Presentation on theme: "Emotional and Social Development Infants. Emotional Development The process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and to establish one’s."— Presentation transcript:
Emotional and Social Development Infants
Emotional Development The process of learning to recognize and express one’s feelings and to establish one’s identity as a unique person. Healthy Emotional Development = Self- Confidence, Stress Management, Empathy
Social Development The process of learning to interact with others and to express oneself to others. Healthy Social Development = Tolerance for Others, Good Communication, Good Listening Skills Emotional and social development begin at birth and continue throughout life.
Many influences shape how a child develops in these areas: 1.Bond between parent and child (Attachment) 2.Emotional atmosphere of the home (Climate) 3.Temperament of the child (Attitude)
Attachment Babies have a basic need for physical contact—holding, cuddling, rocking, or even just being near another person. This contact builds a bond between a parent or caregiver and a child, a bond called attachment. Some famous research studies should how important that bond is.
Attachment (continued) Studies “Monkey” Study Romanian Orphan Study Baylor University Study
Attachment (continued) “Monkey” Study a.American experimental psychologist, Harry Harlow, made some monkey-shaped forms out of chicken-wire and some out of soft cloth. He then used these substitute “mothers” to raise baby monkeys. He found that the baby monkeys clung to the “mothers” made out of soft cloth even if the chicken-wire “mothers” held their feeding bottles. Clearly, the monkeys’ needed to feel physical closeness as well as receive a feeding.
Attachment (continued) “Monkey” Study b.Once the babies were grown they didn’t know how to relate to other monkeys. They did not develop normal social relationships. Harlow believed this was caused by lack of interaction between the babies and real mothers.
Attachment (continued) Romanian Orphan Study In the 1990s, child care experts were alarmed at the children they found in government homes for orphaned and abandoned babies in Romania. They conditions in the country were desperate and the children had little personal care from adults. As a result, the physical and emotional development of these children was slower than normal.
Attachment (continued) 1.Baylor University Study a.Researchers studied abused and neglected children. Those who failed to receive love, touch, and opportunities for learning had brains 20 to 30% smaller than average. b.This problem is most likely to develop when physical needs are met but babies receive no emotional or social care. This may happen in institutions, but it can happen in families as well. When infants get little attention and encouragement from caregivers, their cries weaken, their smiles fade, and they become withdrawn.
Attachment (continued) Failure-to-thrive: A condition in which the baby does not grow and develop properly. If these babies are not helped they become unattached. Even as adults they will be unable to develop caring, meaningful relationships with others. Fortunately, these children can be helped in most cases. The children in Romanian institutions improved when they went to live in loving and supportive homes. Caregivers can be given instructions and support so that they can help the baby recover and grow.
Climate Long before they know the meanings of words, babies catch the tone of adults’ feelings. Worries or angry caregivers are likely to be tense in handling their baby. The baby senses these feedings and, in turn, becomes irritable and fussy. Every family has ups and downs, and a baby adapts to them. It is essential, however, for a baby to feel that affection and caring are the basis of the family’s interactions. Bitterness and mistrust can hinder a baby’s healthy development.
Climate (continued) Frustrations need to be talked over when family members are calm. They need to find ways they can help each other so they can help their baby. The challenge can be greater for single parents. With no other adults to share the work—or their worries—with, they may feel alone. It’s important to find ways of releasing negative feelings away from the child. That way, they can have the patience and calmness to create a caring environment for their baby.
Attitude Every baby copes with life in a very personal way. This is because each baby brings his or own individuality to a situation. Temperament is the style of reacting to the world and relating to others. Different temperaments are revealed in how children react to a situation. Researchers have found nine different ways of looking at temperament.
Attitude (continued) Parents and other caregivers have personal temperaments, too. Problems can arise if the adult’s temperament conflicts with the child’s. Understanding such differences can help prevent clashes. For instance, a parent who is low in energy has to be prepared to accept the activity level of a high energy child. If a high energy child becomes bothersome, a trip to the park or other opportunity for vigorous play might help.
How Behavior is Learned Babies learn depending on the messages he or she receives from caregivers. Caregivers must provide more positive than negative attention. To help children understand what behavior is expected, parents must provide consistency.
Emotions in Infancy SEE CHART
Crying and Comforting Some babies don’t cry often; Some babies may cry often and very loudly. STEP 1: See if there is a physical problem Diaper, Temperature, Burp, Sick If all clear move to step 2
Crying and Comforting STEP 2: Cuddle up with the baby in a rocking chair Move the baby to a new position Talk softly to the baby or sing to the baby Offer a toy to interest and distract the baby Rub the baby’s back to give comfort
Crying and Comforting Babies also develop their own methods of self-comfort. Sucking a thumb or finger Sucking a hand or fist Pacifier Check and clean regularly. NEVER tie around a baby’s neck. Use a short pacifier ribbon Blanket or stuffed toy Rocking
Colic Condition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or screams frequently and for extended periods without any known reason. There is no accepted explanation for colic. Colic may be caused by trapped gas in the digestive tract. This theory is not yet proved or disproved. One step to try to prevent colic may be to eliminate foods that may cause it. Breastfeeding moms would cut back foods such as milk, cabbage, caffeine and onions which may cause the irritation. Formula fed infants would use a soy-based product instead of milk-based.
Social Development In the first Year
Social Development First days of life: Baby responds to human voices Calm, soothing voice will quiet baby Loud, harsh voice will upset baby
Social Development One month Most babies stop crying when lifted or touched Baby’s face brightens when he or she sees a familiar person Two month Babies can smiles at people Will watch people move around the room
Social Development Three months Baby turn head in response to voice Want companionship as well as physical care Four months Baby laughs out loud Look to others for entertainment
Social Development Five months Increased interested in family members other than parents May cry when left alone May babble to toys or themselves Six months Love companionship Love games like peek-a-boo
Social Development Seven months Prefer parents over other family members or strangers Eight months Prefer to be in a room with other people May crawl from room to room looking for company
Social Development Nine and ten months Socially active May creep after parents Love attention Enjoy games Throw it on the floor and you pick it up
Social Development Eleven and twelve months Most friendly and happy Sensitive to other’s emotions Able to influence and adjust to emotions of others Centre of attention Tolerant of strangers
Stranger Anxiety Fear of unfamiliar people Baby may sit cheerfully on someone’s lap but burst into tears when an unfamiliar person approaches. Usually expressed by crying Shows the baby’s memory is improving Remind new people to approach baby slowly and give baby time to adjust