Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Industrial Hygiene What’s an Industrial Hygienist? UCM Safety 5120.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Industrial Hygiene What’s an Industrial Hygienist? UCM Safety 5120."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Hygiene What’s an Industrial Hygienist? UCM Safety 5120

2 A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist UCM Safety 5120

3 Industrial Hygienist There has been an awareness of industrial hygiene since antiquity. The environment and its relation to worker health was recognized as early as the fourth century BC UCM Safety 5120

4 Not a Master… UCM Safety 5120

5 Industrial Hygienist In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes. UCM Safety 5120

6 Law Codes Hammurabi UCM Safety 5120

7 LAW If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 21:23-25 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life. 19Anyone who maims another shall suffer the same injury in return: 20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury inflicted is the injury to be suffered. Lev 24: 18-24 lex talionis UCM Safety 5120

8 History… In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. UCM Safety 5120

9 Galen’s Thoughts UCM Safety 5120

10 This illustration accompanying Galen’s work shows the surgical procedures described by Galen—on the head, eye, leg, mouth, bladder and genitals— still practiced in the 16th century. UCM Safety 5120

11 Galen states that animal bodies are an unequal �mixture� of hot, cold, wet, and dry�an elaboration of the Hippocratic Pythagorean concept that the cosmos consists of four geometrically interacting primary life elements:  earth, air, water, and fire. (509)   These mixtures can become "ill balanced" and these imbalances can be vectored in various configurations.  Mixtures also define and measure objects, qualities, and other subjects, such as climate for example.  UCM Safety 5120

12 Wrote a pamphlet on occupational Diseases with the mining industry
Elrich Ellenbog Wrote a pamphlet on occupational Diseases with the mining industry UCM Safety 5120

13 Magna Carta Year Year: 1215 Lead to Bill of Rights
Some other clauses still used today! Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not only to the protection of nobles but to all subjects of the crown equally. He famously asserted: "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he will have no sovereign." UCM Safety 5120

14 Magna Carta Year Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225 Charter) Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may take any commodity such as corn, wood or transport without payment or consent or force a knight to pay for something the knight could do himself and that the king must return any lands confiscated from a felon within a year and a day. Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and right of entry and exit of foreign merchants. Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint royal officers where they are suitable for the post. Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of monasteries. UCM Safety 5120

15 Magna Carta Year 1215 Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs for loss of life or limb are to be free, that someone may use reasonable force to secure their own land and that no one can be tried on their own testimony alone. Edward Coke UCM Safety 5120

16 History… In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting sick workers and their families. In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when, in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. The book included suggestions for mine ventilation and worker protection, discussed mining accidents, and described diseases associated with mining occupations such as silicosis. UCM Safety 5120

17 Agricola suggested ventilation!
UCM Safety 5120

18 Diseases of the Mines! UCM Safety 5120

19 Ventilation Horse Powered! UCM Safety 5120

20 History Mysticisms vrs Reality
Late 1600’s it was believed that demons lived in the mines Could be controlled with fasting and prayer! UCM Safety 5120

21 History… Industrial hygiene gained further respectability in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at this time!) UCM Safety 5120

22 Ramazzini… The book contained accurate descriptions of the occupational diseases of most of the workers of his time. Ramazzini greatly affected the future of industrial hygiene because he asserted that occupational diseases should be studied in the work environment rather than in hospital wards. The First one to ask: What is your trade? UCM Safety 5120

23 History… Industrial hygiene received another major boost in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid. UCM Safety 5120

24 Colic related to lead in cider Industry.
Sir George Baker Colic related to lead in cider Industry. UCM Safety 5120

25 History… In England in the 18th century, Percival Pott, as a result of his findings on the insidious effects of soot on chimney sweepers, was a major force in getting the British Parliament to pass the Chimney-Sweepers Act of The passage of the English Factory Acts beginning in 1833 marked the first effective legislative acts in the field of industrial safety. The Acts, however, were intended to provide compensation for accidents rather than to control their causes. Later, various other European nations developed workers' compensation acts, which stimulated the adoption of increased factory safety precautions and the establishment of medical services within industrial plants. UCM Safety 5120

26 History… In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive proposals for eliminating unhealthful working conditions. Reference: Exploring the Dangerous Trades UCM Safety 5120

27 Child Labor Law UCM Safety 5120

28 Laws that Changed In 1916 Congress made its first effort to control child labour by passing the Keating-Owen Act. The legislation forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. In 1918 the Supreme Court ruled that the Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional. UCM Safety 5120


30 History… At about the same time, U.S. federal and state agencies began investigating health conditions in industry. In 1908, the public's awareness of occupationally related diseases stimulated the passage of compensation acts for certain civil employees. States passed the first workers' compensation laws in And in 1913, the New York Department of Labor and the Ohio Department of Health established the first state industrial hygiene programs. All states enacted such legislation by In most states, there is some compensation coverage for workers contracting occupational diseases. UCM Safety 5120

31 History 1966 Safety and Health - A manager’s prerogative UCM

32 The Time Line WW II Korea Vietnam OSHA Crash Agriculture WW I
1935 1941 1950 1970 1930 Walsh Halley Act WW II Korea Vietnam OSHA Crash Manufacturing Agriculture WW I Iron/Steel Standardized systems 11 Million Workers UCM Safety 5120

33 Vulcanization Process
Continuous Mining Machine New Vulcanization Process Asbestosis increases Black lung increases Uranium New Petrochemical Increase respiratory disease Mine Explosion WV, 1968 1940 1970 1960 UCM Safety 5120

34 Time Line 1976 1941 1 Billion lbs/year 162.9 Billion lbs/year UCM
Safety 5120

35 Time Line Synthetic Compounds Produced
70,000 58,000 17,000 1958 1971 1980’s UCM Safety 5120


37 Values… $208,000 UCM Safety 5120

38 Federal Regulations December 9, 1970 OSHA
Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act. UCM Safety 5120


40 Break! UCM Safety 5120

41 How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards
How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards? Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards. Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals. Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. (1) following proper procedures that minimize exposures (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good house-keeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited. Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present. UCM Safety 5120

42 History… The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding workers' health: (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. UCM Safety 5120

43 Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present. UCM Safety 5120

44 Activity… Now you’re the Industrial Hygienist…. Scenario
What is the hazard? What is the control? UCM Safety 5120

45 What is oversight? Discussion UCM Safety 5120

46 UCM Safety 5120

47 Industrial Hygiene What is it? UCM Safety 5120

48 Definition “The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of factors and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces), which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort, and inefficiency among workers or among the citizens of a community” - ACGIH UCM Safety 5120

49 The science devoted to recognition (or identification), evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace, which could impair the health and well being of people at work, while also taking into account the possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH “Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards” UCM Safety 5120

50 Industrial Hygienist The person having a college or university degree or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics, health physics, nursing, medicine, or related field, by virtue of special studies, training, experience, and/or certification has acquired competence in IH. UCM Safety 5120

51 Scope of OH Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control UCM
Safety 5120

52 UCM Safety 5120

53 Anticipation Design of process, equipment
Future legislation/regulations Research UCM Safety 5120

54 Recognition Raw materials, by-product, products Process and operations
Records of accidents and diseases Walkaround – senses, talk to workers, etc Grab samples UCM Safety 5120

55 Life Cycle System Accident
HARM! System becomes unbalanced Loss Control starts Detection System in Balance Normal State Initiating event(s) Point of no return Early Start of Recovery Recovery UCM Safety 5120

56 Evaluation Purpose Sampling technique and strategy
Instrumentation (Real time & non Rt) Standard, regulations etc UCM Safety 5120

57 Control Principle of control measures Hierarchy of control measures
ALARA UCM Safety 5120


59 Benefits of IH Program Improve health and hygiene Reduce compensation
Improve job satisfaction Reduce absenteeism Improve productivity Improve workers’ attitude towards management UCM Safety 5120

60 Objectives To create awareness among employers and workers on the importance of OH practices in industry to preserve and protect the health of workers from being affected by hazards in the working environment. To investigate the effect of specific hazard on the health of workers so that the short and long term measures can be taken to control the hazard UCM Safety 5120

61 Activities Occupational Hygiene Inspection
Monitoring of occupational hazards Biological monitoring Enforcement Investigation of complaints / accidents Training UCM Safety 5120

62 Industrial Hygiene Monitoring
Monitoring of occupational hazards Chemical Biological Physical Ergonomic/mechanical Psychosocial UCM Safety 5120

63 Biological Monitoring
Blood – Pb, Hg, Cd etc Lung Function Test HCP Textile workers mill workers Timber processing workers Audiometric testing UCM Safety 5120

64 Environmental Factors
Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards radiation, pressure noise, vibration, temperature Ergonomic Hazards Biological Hazards UCM Safety 5120

65 Chemical Hazards The majority of OHS are chemical
MSDS (required by OSHA) The right to know act Proper labeling Hazards when machining / melting etc. How exposure effects the body UCM Safety 5120

66 Solvents Very commonly used How do solvents enter the body?
Effect from physical contact Acute effects versus chronic effects Air displacement issues Flammability and flash point UCM Safety 5120

67 Toxicity Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard.
Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm when it reaches a certain concentration. Hazard is the probability that this contamination will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter 6 UCM Safety 5120

68 Physical Hazards Noise Risk Criteria Permissible levels
Psychological Effects Interference with communication Physiological effects Risk Criteria Permissible levels (85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan) UCM Safety 5120

69 Temperature Heat (core temp range is +3 / -2 degrees F)
Heat stress (heat stroke / exhaustion) measurement and heat index Radiant heat (IR radiation) Heat that is absorbed on impact Heat loss through contact and convection Heat stress indicies Cold Stress UCM Safety 5120

70 Ionizing Radiation What is ionizing radiation?
How does it effect the body What are the sources of ionizing radiation? Internal versus external hazards Measuring radiation UCM Safety 5120

71 Non-Ionizing Radiation
Definition Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves) Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody) Visible light Well lit but not over lit 60 cycle flicker Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output UCM Safety 5120

72 Extremes of pressure Effects on gas absorption in the blood
Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere components Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc. Effects of low pressure UCM Safety 5120

73 Ergonomic Hazards Repetitive motion disorders
Injury rate (guards and shields) Body stress back neck eyes Workplace design UCM Safety 5120

74 Biological Hazards Bacterial Viral Engineered Bugs and snakes etc.
Allergens The water fountain UCM Safety 5120

75 Routs of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption Ingestion UCM
Safety 5120

76 Airborne Contaminates
Dusts ( um) smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols UCM Safety 5120

77 Airborne Contaminates
Mists Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature UCM Safety 5120

78 Respiratory Hazards Oxygen deficient atmospheres
160mmHg O2 normal Where can oxygen deficient atmospheres occur? Confined entry NASA shuttle UCM Safety 5120

79 Hazards of Airborne Contaminates
Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling) UCM Safety 5120


81 Break! UCM Safety 5120

Download ppt "Industrial Hygiene What’s an Industrial Hygienist? UCM Safety 5120."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google