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Road to Revolution 1650-1763. Chesapeake Society Very unhealthy area –50% died before they were 20 –Women died at a higher rate –Lots of immigration.

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Presentation on theme: "Road to Revolution 1650-1763. Chesapeake Society Very unhealthy area –50% died before they were 20 –Women died at a higher rate –Lots of immigration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Road to Revolution

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6 Chesapeake Society Very unhealthy area –50% died before they were 20 –Women died at a higher rate –Lots of immigration Few families –Men outnumber women significantly –Lose morals (unmarried pregnancies) By 1700, Virginia was most populated colony

7 Indentured Servants Came in huge numbers before 1660 –Due to poor economic conditions in England Mainly used for tobacco cultivation –1.5 million pounds/yr in 1630s –40 million pounds/yr by 1700 –100,000 servants brought by 1700 Made up the majority of immigrants to Va and Md in 17 th century –Some acquired land upon freedom –Most didn’t; no voting rights

8 Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Originally focused on fighting Indians –Governor maintained friendly relations with Indians b/c of fur trading –Indians attacked frontier settlements Bacon’s men defeated the Indians Men turned on Berkeley (gov) –Burnt Jamestown –Wanted to united Va, Md, and NC into one colony Bacon died, rebellion died too End result** –Showed the growing conflict between large planters and men who owned little/no property –Government would rest firmly under the control of the planter class

9 Slavery More popular after 1660 –Cheaper than indentured servants Arrived as part of Triangle Trade route Traveled the Middle Passage Stage 1 ( ) –Africans were not automatically slaves, could earn freedom, some did Stage 2 ( ) –Became slaves, based on mother, rigid class system Stage 3 ( s) –Very strict laws ( no reading or writing) –Racially motivated

10 Steno Rebellion South Carolina slave revolt slaves involved Burnt plantations, killed 20 whites Ran away towards Spain, caught and returned

11 Southern Society Great Planter Class –Massive amounts of land, slaves, ruling class Yeoman Class –Small farmers –Truly self-sufficient –Might own 1 or 2 slaves Landless class –Former indentured servants Few roads, schools or churches

12 New England Much better climate, healthier –Longer life span (10 years longer than England) Women bore many children –Could not own property –(Southern women could inherit) Huge families –Focused on children

13 Salem Witch Trials Over 150 imprisoned, 20 sentenced to death Religious sensationalism –Allowed spectral evidence (visions/dreams) Conflict was between merchant class and farmers –Many were suspicious of commercial success and lax religious beliefs –Most accused were from merchant class Stopped by governor 1693

14 Economic Prosperity Based on mercantilism s –Guaranteed English prosperity No foreign competition –Navigation Act 1651 Designed to hurt Dutch (3/4 of all ships in world) –By 1750, policies were focused on colonies Trade is limited to British ships –1/3 were actually made in America (NE and Middle) –Created urban areas

15 Mercantilism Colonies used to supply raw materials, consume finished goods –Goods to or from America had to pass through England 1 st (take tariff on goods). –Some products had to go exclusively to England (ex. Tobacco) Hurts farmers due to lower profits Americans could not compete with Britain –Especially textiles Led to currency shortages and bullion leaving the colonies Impact…

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17 Population Predicted to double every 25 years –After 1700, natural increase Immigration –40% were slaves –Scots-Irish Scottish who fled to Ireland Fled Ireland because land rents increased Came as families –Irish Catholics converted to Protestants to get married –Germans Most settle in Philadelphia/Pennsylvania Some in N.Carolina (Moravians)

18 Enlightenment New England was literate –Men 90%, women 40% –Rest of America, 35-50% –**well read Sir Isaac Newton –Tried to relate the laws of science and nature to government and medicine

19 Benjamin Franklin Part of Enlightenment Poor Richard’s Almanac 1732 –Proverbs Retired at age 42 Lightning rod 1752 American Philosophical Society Founder of University of Pa –First medical school

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21 John Locke Ideas are acquired not inborn Second Treatise of Government –Natural rights, endowed by God God exists –If God and reason conflict, follow reason Called Deists –God made the universe, then left it alone –Not about religious zealots or fanatics –Jefferson and Franklin

22 Religion South –Anglican church –Little influence on individuals –Not very spiritual –Founded William and Mary College New England –Congregational Church –Later, more denominations arrived

23 First Great Awakening 1730s and 1740s Started by Jonathan Edwards –“Sinners in the Eyes of an Angry God” Carried on by George Whitefield –Traveling minister, hell fire and damnation sermons. –Preached in tents and outdoor gatherings –Focused on being ‘born again’

24 Impact of Great Awakening Decline of ‘old church’, birth of new denominations New colleges founded –Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth College More African Americans and Native Americans were drawn to Christianity More prominence to women More religious toleration –Spirituality was more important that doctrine

25 Brown University to the left, Princeton University below

26 Log Colleges: Great Awakening College of New Jersey: Princeton, 1746: Presbyterian King’s College: Columbia, 1754: Anglican Rhode Island College: Brown, 1764, Baptist Queens College: Rutgers, 1766, Dutch Reformed Dartmouth College, 1769, Congregationalist

27 Colonial Culture Artists –John Trumbull (artist of Am. Rev) –Charles Peale –John Singleton Copley –Benjamin West –Had trouble find clients in America –Travelled to Europe to train

28 Paul Revere, painted by John Copley

29 General Washington before Battle of Trenton, painted by John Trumbull

30 Signing of the Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West

31 President Thomas Jefferson, By Charles Wilson Peale

32 More Culture Architecture –Georgian Style –Dutch Colonial Literature –Phyllis Wheatley Slave Educated by masters (NE) Wrote poetry 1 st published African American poet

33 Georgian Architecture, Colonial Williamsburg

34 Dutch Colonial Home, built 1740

35 Peter Zenger Case Wrote editorial regarding corrupt governor of New York Charged with libel His lawyers, Andrew Hamilton, convinced the jury to consider the truth of the information in the editorial Established freedom of press***

36 Colonial Government 8 colonies had royal governors 3 colonies had governors appointed by proprietors 2 colonies elected governors (RI & Ct) All had a bicameral legislature –Upper house appointed by crown or proprietors –Lower house was elected by landowners Controlled taxes and governor’s salaries

37 Competing for a Continent

38 French Canada dominated by fur traders –Des Moines Baton Rouge Detroit 1701 LaSalle explored the Mississippi River –New Orleans 1718

39 King Williams War English and colonists v. French 1690 Cruel war English and French refused to commit major troops Actually Indians v. colonists (plus Iroquois) End result, bloody war with no change of territory

40 Queen Anne’s War 1702 England v. French and Spanish French attacked border towns in New England Spanish attacked southern border towns –Almost took Charleston SC Americans realized their dependence on England for protection

41 King George’s War 1740 England v. France and Spain Americans tried to invade Canada –Took Louisbourg Peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to French Americans were outraged Result**no real dominant European force in America

42 French and Indian War/Seven Years War 1754 Conflict arises over Ohio River Valley –Britain/colonists v. French Fort Duquesne (French) located near Fort Necessity (English) –G. Washington fired the first shots –Forced to surrender

43 Albany Plan of Union 1754 Proposed by Franklin 7 colonies participated Wanted to keep Iroquois neutral Wanted to create some form of colonial unity –Grand Council All colonies would have representation Executive officer appointed by crown Rejected by colonies and Crown

44 War Begins Braddock commanded British troops –Alienated Indians –Defeated by, mortally wounded by French British were unsuccessful against French –Firmly controlled Nova Scotia Forced Acadians to leave, went to Louisiana, became Cajuns French were winning –Army –Indians –Canadians Americans did not wholeheartedly join the contest

45 By 1757, British are losing Pitt took control of Britain –Focused on Canada –Relied on Americans to fight, British paid Drove French from interior by 1759 Conquered Quebec 1759, Montreal 1760

46 Treaty of Paris 1763 France ceded all North American territories –Britain received all land east of Mississippi River –Spain received all land west of Mississippi, including New Orleans –France was allowed to keep West Indies

47 RESULTS OF THE WAR: Imperial Crisis for Britain 1. Greatly larger colonial empire in North America 2. Huge war debt 3. Resentment toward colonists Need for reorganization of American empire George III (ruled ) King George III

48 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. Effects of the War on the American Colonials


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