Presentation on theme: "The Civil War (1861-1865) Created by: Sarah Rice."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War (1861-1865) Created by: Sarah Rice
Section 1: The Two Sides Main Idea 1: Both the North and the South had strengths and weaknesses that helped determine their military strategies. Main Idea 2: Soldiers in the Civil War came from every region, and each side expected an early victory.
Section 1 Vocabulary border states blockade offensive Rebel Yankee
The Border States Seven left the Union to join the Confederacy Four remained: Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri Each had strategic locations for the North, but were slave states and teetered towards secession Missouri=controlled parts of Mississippi River Kentucky=controlled Ohio River Maryland=Washington D.C., U.S. government at risk, close to Richmond Delaware=close to Philadelphia
Lincoln is Cautious If Lincoln aims to end slavery, border states will secede If he ordered Northern troops into border states, they might secede Result of caution: –Border states stayed in the Union –Many border states’ population joined armies in the South
Northern Advantages Larger population More industry More abundant resources More ships and larger railway network Better banking system Abraham Lincoln
Northern Disadvantages Trying to bring Southern states back into the Union (#1 goal) Have to invade the South(an unknown territory), occupy the territory, and subdue a population of millions to win the war Not as much people support as the South
Southern Advantages Fighting in familiar territory Military leadership superior Strong support from the people
Southern Disadvantages Smaller population of free men Possessed few factories to manufacture weapons + supplies Produced half as much food as the North Difficulty in delivering food, weapons, and supplies due to lack of railway
Main Northern Goal Bring Southern states back into the Union Later on in the war, ending slavery also becomes a major goal
Main Southern Goal To win recognition as an independent nation –This would allow them to preserve their traditional way of life (slavery)
Northern Strategy 1. Blockade Southern ports –to prevent supplies from reaching the South and from the South earning money through exporting cotton 2. Gain control of the Mississippi River –to cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy 3. Take control of Richmond, Virginia –The Confederate capital Confederacy Mississippi River (Union)
Southern Strategy Offensive strategy: –Moved armies northward to threaten Washington, D.C. *Main* Defensive strategy: –Hold onto as much territory as possible until the North tired of fighting –Thought Britain and France would help them out since they bought large quantities of cotton
William Tecumseh Sherman and George McClellan Union generals
Who Were the Soldiers? Most came from farms Young –Average age was 25 years old –40% were 21 years or younger North later enlists free African Americans Confederates/South (REBELS) near 112,000 soldiers Union/North (YANKEES) near 187,000 soldiers
False Hopes Each side expected an early victory –They were both wrong.
Section 2: Early Years of War Main Idea 1: The North realized with the first major battle that the war would be a long, difficult struggle. Main Idea 2: The North set up a blockade along the South’s coastline, which caused serious problems for the South. Main Idea 3: The action shifted to the West after the first Battle of Bull Run as each side recognized its forces. Main Idea 4: Battles continued and after several Southern victories, Lincoln removed General McClellan for his failure to act in these battles.
Section 2 Vocabulary ironclad casualty “Stonewall” Jackson Ulysses S. Grant George B. McClellan
First Battle of Bull Run First major battle of the Civil War Union attacks Confederates Union pushed back by General Jackson who fought like a stonewall (aka “Stonewall” Jackson Confederates push forward with a strange scream of power (aka Rebel yell) Union flees back to Washington D.C.
A Shock for the North Union was flabbergasted about the retreat Lincoln recruits volunteers for the army Hires a new general: George McClellan
War at Sea Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports Imports in short supply during the war due to blockade: coffee, shoes, nails, salt, guns, ammunition Monitor versus Merrimack –Rebels rebuild the abandoned Yankee warship the Merrimack with iron plates, renamed it Virginia –Rebels retaliate by sending their new ironclad Monitor to engage Virginia in battle –Neither ship sank, but Yankee’s Monitor was able to keep the Merrimack/ Virginia in Northern harbor so they could not do any damage to Northern ships
Early Victories for the North Ulysses S. Grant captures Confederate’s Fort Henry on Tennessee River. Then, he captures Fort Donelson Nickname became “Unconditional Surrender” Grant because that is what he told the Confederates the terms were Union gains access to lower Tennessee River and a path for troops to march through into the South.
Battle of Shiloh Confederates launch a surprise attack on Union in Mississippi Battle lasted two days, but some of the bloodiest fighting in all of the war –Day 1: Rebels drive Yankees back to Ten. River –Day 2: Union fight back and push back to Miss. *20,000 casualties on both sides *Union almost have control of Mississippi River
New Orleans Falls Union captures New Orleans--South’s largest city –Rebels could no longer use the river to carry its goods to sea –Gives Yankees control of almost all the Mississippi River
McClellan Hesitates Expert in reorganizing and drilling an army Too cautious and worried that his troops weren’t ready so he hesitated to initiate battle Lincoln directs McClellan to take Richmond, but McClellan sneaks around enemy sizing up their strength “You must act,” Lincoln ordered him. He didn’t. This gave Rebels time to defend Richmond.
Finally, when McClellan does fight, they are outnumbered. Launch into the Seven Days’ Battles –Confederates circle around Union army and spy to learn about Union positions –Then the Rebels force Yankees back –Yankees fail to capture Richmond –Restores Rebel hope
Gloom in the North Disheartened by Richmond failure Confederates win the Second Battle of Bull Run, allowing them to keep Richmond –This Confederate victory brought Rebels closer to Washington, D.C., which posed a huge threat for the Yankees
Lee Enters Maryland General Robert E. Lee tries to convince Maryland to become part of the Confederacy Two soldiers find Lee’s copy of attack orders wrapped around three cigars –McClellan learns Lee’s plans and that his army was divided into four parts (Trevor Trivia) –McClellan’s big opportunity to redeem himself has arrived –But he was too cautious again and he waited four days to attack, giving Lee enough time to gather his troops together
Battle of Antietam September 17 th —single most bloodiest day of the entire war Casualties were heavy on both sides, but neither army was destroyed Lee withdraws to Virginia and Union takes this as a victory –McClellan ignored Lincoln’s order to pursue the Rebels and destroy them –Lincoln fires McClellan and replaces him with General Ambrose Burnside *Lincoln uses this major victory as a sign to take action against slavery. He begins this new conquest.
Section 3: A Call to Freedom Main Idea 1: Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which led to the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment freeing enslaved Americans. Main Idea 2: The Civil War provided opportunities for African Americans to contribute to the war effort.
Lincoln’s Official Position At first, Lincoln thought slavery was immoral but did not want to move against it in fear of losing the border states “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slavery…I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.” ~ Abraham Lincoln 1862
Weakening Slavery Slavery helped the South because slaves raised crops to feed the armies and did the heavy work in the trenches at army camps Therefore, Lincoln decided to emancipate all enslaved African Americans in the South
Rotten to the Core Lincoln saw America as becoming rotten by the nasty worm Slavery Who wants to fight for a nation with a rotten core? America could no longer speak of liberty and equality and be cruel and hateful to a large group of its own people.
Emancipation Proclamation “…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” ~ The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863
“ I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right than in signing this paper.” ~Abraham Lincoln
Effects of the Proclamation 1)Applied only to areas the Confederacy controlled, but African Americans in the North were happy about it 2)Britain and France were against slavery, so they didn’t want to help the Confederacy even though they bought cotton from them 3)1865 Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment—abolished all slavery in the U.S. (this is what truly freed enslaved Americans)
Civil War Changes the South Loss of population due to many slaves fleeing to the North Slave rebellions because Rebels refused to let African Americans into the army Eventually, Rebels plea with slaves to join the Confederate army in exchange for freedom to fight for the country they love instead of doing the “slave” work for the armies. (The war ended before any African American regiments could be organized)
Civil War Changes the North Lincoln at first sends back all runaway slaves who wanted to fight for the Union because he didn’t want to stir up a problem The ones who stayed were called contrabands: property seized from the enemy 1862 Congress passes a law allowing African Americans to serve in both the Union army and navy African American regiments were separate –54 th Massachusetts most famous African Am. Regiment –Their bravery attacking Confederates won deep respect for all African American troops
Section 4: Life During the Civil War Main Idea 1: In both the North and the South, civilians and soldiers suffered terrible hardships and faced new challenges. Main Idea 2: Many Northern and Southern women took on new responsibilities during the war. Main Idea 3: The war efforts of the Union and the Confederate governments faced opposition. Main Idea 4: The war created economic problems in the North and in the South.
Section 4: Vocabulary habeas corpus draft bounty inflation Dorothea Dix Clara Barton
Reality of War Soldiers’ lives were filled with boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, and horror Daily drills, bad food, marches, and rain Medical facilities were overwhelmed Rebels also suffered from starvation
Women and the War Women became teachers, office workers, nurses, and spies –Clara Barton- famous for her work with wounded soldiers –Dorothea Dix- organized women to serve as military nurses They did jobs to help troops –Rolled bandages, wove blankets, made ammunition, collected food/clothing/medicine, and raised money
Marching Soldiers Where do they sleep? What do they eat? How do they stay warm and dry?
Army Food—Yum? No—Yuck! Southern army ate “sloosh” –Fried bacon and then cornmeal dough wetted by bacon grease, which was then cooked around their ramrods over a campfire. Northern army had water, soft bread, flour, coffee, bacon, and a heavy cracker called “hardtack”
Life at Home Northern families saw war from a distance Everyday life in the North suffered little disruption Southern life was dramatically changed –Lost crops, homes, shortage in food and everyday clothing, medicine, and amenities –Northern soldiers burned abandoned houses, stole, destroyed railroads, burned crops, and destroyed cities –Economy of the South suffered immensely due to destruction of crops along with railways and ports being blocked (no exports) Leads to inflation-increase in prices to make money
Draft Laws Volunteers for the Union and Confederacy were decreasing The Confederate Congress passed a draft law –Draft law: required men between 18 and 35 to serve in the army for three years –A male could substitute someone in his place if he was drafted The Union encouraged enlistment by offering bounties (payments to encourage volunteers) –This method fails so they too draft men, but from the ages 20-45
The First Modern War Civil War is called the first “modern” war because it required the total commitment of resources
Section 5: The Way to Victory Main Idea 1: After Confederate victories in Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, a turning point occurred when Union forces won in Gettysburg and Vicksburg. Main Idea 2: The end of the war in sight with Sherman’s capture of Atlanta and Grant’s pursuit of the Confederates in Virginia. Main Idea 3: After four years of war that claimed the lives of more than 600,000 Americans, the Northern forces defeated the Southern forces.
Victories and Failures Union General Burnside fails to take Rebels in the Battle of Fredericksburg, so Burnside resigns and is replaced by General Joseph Hooker Hooker disobeys Lincoln so he is replaced by General George Meade General Lee also defeats Yankees at the Battle of Chancellorsville, but Rebel General Stonewall Jackson is killed
Total War: Union troops took what food they needed and tore up railroad lines and fields on purpose in an effort to destroy anything useful to the South. The Union also hoped this would destroy the moral of the Southerners and they’d stop supporting the war Their destruction was about 50 miles wide
The Battle of Gettysburg Yankees and Rebels met by accident in 1863 and head into a three day battle. (Lee was marching to the North hoping to fight Yankees on their home ground to know the pain they’ve caused the South). Lee decided to create a panic of overwhelming numbers marching toward the Yanks and fire off canons for a consistent two hours, which would destroy the Union army Lee loses because Union troops were hidden behind a ridge and shot down over half of the exposed Confederate soldiers
Abe Is Disobeyed Again Abe orders an attack on Lee’s retreating army to finish them off and end the war General Meade was too cautious like General McClellan and didn’t act “We had them in our grasp. We had only to stretch forth our hands and they were ours,” stated Lincoln.
Victory at Vicksburg Yankees capture Vicksburg in 1863 This allows Yankees to have the entire control of the Mississippi River ** Victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg become the climax of the Civil War
Lincoln at Gettysburg Lincoln dedicates a cemetery for all soldiers both Union and Confederate lost at Gettysburg He writes a beautiful speech called the “Gettysburg Address” –“…It is for us the living…that this dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government, of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” ~Abraham Lincoln
The Election of 1864 Lincoln battles for presidency with McClellan and the odds were not in his favor Abraham Lincoln gets reelected as president after Union restored faith in him by his order of taking control of the Gulf of Mexico, which was a success Lincoln stresses peace with all nations in his Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865
Surrender at Appomattox Union army blocks Confederates of any escape –“There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I [would] rather die a thousand deaths,” General Lee. –On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrender at the Appomattox Court House –General Grant allows Confederates to go home, keep their horses, and three days worth of food to all the Conf. hungry troops –THE CIVIL WAR IS OVER
Tragedy Strikes President Lincoln does not live to see the end of the war On April 15, 1865 (five days after Lee’s surrender) he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth This was a tragedy for both the North and South because he was the only person who could mend the country back together It was the “heaviest blow which has ever fallen upon the people of the South,” a Richmond newspaper stated.
Results of the War More than 600,000 soldiers died Caused the U.S. billions of dollars in damage South’s economy was in total state of collapse 2/3rds of transportation systems lay in ruins Bitter feelings among Southerners that lasted for generations to come North’s victory saved the Union Federal government was strengthened and more powerful than the states
Results of the War Freedom of millions of African American 13 th Amendment 1865: no slaves in ALL U.S. 14 th Amendment 1868: equal protection of the law to ALL Americans 15 th Amendment 1870: all citizens have the right to vote (didn’t specify if women were citizens so they couldn’t vote still)
New Questions How do does the Union bring Southern states back into the Union? How do now free African Americans coincide with white Americans in the South? We now try to answer these questions in the period now as the Reconstruction.