3European Population 11th to 14th centuries Justinian Reformation (533 A.D.)Black Death 1328
4Italian City-States 14th, 15th, and 16th Centuries Power and growth of European EmpiresFocus on mono-culturismRise of humanistic studies, science, and artsUnstable political and economic situation
5Italian City-States (cntd) 14th, 15th, and 16th CenturiesShift in regional powersVolatility in economies, trade, social structuresMain Point: economic, social, or political stability are not needed for intellectual and cultural experimentation.
6Urban Wealth 12th to 13th Centuries-start and apex (Italy) Venice Concentration of wealth and the church: sin, sin, and damnation of the soul: usury!!Birth of City-StatesMonarchy vs. Regional Autonomy
7City-States Firenze/Florence: City-State Medieval Period: Holy Roman Emperor vs. Roman PopeSpace for autonomyBanking and Trade
8City-States and Regions in Italy Early RenaissancePapal States (Romagna)Republic of Firenze and VeniceKingdom of NapoliDuchy of Milano
9Concentration of Wealth Wealth: non-aristocratic vs. nobilityBanking and middle classCity-States: self-funded autonomyReorganization of Social StructuresNobility and Banking interestsDwindling of nobility power and papacy
10Social Structure in City-States Old nobility and merchant classEmergent capitalists and bankersLess wealthy merchants and tradespeoplePoor and destitute (1/4 or population, approx)Domestic slaves
11Commerce: a blessing or a curse? Deep class divisionsGender relationsSlavery (Southern Italy-12th century)Slaves: Muslims from Spain, North Africa, Crete, the Balkans, and the Ottoman Empire.
12Commerce: a blessing or a curse? Slavery and domestic serviceOwnership: sell and “enjoyment”Off-spring and freedomParental rightsPlantation Slavery: Cyprus and Crete
13Firenze Role as cultural center Rulers and glorification of wealth Patrons of arts, sciences, philosophy, architecture, literatureCosimo de’Medici:Platonic AcademyLorenzo and Piero de’Medici ( )
14ConclusionsSocio-economic and political changes led to intellectual, scientific, and artistic experimentation.Power struggles btx Roman Emperor and Pope open space for political autonomy in Italy.Trade and political autonomy facilitated the development of banking industryConcentration of wealth made possible the rise of City-States, trade, and reorganization of social structuresDeep divisions between social classes: old nobility and merchant class; emergent capitalists and bankers; Less wealthy merchants and tradespeople; poor and destitute and domestic slaves
15ConclusionsConcentration of wealth ended the influential role of nobility.Commercial diversity (Sugar Cane Plantations) gave rise to plantation-style slavery during the RenaissanceChurch officials rose from the ranks of nobility; strong political roles focused on expanding powerLast but not least: economic, social, or political stability are not needed for intellectual and cultural experimentation