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Blood and Circulation Anatomy and Physiology. Blood Functions: Transports: oxygen for CR, carbon dioxide away, nutrients, ions, immune cells and antibodies.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood and Circulation Anatomy and Physiology. Blood Functions: Transports: oxygen for CR, carbon dioxide away, nutrients, ions, immune cells and antibodies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood and Circulation Anatomy and Physiology

2 Blood Functions: Transports: oxygen for CR, carbon dioxide away, nutrients, ions, immune cells and antibodies Transports: oxygen for CR, carbon dioxide away, nutrients, ions, immune cells and antibodies Distributes heat Distributes heat I. Blood composition (connective tissue – cells in a liquid matrix - ~6 L/person A. Liquid = Plasma – 54% H2O H2O proteins (clotting, Ab, hormones, osmotic balance) proteins (clotting, Ab, hormones, osmotic balance) salts (maintain pH, osmotic balance, need for muscle contraction) salts (maintain pH, osmotic balance, need for muscle contraction)

3 Blood Composition Continued B. Cells 1. RBC’s – 45% (erythrocytes – mainly hemoglobin, have no nucleus or mitochondria so don’t use the O2 they carry) 2. WBC’s – 1% (leukocytes – immunity and platelets – blood clotting) a. Granulocytes – made in bone marrow, their names are based on stains, non- specific Neutrophils – phagocytes, 1 st reaction Neutrophils – phagocytes, 1 st reaction Basophils – histamine producers for inflammation and allergic reactions Basophils – histamine producers for inflammation and allergic reactions Eosinophils - ?? – to fight parasites? Mediate allergic reaction Eosinophils - ?? – to fight parasites? Mediate allergic reaction

4 Blood composition Continued Cells b. Lymphocytes – specific immunity – made in lymph glands, spleen, and thymus B cells – make antibodies B cells – make antibodies T cells – Helper – increase B cells and T killers T cells – Helper – increase B cells and T killers T cells - Cytotoxic – killers – kill bacteria, viruses, tumors T cells - Cytotoxic – killers – kill bacteria, viruses, tumors c. Monocytes – made in bone marrow – phagocytosis – when activated become macrophages d. Platelets – make thromboplastin, serotonin

5 Blood Composition Continued Relative Abundance of WBC’s: Relative Abundance of WBC’s: Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Leukocytes are recruited and activated by cell damage or foreign tissue Leukocytes are recruited and activated by cell damage or foreign tissue Cytokines (chemical attractors of WBC’s) are released by T helpers causing chemotaxis – cells go to chemicals Cytokines (chemical attractors of WBC’s) are released by T helpers causing chemotaxis – cells go to chemicals

6 Blood Formation Forms in red marrow in flat bones and little in the ends of long bones Forms in red marrow in flat bones and little in the ends of long bones Erythropoietin (produced by the kidney controls RBC production) Erythropoietin (produced by the kidney controls RBC production) Low O2 causes release of erythropoietin from kidney – increased RBC production – better oxygen carrying cabability – shuts off release of erythropoietin Low O2 causes release of erythropoietin from kidney – increased RBC production – better oxygen carrying cabability – shuts off release of erythropoietin

7 Blood Clotting – 2-6 minutes Platelets stick to endothelium only when there is a tear Platelets stick to endothelium only when there is a tear Platelets produce serotonin (neurotransmitter) which acts on smooth muscle causing it to contract and narrows the vessel so blood flow is shut off to that area Platelets produce serotonin (neurotransmitter) which acts on smooth muscle causing it to contract and narrows the vessel so blood flow is shut off to that area Platelets produce thromoboplastin (enzyme) which cleaves prothrombin (inactive) to thrombin (active) Platelets produce thromoboplastin (enzyme) which cleaves prothrombin (inactive) to thrombin (active) Thrombin links fibrinogen proteins together (small soluble fibrous proteins) and it become fibrin – which is large fibers that act like a mesh Thrombin links fibrinogen proteins together (small soluble fibrous proteins) and it become fibrin – which is large fibers that act like a mesh Fibrin covers over the hole in the bv and traps the RBC’s Fibrin covers over the hole in the bv and traps the RBC’s

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9 Blood Types Blood Type Antigens on blood cells Body will make Ab against Person can Donate to: Person can Receive From: AA B, AB A, AB A, O BB A, AB B, AB B, O AB A AND B NONEABALL Universal recipient ONONEALLALL Universal donor O

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12 Blood Diseases Anemia – decreased O2 carrying ability Anemia – decreased O2 carrying ability Sickle cell anemia – genetic point mutation in hemoglobin Sickle cell anemia – genetic point mutation in hemoglobin Aplastic Anemia – cancer – can’t produce RBC’s Aplastic Anemia – cancer – can’t produce RBC’s Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron Deficiency Anemia Hemolytic Anemia – blood cells are being destroyed Hemolytic Anemia – blood cells are being destroyed Polycythemia – bone marrow cancer – make too many RBC’s Polycythemia – bone marrow cancer – make too many RBC’s Leukemia – over production of WBC’s – immature and don’t work – metatstasize to liver, spleen – use up all metabolic substrates and cause tissue destruction Leukemia – over production of WBC’s – immature and don’t work – metatstasize to liver, spleen – use up all metabolic substrates and cause tissue destruction Thrombus – clot Thrombus – clot Emobolus – clot that has broken off – may cause stroke Emobolus – clot that has broken off – may cause stroke Hemophilia – lack of a clotting factor – blood clots slowly on internal bleeds – 1 hour vs. 6-8 minutes Hemophilia – lack of a clotting factor – blood clots slowly on internal bleeds – 1 hour vs. 6-8 minutes

13 Parts of the Circulatory System Heart – pumps blood - ~6000 quarts/day Heart – pumps blood - ~6000 quarts/day Blood vessels – pipes blood travel through Blood vessels – pipes blood travel through Lymphatics – cleanse leaked blood of bacteria, viruses, etc. and rejoins blood vessels where veins enter the hear Lymphatics – cleanse leaked blood of bacteria, viruses, etc. and rejoins blood vessels where veins enter the hear

14 Heart Parts – From outside to in Membranes (from outside to inside) Pericardium – serous membrane – epithelial over areolar with visceral and parietal membranes – protects heart and anchors it to sternum and diaphram Pericardium – serous membrane – epithelial over areolar with visceral and parietal membranes – protects heart and anchors it to sternum and diaphram Epicardium – outside connective tissue layers of the heart – can be considered visceral pericardium) Epicardium – outside connective tissue layers of the heart – can be considered visceral pericardium) Myocardium – cardiac muscle interwoven with dense fibrous connective tissue Myocardium – cardiac muscle interwoven with dense fibrous connective tissue Endocardium – sheet of epithelium surrounding the open cavities (has some connective tissue underlying it Endocardium – sheet of epithelium surrounding the open cavities (has some connective tissue underlying it

15 Membranes of the Heart

16 Heart Parts Continued Chambers Atria – two cavities on top – right receives blood from body, left receives blood from the lungs Atria – two cavities on top – right receives blood from body, left receives blood from the lungs Ventricles – the inferior and larger cavities – right pumps blood to the lungs, left pumps blood to the body Ventricles – the inferior and larger cavities – right pumps blood to the lungs, left pumps blood to the body Septum – divides the heart into right and left Septum – divides the heart into right and left

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18 Heart Parts continued - Valves Atrioventricular Valves (AV valves) Atrioventricular Valves (AV valves) Between the atria and ventricles Between the atria and ventricles As the ventricles contract it forces the flap of the valve to close and open during ventricular relaxation As the ventricles contract it forces the flap of the valve to close and open during ventricular relaxation Left valve = bicuspid or mitral valve Left valve = bicuspid or mitral valve Right valve = tricuspid Right valve = tricuspid Semilunars (look like half moons) Semilunars (look like half moons) Cover the pulmonary and aortic arteries Cover the pulmonary and aortic arteries Open up into the artery Open up into the artery Open when the ventricles are contracting so that blood goes to the body or lungs Open when the ventricles are contracting so that blood goes to the body or lungs Back flow closes them so that blood doesn’t flow back into the heart Back flow closes them so that blood doesn’t flow back into the heart

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21 Path of Blood Through the Heart 1. Rt. Atrium receives oxygen poor blood from the vena cava. 2. Flows to the rt. Ventrical through the right AV valve (tricuspid) 3. Rt. Ventricle pumps to lungs thru pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary arteries. 4. Blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium (oxygen rich blood from the lungs) 5. Blood flows to left ventricle through left AV valve (bicuspid or mitral valve) and is pumped out to body through the aorta thru the aortic semilunar valve. 6. Blood circulates to the heart thru coronary arteries - only when it is relaxed

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23 Blood Vessel Structure  Basic blood vessel structure:  Internal lining (Tunica Intima)  Epithelium - endothelium  Middle of wall (Tunica Media)  Smooth muscle  Outside (Tunica Externa)  Fibrous connective tissue Capillaries – just one single cell layer thick for diffusion Epithelium Connective Smooth muscle

24 Circulation Heart → Arteries → Arterioles → (less lumen and smooth muscle) Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Heart (just epithelium) (just epithelium)

25 Arteries vs. Veins Arteries Arteries More smooth muscle More smooth muscle Smaller lumen due to pressure Smaller lumen due to pressure A lot of pressure A lot of pressure No valves No valves Veins Veins Little smooth muscle Little smooth muscle Bigger lumen due to less muscle Bigger lumen due to less muscle Low pressure Low pressure Valves Valves Veins are under low pressure so it is difficult for blood to get back to the heart from the feet – need help:  Valves prevent backflow  Skeletal muscle helps push blood back  Pressure in chest from breathing

26 Blood Pressure Usually measure the pressure in the brachial artery – measure during ventricular systole and ventricular diastole Usually measure the pressure in the brachial artery – measure during ventricular systole and ventricular diastole Normal b.p. = /75-80 Normal b.p. = /75-80 Top # is the systolic pressure, bottom # is the diastolic pressure Top # is the systolic pressure, bottom # is the diastolic pressure Hypertention – sustained b.p. of 140/90 and above – damages epithelial lining and accelerated atherosclerosis Hypertention – sustained b.p. of 140/90 and above – damages epithelial lining and accelerated atherosclerosis

27 What controls resistance in blood vessels? Kidneys monitor blood volume – if too high - ↑ water output – if too low – retain salt which causes water retention Kidneys monitor blood volume – if too high - ↑ water output – if too low – retain salt which causes water retention Blood vessel constriction/dilation Blood vessel constriction/dilation Cold – bv constriction Cold – bv constriction Fight or flight – stress hormones cause vasoconstriction except to skeletal muscle Fight or flight – stress hormones cause vasoconstriction except to skeletal muscle If lose blood – vasoconstriction to combat pressure loss If lose blood – vasoconstriction to combat pressure loss When stand up – pressure drops since it is hard to return blood to the heart against gravity – pressure receptors signal brain to cause vasoconstriction and increase heart rate so blood pressure is maintained When stand up – pressure drops since it is hard to return blood to the heart against gravity – pressure receptors signal brain to cause vasoconstriction and increase heart rate so blood pressure is maintained Nitric oxide has been found to be the major regulator of bv relaxation Nitric oxide has been found to be the major regulator of bv relaxation Alcohol lowers bp Alcohol lowers bp Nictotine raises bp Nictotine raises bp

28 Atherosclerosis

29 Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 1. Relaxing heart (atrial and ventricular diastole ) - AV valves open/ SL valves closed 2. Atrial systole (ventricles still in diastole) – pushes any blood still in atria to ventricles before they contract - Valves are the same 3. Ventricular systole (atria are relaxing – already contracted) - AV valves close so blood doesn’t squirt back into the atria, SL open to let blood go to lungs and the body

30 Electricity Thru the Heart 1. SA (sinoatrial node – pacemaker) gets the signal from the brain and sends the electrical impulse through the atria to the AV (atrioventricular) node. The atria then contract. 2. AV node delays the impulse – allows atria to finish contracting 3. AV node sends the pulse down the AV bundle to the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers in the walls of the ventricles 4. Heart contracts from the apex up sending blood up and out thru the aorta or pulmonary trunk

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32 EKG or ECG – measurement of the electrical wave that sets off muscle contraction P-wave – preceeds the contraction of the atria Atria are depolarizing (Na+ is flowing into T- tubules) QRS wave – preceeds ventricular systole – Ventricles are depolarizing T wave – the ventricles repolarizing – returning Na and K to normal Can’t see the atria repolarizing since it is behind the QRS wave Can tell if heart beats too fast or slow if heart is abnormally large due to overwork by size of waves

33 tachycardia


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