Presentation on theme: "Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Alternative Energy Sources"— Presentation transcript:
1Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Alternative Energy Sources Ch. 16 Energy SourcesRenewable and Nonrenewable ResourcesAlternative Energy Sources
2Fossil Fuels 1. Using energy A. Transforming Energy 1. Law of Conservation Energy – states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes formB. Energy Use in the U.S.1. 37% used by industry and agriculture to manufacture products and produce food.2. 85% of the energy used comes from burning petroleum, natural gas and coal
3II. Fossil FuelsA. Fossil fuels – fuels that are formed from the decaying remains of ancient plants and animals.1. Ex) petroleum (oil), natural gas and coalWhen you are bad, Santa brings you dead things…
4Formation of fossil fuels follows the rock cycle – it takes millions of years to form and on average gives us weeks of energy per 1,000 pounds.Efficient?He
5II. Making Fossil Fuels, con’t. B. Concentrated Energy Sources1. Burning fossil fuels releases about 2-3 times as much energy as burning the same amount of wood.
6III. PetroleumA. Highly flammable liquid formed by decayed ancient organisms (plankton and algae)B. Made up of mainly hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon atoms combined)C. Fractional distillation – process of separating the different compounds found in petroleumD. Other uses for Petroleum1. Plastics – think pop bottles, Tupperware and cups2. synthetic fibers – polyester, nylon, etc.3. Lubricants – grease and motor oil4. Asphalt
7IV. Natural GasA. Gaseous compound produced by the decay of ancient organismsB. Burned to provide energy for cooking, heating, and manufacturingV. CoalA. Solid fossil fuel found undergroundAbout 90% that is burned is used to produced electricity
9VI. Generating Electricity, con’t. A. Almost 70% of energy in the U.S. comes from burning fossil fuelsB. 5 steps to converting chemical to electrical energy1. Fuel is burned and released as thermal energy2. Water is heated to produce steam3. Steam causes a turbine to spin (connected to an electrical generator)4. Electric current is produced5. Current is transmitted through power lines.
10VII. Efficiency of Power Plants A. Only about 35% of the chemical energy is converted into electrical energyB. Other 65% is thermal energy transferred to the environment.What types of problems do you see this causing?Polluting rivers and lakes with hot water – killing many species that aren’t able to adapt to higher temperaturesAir pollution – hot air and steam contains many more gases that lead to global warming and ozone depletion
11VIII. The cost of using fossil fuels A. Produces small particles (particulates)1. Causes breathing problemsContributes to ozone alert days- those with COPD and asthma are encouraged to stay in due to amount of particulate matter in air, naturally there is matter from smoke and pollensB. Releases Carbon Dioxide1. Could cause the Earth’s surface temperature to riseLeads to global warming
13IX. Nonrenewable Resources A. Resources that cannot be replaced by natural processes as quickly as they are used
14Top 10 Worst Ecological Disasters in U.S. 8. TVA Coal Ash Spill (Kingston, TN) -In 2008, a lake of Tennessee Valley Authority’s mining waste burst its banks, sending billions of gallons of coal- burning waste sludge into a nearby valley in Kingston, Tennessee, which contaminated around 300 acres of land with heavy metals and other toxins. The spill devastated aquatic life in the Emory River and elevated levels of arsenic, lead and beryllium are still being detected years after the spill.
17Top 10 Ecological Disasters - FYI 7. Three-Mile Island (Harrisburg, PA) -A partial core meltdown occurred on March 29, 1979, at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident was due to a cooling system malfunction. Official reports estimate 30,000 curies of krypton-85 gas were released along with 20 curies of iodine-131 gas, but that it had no long-term health affects. The true impact of the event has long been debated.Top 10 list courtesy of
18Top 10 ecological disasters in U.S. 5. Love Canal (Niagara Falls, NY) - Love Canal was a privately-developed neighborhood of Niagara Falls, New York. The area was used by the Hooker corporation to dump 21,000 tons of toxic waste. Hooker then sold Niagara Falls the site of their dump for $1. The city was made aware of the potential hazard, but built schools and homes anyway. The scandal of the sale and extent of the illegal dumping were first investigated in 1976, which revealed extremely high rates of birth defects in the community’s children. Over 800 people were relocated.
19More Top 10…4. Nuclear Weapons Testing in Nevada - The United States government conducted extensive testing of nuclear weapons in the deserts of Nevada from that exposed citizens to radioactive fallout across much of the United States, particularly in Nevada, Arizona and Utah
20More Top 10…3. Castle Bravo Nuclear Weapons Test - In 1954, a hydrogen bomb test in the Bikini atoll of the Marshall Islands produced a 15-megaton blast, significantly higher than the expected power of the device. The explosion broadcast radioactive waste and created a plume of fallout sickened the island’s population and the crew of a nearby Japanese fishing boat, eventually killing one person. Radiation from the test spread as far as Australia, India and Europe. The test became an international incident. It was the largest accidental release of radiation in U.S. history.
21I. Using Nuclear EnergyA. Nuclear Fission – the release of energy when the nucleus of an atom breaks apartB. Nearly 20% of all electricity produced in the U.S comes from nuclear power plantsC. Nuclear power plants produce about 8% of all the energy consumed in the U.S.
22II. Nuclear ReactorsA. Uses the energy from controlled nuclear reactions to generate electricity.B. Vary in design but they all have some parts in commonContain a fuel that can be made to undergo nuclear fissionContain control rods that are used to control the reactionHave a cooling system that keeps the reactor from overheating and causing damageC. Nuclear Fission occurs in a small part called the core.D. Nuclear fuel – uranium dioxideE. Nuclear chain reaction – every uranium atom that splits apart releases neutrons that cause other uranium atoms to split apart.
24III. Nuclear Power Plants, con’t. Electricity is produced in much the same way it was in conventional power plant35% EfficientGenerally located near large bodies of water, rivers work well
25IV. The Risks of Nuclear Power Advantages1. Air pollutants are not released2. Carbon dioxide is not releasedDisadvantages1. Mining of uranium causes environmental damage2. Water that is used as a coolant must be cooled before releasing into streams and rivers3. Risk of the release of harmful radiation
26V. Disposal of Nuclear Waste A. Nuclear Waste – any radioactive by-product that results when radioactive materials are used.B. Low-level waste1. Usually contain a small amount of radioactive material2. Usually sealed in containers and buried in trenches 30m deep at special locationsC. High-level waste1. Generated in and from nuclear power plants2. Disposed of in extremely durable and stable containers (remains radioactive for tens of thousands of years) – Not Ziploc baggies!
27VI. Nuclear FusionA. The joining together of small nuclei at high temperatures (the Sun)B. Most concentrated energy source knownC. Uses hydrogen (abundant on Earth) and produces Helium (not radioactive and chemically nonreactive)D. Only occurs at temperatures of millions of degrees Celsius and very hard to contain
28Ch 16. Section 3 Renewable Energy Sources – 45 minutes video BBC on turning farm into alt energyRenewable Energy Sources
29I. Energy OptionsA. Renewable resources – energy source that is replaced nearly as quickly as it is used
30II. Energy from the Sun A. Known as solar energy B. Photovoltaic cell – A device that converts radiant energy from the Sun directly into electrical energy.C. Disadvantages:1. Expensive2. Not always available (night/weather)D. Advantages:1. Viewed as renewable (won’t run out)2. No pollution or carbon dioxide produced3. less loss of energy during transfer
31III. Energy from waterA. Hydroelectric dams – dams that are built to use the movement of water to produce electricityB. Hydroelectricity – energy produced from the energy of moving waterC. Disadvantages:1. Not always available2. Can disturb the balance of natural ecosystem3. Areas where this is available don’t always need energyD. Advantages:1. Very little pollution2. Twice as efficient as conventional/nuclear power plants3. Lakes form for drinking, irrigation and recreation
32IV. Energy from the Tides A. Advantages:1. very little pollutionB. Disadvantage:2. Very few places on Earth have a large enough difference between high tide and low tide to set up.
33V. Harnessing the Wind A. Disadvantages: B. Advantages: 1. Very few places of Earth consistently have enough wind power to meet needs2. Only about 20% efficient3. Noisy and change the appearance of the land4. Disrupt the migration patterns of birdsB. Advantages:1. Use no fossil fuels to generate electricity2. No pollution of air or water
35VI. Energy from Inside Earth A. Geothermal energy –thermal energy that is contained in hot magmaB. Disadvantages:1. 16% efficient2. Can release sulfur compounds (acid rain)3. Use is limited to areas where magma is relatively close to surfaceC. Advantages:1. No use of fossil fuels2. Relatively cheap
37VII. Alternative Fuels A. Electrical energy supplied by batteries B. Hybrid cars use both electricity and fossil fuelsC. Hydrogen gas powered carsD. Biomass – renewable organic matter (wood, sugarcane fibers, rice hulls, animal manure)Ex) NWMSU1. Burns in the presence of oxygen2. Reduces the use of fossil fuels for thermal energyIn NW Mo there is a patent for a corn cob furnace – works like wood stoves only burns the useless cobs