Presentation on theme: "Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Alternative Energy Sources."— Presentation transcript:
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Alternative Energy Sources
1. Using energy A. Transforming Energy 1. Law of Conservation Energy – states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it only changes form B. Energy Use in the U.S % used by industry and agriculture to manufacture products and produce food % of the energy used comes from burning petroleum, natural gas and coal
A. Fossil fuels – fuels that are formed from the decaying remains of ancient plants and animals. 1. Ex) petroleum (oil), natural gas and coal When you are bad, Santa brings you dead things…
Formation of fossil fuels follows the rock cycle – it takes millions of years to form and on average gives us 8-10 weeks of energy per 1,000 pounds. Efficient?
B. Concentrated Energy Sources 1. Burning fossil fuels releases about 2-3 times as much energy as burning the same amount of wood.
A. Highly flammable liquid formed by decayed ancient organisms (plankton and algae) B. Made up of mainly hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon atoms combined) C. Fractional distillation – process of separating the different compounds found in petroleum D. Other uses for Petroleum 1. Plastics – think pop bottles, Tupperware and cups 2. synthetic fibers – polyester, nylon, etc. 3. Lubricants – grease and motor oil 4. Asphalt
IV. Natural Gas A. Gaseous compound produced by the decay of ancient organisms B. Burned to provide energy for cooking, heating, and manufacturing V. Coal A. Solid fossil fuel found underground About 90% that is burned is used to produced electricity
A. Almost 70% of energy in the U.S. comes from burning fossil fuels B. 5 steps to converting chemical to electrical energy 1. Fuel is burned and released as thermal energy 2. Water is heated to produce steam 3. Steam causes a turbine to spin (connected to an electrical generator) 4. Electric current is produced 5. Current is transmitted through power lines.
A. Only about 35% of the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy B. Other 65% is thermal energy transferred to the environment. What types of problems do you see this causing? Polluting rivers and lakes with hot water – killing many species that aren’t able to adapt to higher temperatures Air pollution – hot air and steam contains many more gases that lead to global warming and ozone depletion
A. Produces small particles (particulates) 1. Causes breathing problems Contributes to ozone alert days- those with COPD and asthma are encouraged to stay in due to amount of particulate matter in air, naturally there is matter from smoke and pollens B. Releases Carbon Dioxide 1. Could cause the Earth’s surface temperature to rise Leads to global warming
A. Resources that cannot be replaced by natural processes as quickly as they are used
8. TVA Coal Ash Spill (Kingston, TN) -In 2008, a lake of Tennessee Valley Authority’s mining waste burst its banks, sending billions of gallons of coal- burning waste sludge into a nearby valley in Kingston, Tennessee, which contaminated around 300 acres of land with heavy metals and other toxins. The spill devastated aquatic life in the Emory River and elevated levels of arsenic, lead and beryllium are still being detected years after the spill.
7. Three-Mile Island (Harrisburg, PA) -A partial core meltdown occurred on March 29, 1979, at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident was due to a cooling system malfunction. Official reports estimate 30,000 curies of krypton-85 gas were released along with 20 curies of iodine-131 gas, but that it had no long-term health affects. The true impact of the event has long been debated. Top 10 list courtesy of
5. Love Canal (Niagara Falls, NY) - Love Canal was a privately-developed neighborhood of Niagara Falls, New York. The area was used by the Hooker corporation to dump 21,000 tons of toxic waste. Hooker then sold Niagara Falls the site of their dump for $1. The city was made aware of the potential hazard, but built schools and homes anyway. The scandal of the sale and extent of the illegal dumping were first investigated in 1976, which revealed extremely high rates of birth defects in the community’s children. Over 800 people were relocated.
4. Nuclear Weapons Testing in Nevada - The United States government conducted extensive testing of nuclear weapons in the deserts of Nevada from that exposed citizens to radioactive fallout across much of the United States, particularly in Nevada, Arizona and Utah
3. Castle Bravo Nuclear Weapons Test - In 1954, a hydrogen bomb test in the Bikini atoll of the Marshall Islands produced a 15-megaton blast, significantly higher than the expected power of the device. The explosion broadcast radioactive waste and created a plume of fallout sickened the island’s population and the crew of a nearby Japanese fishing boat, eventually killing one person. Radiation from the test spread as far as Australia, India and Europe. The test became an international incident. It was the largest accidental release of radiation in U.S. history.
A. Nuclear Fission – the release of energy when the nucleus of an atom breaks apart B. Nearly 20% of all electricity produced in the U.S comes from nuclear power plants C. Nuclear power plants produce about 8% of all the energy consumed in the U.S.
A. Uses the energy from controlled nuclear reactions to generate electricity. B. Vary in design but they all have some parts in common Contain a fuel that can be made to undergo nuclear fission Contain control rods that are used to control the reaction Have a cooling system that keeps the reactor from overheating and causing damage C. Nuclear Fission occurs in a small part called the core. D. Nuclear fuel – uranium dioxide E. Nuclear chain reaction – every uranium atom that splits apart releases neutrons that cause other uranium atoms to split apart.
Electricity is produced in much the same way it was in conventional power plant 35% Efficient Generally located near large bodies of water, rivers work well
Advantages 1. Air pollutants are not released 2. Carbon dioxide is not released Disadvantages 1. Mining of uranium causes environmental damage 2. Water that is used as a coolant must be cooled before releasing into streams and rivers 3. Risk of the release of harmful radiation
A. Nuclear Waste – any radioactive by-product that results when radioactive materials are used. B. Low-level waste 1. Usually contain a small amount of radioactive material 2. Usually sealed in containers and buried in trenches 30m deep at special locations C. High-level waste 1. Generated in and from nuclear power plants 2. Disposed of in extremely durable and stable containers (remains radioactive for tens of thousands of years) – Not Ziploc baggies!
A. The joining together of small nuclei at high temperatures (the Sun) B. Most concentrated energy source known C. Uses hydrogen (abundant on Earth) and produces Helium (not radioactive and chemically nonreactive) D. Only occurs at temperatures of millions of degrees Celsius and very hard to contain
Renewable Energy Sources
A. Renewable resources – energy source that is replaced nearly as quickly as it is used
A. Known as solar energy B. Photovoltaic cell – A device that converts radiant energy from the Sun directly into electrical energy. C. Disadvantages: 1. Expensive 2. Not always available (night/weather) D. Advantages: 1. Viewed as renewable (won’t run out) 2. No pollution or carbon dioxide produced 3. less loss of energy during transfer
A. Hydroelectric dams – dams that are built to use the movement of water to produce electricity B. Hydroelectricity – energy produced from the energy of moving water C. Disadvantages: 1. Not always available 2. Can disturb the balance of natural ecosystem 3. Areas where this is available don’t always need energy D. Advantages: 1. Very little pollution 2. Twice as efficient as conventional/nuclear power plants 3. Lakes form for drinking, irrigation and recreation
A. Advantages: 1. very little pollution B. Disadvantage: 2. Very few places on Earth have a large enough difference between high tide and low tide to set up.
A. Disadvantages: 1. Very few places of Earth consistently have enough wind power to meet needs 2. Only about 20% efficient 3. Noisy and change the appearance of the land 4. Disrupt the migration patterns of birds B. Advantages: 1. Use no fossil fuels to generate electricity 2. No pollution of air or water
A. Geothermal energy –thermal energy that is contained in hot magma B. Disadvantages: 1. 16% efficient 2. Can release sulfur compounds (acid rain) 3. Use is limited to areas where magma is relatively close to surface C. Advantages: 1. No use of fossil fuels 2. Relatively cheap
Video Clip on Alternative Energies Video Clip on Alternative Energies
A. Electrical energy supplied by batteries B. Hybrid cars use both electricity and fossil fuels C. Hydrogen gas powered cars D. Biomass – renewable organic matter (wood, sugarcane fibers, rice hulls, animal manure) Ex) NWMSU 1. Burns in the presence of oxygen 2. Reduces the use of fossil fuels for thermal energy In NW Mo there is a patent for a corn cob furnace – works like wood stoves only burns the useless cobs