Presentation on theme: "11-5: Bell Ringer Read the accomplishments below. Write the letter of the name that matches each accomplishment. A. Stan Watie B. Robert E. Lee C. George."— Presentation transcript:
11-5: Bell Ringer Read the accomplishments below. Write the letter of the name that matches each accomplishment. A. Stan Watie B. Robert E. Lee C. George Meade 1.Led the Union army at the Battle of Gettysburg 2. Led Indian troops at the Battle of Pea Ridge 3. Won the Battle of Chancellorsville against superior numbers of enemy troops
The Final Phase The Main Idea Southerners continued to hope for victory in 1864, but military and political events caused those hopes to fade. Reading Focus What tactics did Grant use against Lee to change the course of the war? How did the election of 1864 affect Confederate hopes for victory in the Civil War? How did the actions of Sherman and Grant help bring the war to an end?
Grant versus Lee General Ulysses S. Grant –Lincoln gave him command of Union armies –Grant made William Tecumseh Sherman commander on the western front –Grant wanted to take advantage of the Confederate shortages of men and supplies to end the war before the November election. –Ordered Sherman to “get into the interior of the enemy’s country as far as you can and inflict all the damage you can against their war resources” General Robert E. Lee –South could not win the war, but a new president might accept southern independence in return for peace. –Lee planned to make the cost of fighting so high for the North that Lincoln would lose the upcoming election.
Fierce Fighting During the Battle of Cold Harbor men pinned their names and addresses on uniforms for identification. With this loss and after failing to capture the rail center at Petersburg, Grant began a siege of that city to put pressure on Richmond. Wilderness and Spotsylvania Grant kept his troops on the attack, winning the Battle of the Wilderness and pushing south. The Battle of Spotsylvania cost many casualties on both sides, but Grant continued toward Richmond. Cold Harbor and Petersburg Meanwhile, Sherman won the Battle of Atlanta and laid siege to Atlanta’s defenses. He took the city after closing down the last railroad line, one month before the Union presidential elections. Sherman on the move
Confederate Hopes Fade Democrats nominated George McClellan and adopted a party platform calling for an immediate end to the war. Southerners found new hope, but the Republicans tried to broaden Lincoln’s appeal by picking Tennessee’s Andrew Johnson for the ticket. Lincoln expected to lose the election. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta allowed Lincoln to easily defeat McClellan. Congress passed the 13 th Amendment ending slavery, and the war seemed nearly over to all but die-hard secessionists. Lincoln announced his intention to be forgiving, but the bloody war continued.
The War Comes to an End Sherman’s March After the election, Sherman marched across Georgia in what came to be known as the March to the Sea. Sherman cut a swath of destruction 300 miles long and 50–60 miles wide. After taking Savannah, Sherman turned north through South Carolina, destroying civilian property all along the way. The fall of Richmond Lee only had 35,000 defenders at Petersburg, and they were low on supplies. Grant decided not to wait for Sherman’s troops. Instead, he broke through Lee’s defenses at Petersburg and went on to take Richmond. Lee tried to escape with his few remaining troops, but Grant blocked their way.
Surrender at Appomattox Lee and Grant With Union forces surrounding them, Lee decided to surrender. Grant presented the terms of the surrender to Lee. Extremely generous for such a bloody conflict, Lee’s troops merely had to turn over their weapons and leave. Grant announced, “The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again.” The war is over News of Lee’s surrender brought joyful celebrations in the north. Lincoln requested “Dixie” be played at the White House. The last of the Confederate forces surrendered on May 26, 1865. Sadly, President Lincoln would not live to see the official end of the war.
Effects of the Civil War Resulted in 618,000 deaths, 360,000 Union and 258,000 Confederate Produced large number of widows who began engaging in careers or activities outside the home to support themselves Brought the emancipation of 4 million slaves Paved the way for the passage of the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th amendments Was the first modern war with submarines, ironclads, explosive shells and repeat rifles Demolished the antebellum way of life in the South. Caused economic ruin
Effects of the Civil War Produced a bitterness between Northerners and Southerners that lasted for decades Contributed to increase ethnic tolerance in the North. Immigrants such as Irish and German were more readily accepted in a society because of their contribution to the war Established that states did not have the right to secede from the Union Strengthened the central government, enabling it to grow into a true nation-state and global power.
Activity Choices: Use inspiration or an interactive word document to create a timeline over important events and battles during the Civil War. Use the internet to find photos of the Civil War. Categorize your photos by theme. Write a brief paragraph analyzing why these photos illustrate this particular theme. Not all Civil War nurses were women. Walt Whitman, the poet, was a nurse during the C.W. Research methods used by both sides to recruit volunteers and then develop your own recruiting poster.
Activity Choices: Create a map of Civil War Battles. Provide information about the significance of each battle. Research letters during the Civil War and write about your findings and then write your own Civil War letter or diary entry. Civil War weapons and technology