSHA 1950 1970 Walsh Halley Act 1935

33 UCMSafety 5120 1940 Continuous Mining Machine 1960 New Vulcanization Process Asbestosis increases Uranium New Petrochemical Black lung increases 1970 Mine Explosion WV, 1968 Increase respiratory disease

34 UCMSafety 5120 Time Line 1 Billion lbs/year 162.9 Billion lbs/year 1976 1941

35 UCMSafety 5120 Time Line Synthetic Compounds Produced 1958 17,000 58,000 19711980s 70,000


37 UCMSafety 5120 Values… $208,000

38 UCMSafety 5120 Federal Regulations December 9, 1970 OSHA –Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees –Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act.


40 UCMSafety 5120 Break!

41 UCMSafety 5120 How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards? Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards. Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals. Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. (1) following proper procedures that minimize exposures (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good house-keeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited. Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present.

42 UCMSafety 5120 The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding workers' health: (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. History…

43 UCMSafety 5120 Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present.

44 UCMSafety 5120 Activity … Now youre the Industrial Hygienist…. Scenario What is the hazard? What is the control?

45 UCMSafety 5120 What is oversight? Discussion

46 UCMSafety 5120

47 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygiene What is it?

48 UCMSafety 5120 Definition The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of factors and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces), which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort, and inefficiency among workers or among the citizens of a community - ACGIH

49 UCMSafety 5120 The science devoted to recognition (or identification), evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace, which could impair the health and well being of people at work, while also taking into account the possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards

50 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygienist The person having a college or university degree or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics, health physics, nursing, medicine, or related field, by virtue of special studies, training, experience, and/or certification has acquired competence in IH.

51 UCMSafety 5120 Scope of OH Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control

52 UCMSafety 5120

53 UCMSafety 5120 Anticipation Design of process, equipment Future legislation/regulations Research

54 UCMSafety 5120 Recognition Raw materials, by-product, products Process and operations Records of accidents and diseases Walkaround – senses, talk to workers, etc Grab samples

55 UCMSafety 5120 Life Cycle System Accident Point of no return Initiating event(s) HARM! Early Recovery System becomes unbalanced Loss Control starts Detection System in Balance Normal State Start of Recovery

56 UCMSafety 5120 Evaluation Purpose Sampling technique and strategy Instrumentation (Real time & non Rt) Standard, regulations etc

57 UCMSafety 5120 Control Principle of control measures Hierarchy of control measures ALARA


59 UCMSafety 5120 Benefits of IH Program Improve health and hygiene Reduce compensation Improve job satisfaction Reduce absenteeism Improve productivity Improve workers attitude towards management

60 UCMSafety 5120 Objectives To create awareness among employers and workers on the importance of OH practices in industry to preserve and protect the health of workers from being affected by hazards in the working environment. To investigate the effect of specific hazard on the health of workers so that the short and long term measures can be taken to control the hazard

61 UCMSafety 5120 Activities Occupational Hygiene Inspection Monitoring of occupational hazards Biological monitoring Enforcement Investigation of complaints / accidents Training

62 UCMSafety 5120 Industrial Hygiene Monitoring Monitoring of occupational hazards Chemical Biological Physical Ergonomic/mechanical Psychosocial

63 UCMSafety 5120 Biological Monitoring Blood – Pb, Hg, Cd etc Lung Function Test HCP Textile workers mill workers Timber processing workers Audiometric testing

64 UCMSafety 5120 Environmental Factors Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards –radiation, pressure –noise, vibration, temperature Ergonomic Hazards Biological Hazards

65 UCMSafety 5120 Chemical Hazards The majority of OHS are chemical MSDS (required by OSHA) The right to know act Proper labeling Hazards when machining / melting etc. How exposure effects the body

66 UCMSafety 5120 Solvents Very commonly used How do solvents enter the body? Effect from physical contact Acute effects versus chronic effects Air displacement issues Flammability and flash point

67 UCMSafety 5120 Toxicity Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard. Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm when it reaches a certain concentration. Hazard is the probability that this contamination will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter 6

68 UCMSafety 5120 Physical Hazards Noise –Psychological Effects –Interference with communication –Physiological effects Risk Criteria Permissible levels –(85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan)

69 UCMSafety 5120 Temperature Heat (core temp range is +3 / -2 degrees F) –Heat stress (heat stroke / exhaustion) –measurement and heat index –Radiant heat (IR radiation) Heat that is absorbed on impact –Heat loss through contact and convection –Heat stress indicies –Cold Stress

70 UCMSafety 5120 Ionizing Radiation What is ionizing radiation? How does it effect the body What are the sources of ionizing radiation? Internal versus external hazards Measuring radiation

71 UCMSafety 5120 Non-Ionizing Radiation Definition Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves) Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody) Visible light –Well lit but not over lit –60 cycle flicker –Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output

72 UCMSafety 5120 Extremes of pressure Effects on gas absorption in the blood Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere components Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc. Effects of low pressure

73 UCMSafety 5120 Ergonomic Hazards Repetitive motion disorders Injury rate (guards and shields) Body stress –back –neck –eyes Workplace design

74 UCMSafety 5120 Biological Hazards Bacterial Viral Engineered Bugs and snakes etc. Allergens The water fountain

75 UCMSafety 5120 Routs of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption Ingestion

76 UCMSafety 5120 Airborne Contaminates Dusts (0.1 - 25 um) –smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) –made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols

77 UCMSafety 5120 Airborne Contaminates Mists –Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors –volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature

78 UCMSafety 5120 Respiratory Hazards Oxygen deficient atmospheres –160mmHg O 2 normal Where can oxygen deficient atmospheres occur? –Confined entry –NASA shuttle

79 UCMSafety 5120 Hazards of Airborne Contaminates Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) –Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling)


81 UCMSafety 5120 Break!

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