2Emotional Development The process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and to establish one’s identity as a unique person.Healthy Emotional Development = Self-Confidence, Stress Management, Empathy
3Social DevelopmentThe process of learning to interact with others and to express oneself to others.Healthy Social Development = Tolerance for Others, Good Communication, Good Listening SkillsEmotional and social development begin at birth and continue throughout life.
4Many influences shape how a child develops in these areas: Bond between parent and child (Attachment)Emotional atmosphere of the home (Climate)Temperament of the child (Attitude)
5AttachmentBabies have a basic need for physical contact—holding, cuddling, rocking, or even just being near another person.This contact builds a bond between a parent or caregiver and a child, a bond called attachment.Some famous research studies should how important that bond is.
6Attachment (continued) Studies“Monkey” StudyRomanian Orphan StudyBaylor University Study
7Attachment (continued) “Monkey” StudyAmerican experimental psychologist, Harry Harlow, made some monkey-shaped forms out of chicken-wire and some out of soft cloth. He then used these substitute “mothers” to raise baby monkeys. He found that the baby monkeys clung to the “mothers” made out of soft cloth even if the chicken-wire “mothers” held their feeding bottles. Clearly, the monkeys’ needed to feel physical closeness as well as receive a feeding.
8Attachment (continued) “Monkey” StudyOnce the babies were grown they didn’t know how to relate to other monkeys. They did not develop normal social relationships. Harlow believed this was caused by lack of interaction between the babies and real mothers.
9Attachment (continued) Romanian Orphan StudyIn the 1990s, child care experts were alarmed at the children they found in government homes for orphaned and abandoned babies in Romania. They conditions in the country were desperate and the children had little personal care from adults. As a result, the physical and emotional development of these children was slower than normal.
10Attachment (continued) Baylor University StudyResearchers studied abused and neglected children. Those who failed to receive love, touch, and opportunities for learning had brains 20 to 30% smaller than average.This problem is most likely to develop when physical needs are met but babies receive no emotional or social care. This may happen in institutions, but it can happen in families as well. When infants get little attention and encouragement from caregivers, their cries weaken, their smiles fade, and they become withdrawn.
11Attachment (continued) Failure-to-thrive: A condition in which the baby does not grow and develop properly. If these babies are not helped they become unattached. Even as adults they will be unable to develop caring, meaningful relationships with others.Fortunately, these children can be helped in most cases. The children in Romanian institutions improved when they went to live in loving and supportive homes. Caregivers can be given instructions and support so that they can help the baby recover and grow.
12ClimateLong before they know the meanings of words, babies catch the tone of adults’ feelings. Worries or angry caregivers are likely to be tense in handling their baby. The baby senses these feedings and, in turn, becomes irritable and fussy.Every family has ups and downs, and a baby adapts to them. It is essential, however, for a baby to feel that affection and caring are the basis of the family’s interactions. Bitterness and mistrust can hinder a baby’s healthy development.
13Climate (continued)Frustrations need to be talked over when family members are calm. They need to find ways they can help each other so they can help their baby. The challenge can be greater for single parents. With no other adults to share the work—or their worries—with, they may feel alone. It’s important to find ways of releasing negative feelings away from the child. That way, they can have the patience and calmness to create a caring environment for their baby.
14AttitudeEvery baby copes with life in a very personal way. This is because each baby brings his or own individuality to a situation.Temperament is the style of reacting to the world and relating to others. Different temperaments are revealed in how children react to a situation.Researchers have found nine different ways of looking at temperament.
15Attitude (continued)Parents and other caregivers have personal temperaments, too. Problems can arise if the adult’s temperament conflicts with the child’s. Understanding such differences can help prevent clashes. For instance, a parent who is low in energy has to be prepared to accept the activity level of a high energy child. If a high energy child becomes bothersome, a trip to the park or other opportunity for vigorous play might help.
16How Behavior is Learned Babies learn depending on the messages he or she receives from caregivers.Caregivers must provide more positive than negative attention.To help children understand what behavior is expected, parents must provide consistency.
18Crying and ComfortingSome babies don’t cry often; Some babies may cry often and very loudly.STEP 1:See if there is a physical problemDiaper, Temperature, Burp, SickIf all clear move to step 2
19Crying and Comforting STEP 2: Cuddle up with the baby in a rocking chairMove the baby to a new positionTalk softly to the baby or sing to the babyOffer a toy to interest and distract the babyRub the baby’s back to give comfort
20Crying and ComfortingBabies also develop their own methods of self-comfort.Sucking a thumb or fingerSucking a hand or fistPacifierCheck and clean regularly.NEVER tie around a baby’s neck.Use a short pacifier ribbonBlanket or stuffed toyRocking
21ColicCondition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or screams frequently and for extended periods without any known reason.There is no accepted explanation for colic.Colic may be caused by trapped gas in the digestive tract.This theory is not yet proved or disproved.One step to try to prevent colic may be to eliminate foods that may cause it.Breastfeeding moms would cut back foods such as milk, cabbage, caffeine and onions which may cause the irritation.Formula fed infants would use a soy-based product instead of milk-based.
23Social Development First days of life: Baby responds to human voices Calm, soothing voice will quiet babyLoud, harsh voice will upset baby
24Social Development One month Two month Most babies stop crying when lifted or touchedBaby’s face brightens when he or she sees a familiar personTwo monthBabies can smiles at peopleWill watch people move around the room
25Social Development Three months Four months Baby turn head in response to voiceWant companionship as well as physical careFour monthsBaby laughs out loudLook to others for entertainment
26Social Development Five months Six months Increased interested in family members other than parentsMay cry when left aloneMay babble to toys or themselvesSix monthsLove companionshipLove games like peek-a-boo
27Social Development Seven months Eight months Prefer parents over other family members or strangersEight monthsPrefer to be in a room with other peopleMay crawl from room to room looking for company
28Social Development Nine and ten months Socially active May creep after parentsLove attentionEnjoy gamesThrow it on the floor and you pick it up
29Social Development Eleven and twelve months Most friendly and happy Sensitive to other’s emotionsAble to influence and adjust to emotions of othersCentre of attentionTolerant of strangers
30Stranger Anxiety Fear of unfamiliar people Usually expressed by crying Baby may sit cheerfully on someone’s lap but burst into tears when an unfamiliar person approaches.Usually expressed by cryingShows the baby’s memory is improvingRemind new people to approach baby slowly and give baby time to adjust