2Section 1: The Two SidesMain Idea 1: Both the North and the South had strengths and weaknesses that helped determine their military strategies.Main Idea 2: Soldiers in the Civil War came from every region, and each side expected an early victory.
6The Border States Seven left the Union to join the Confederacy Four remained: Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, MissouriEach had strategic locations for the North, but were slave states and teetered towards secessionMissouri=controlled parts of Mississippi RiverKentucky=controlled Ohio RiverMaryland=Washington D.C., U.S. government at risk, close to RichmondDelaware=close to Philadelphia
8Lincoln is CautiousIf Lincoln aims to end slavery, border states will secedeIf he ordered Northern troops into border states, they might secedeResult of caution:Border states stayed in the UnionMany border states’ population joined armies in the South
10Northern Advantages Larger population More industry More abundant resourcesMore ships and larger railway networkBetter banking systemAbraham Lincoln
11Northern Disadvantages Trying to bring Southern states back into the Union (#1 goal)Have to invade the South(an unknown territory), occupy the territory, and subdue a population of millions to win the warNot as much people support as the South
12Southern AdvantagesFighting in familiar territoryMilitary leadership superiorStrong support from the people
13Southern Disadvantages Smaller population of free menPossessed few factories to manufacture weapons + suppliesProduced half as much food as the NorthDifficulty in delivering food, weapons, and supplies due to lack of railway
15Main Northern Goal Bring Southern states back into the Union Later on in the war, ending slavery also becomes a major goal
16Main Southern Goal To win recognition as an independent nation This would allow them to preserve their traditional way of life (slavery)
17Northern Strategy 1. Blockade Southern ports to prevent supplies from reaching the South and from the South earning money through exporting cotton2. Gain control of the Mississippi Riverto cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy3. Take control of Richmond, VirginiaThe Confederate capitalMississippi River (Union)Confederacy
18Southern Strategy Offensive strategy: *Main* Defensive strategy: Moved armies northward to threaten Washington, D.C.*Main* Defensive strategy:Hold onto as much territory as possible until the North tired of fightingThought Britain and France would help them out since they bought large quantities of cotton
19William Tecumseh Sherman and George McClellan Union generals
21Who Were the Soldiers? Most came from farms Young Average age was 25 years old40% were 21 years or youngerNorth later enlists free African AmericansConfederates/South (REBELS) near 112,000 soldiersUnion/North (YANKEES) near 187,000 soldiers
26False HopesEach side expected an early victoryThey were both wrong.
27Section 2: Early Years of War Main Idea 1: The North realized with the first major battle that the war would be a long, difficult struggle.Main Idea 2: The North set up a blockade along the South’s coastline, which caused serious problems for the South.Main Idea 3: The action shifted to the West after the first Battle of Bull Run as each side recognized its forces.Main Idea 4: Battles continued and after several Southern victories, Lincoln removed General McClellan for his failure to act in these battles.
28ironclad casualty “Stonewall” Jackson Ulysses S. Grant Section 2 Vocabularyironcladcasualty“Stonewall” JacksonUlysses S. GrantGeorge B. McClellan
29First Battle of Bull Run First major battle of the Civil WarUnion attacks ConfederatesUnion pushed back by General Jackson who fought like a stonewall (aka “Stonewall” JacksonConfederates push forward with a strange scream of power (aka Rebel yell)Union flees back to Washington D.C.
32A Shock for the North Union was flabbergasted about the retreat Lincoln recruits volunteers for the armyHires a new general: George McClellan
33War at Sea Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports Imports in short supply during the war due to blockade: coffee, shoes, nails, salt, guns, ammunitionMonitor versus MerrimackRebels rebuild the abandoned Yankee warship the Merrimack with iron plates, renamed it VirginiaRebels retaliate by sending their new ironclad Monitor to engage Virginia in battleNeither ship sank, but Yankee’s Monitor was able to keep the Merrimack/ Virginia in Northern harbor so they could not do any damage to Northern ships
36Early Victories for the North Ulysses S. Grant captures Confederate’s Fort Henry on Tennessee River.Then, he captures Fort DonelsonNickname became “Unconditional Surrender” Grant because that is what he told the Confederates the terms wereUnion gains access to lower Tennessee River and a path for troops to march through into the South.
37Battle of ShilohConfederates launch a surprise attack on Union in MississippiBattle lasted two days, but some of the bloodiest fighting in all of the warDay 1: Rebels drive Yankees back to Ten. RiverDay 2: Union fight back and push back to Miss.*20,000 casualties on both sides*Union almost have control of Mississippi River
40New Orleans Falls Union captures New Orleans--South’s largest city Rebels could no longer use the river to carry its goods to seaGives Yankees control of almost all the Mississippi River
41McClellan Hesitates Expert in reorganizing and drilling an army Too cautious and worried that his troops weren’t ready so he hesitated to initiate battleLincoln directs McClellan to take Richmond, but McClellan sneaks around enemy sizing up their strength“You must act,” Lincoln ordered him. He didn’t.This gave Rebels time to defend Richmond.
42Finally, when McClellan does fight, they are outnumbered. Launch into the Seven Days’ BattlesConfederates circle around Union army and spy to learn about Union positionsThen the Rebels force Yankees backYankees fail to capture RichmondRestores Rebel hope
45Gloom in the North Disheartened by Richmond failure Confederates win the Second Battle of Bull Run, allowing them to keep RichmondThis Confederate victory brought Rebels closer to Washington, D.C., which posed a huge threat for the Yankees
46Lee Enters MarylandGeneral Robert E. Lee tries to convince Maryland to become part of the ConfederacyTwo soldiers find Lee’s copy of attack orders wrapped around three cigarsMcClellan learns Lee’s plans and that his army was divided into four parts (Trevor Trivia)McClellan’s big opportunity to redeem himself has arrivedBut he was too cautious again and he waited four days to attack, giving Lee enough time to gather his troops together
47Battle of AntietamSeptember 17th—single most bloodiest day of the entire warCasualties were heavy on both sides, but neither army was destroyedLee withdraws to Virginia and Union takes this as a victoryMcClellan ignored Lincoln’s order to pursue the Rebels and destroy themLincoln fires McClellan and replaces him with General Ambrose Burnside*Lincoln uses this major victory as a sign to take action against slavery. He begins this new conquest.
51Section 3: A Call to Freedom Main Idea 1: Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which led to the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment freeing enslaved Americans.Main Idea 2: The Civil War provided opportunities for African Americans to contribute to the war effort.
53Lincoln’s Official Position At first, Lincoln thought slavery was immoral but did not want to move against it in fear of losing the border states“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slavery…I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.” ~ Abraham Lincoln 1862
54Weakening SlaverySlavery helped the South because slaves raised crops to feed the armies and did the heavy work in the trenches at army campsTherefore, Lincoln decided to emancipate all enslaved African Americans in the South
55Rotten to the CoreLincoln saw America as becoming rotten by the nasty worm SlaveryWho wants to fight for a nation with a rotten core?America could no longer speak of liberty and equality and be cruel and hateful to a large group of its own people.
56Emancipation Proclamation “…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” ~ The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863
57“ I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right than in signing this paper.” ~Abraham Lincoln
59Effects of the Proclamation Applied only to areas the Confederacy controlled, but African Americans in the North were happy about itBritain and France were against slavery, so they didn’t want to help the Confederacy even though they bought cotton from them1865 Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment—abolished all slavery in the U.S. (this is what truly freed enslaved Americans)
60Civil War Changes the South Loss of population due to many slaves fleeing to the NorthSlave rebellions because Rebels refused to let African Americans into the armyEventually, Rebels plea with slaves to join the Confederate army in exchange for freedom to fight for the country they love instead of doing the “slave” work for the armies. (The war ended before any African American regiments could be organized)
61Civil War Changes the North Lincoln at first sends back all runaway slaves who wanted to fight for the Union because he didn’t want to stir up a problemThe ones who stayed were called contrabands: property seized from the enemy1862 Congress passes a law allowing African Americans to serve in both the Union army and navyAfrican American regiments were separate54th Massachusetts most famous African Am. RegimentTheir bravery attacking Confederates won deep respect for all African American troops
64Section 4: Life During the Civil War Main Idea 1: In both the North and the South, civilians and soldiers suffered terrible hardships and faced new challenges.Main Idea 2: Many Northern and Southern women took on new responsibilities during the war.Main Idea 3: The war efforts of the Union and the Confederate governments faced opposition.Main Idea 4: The war created economic problems in the North and in the South.
66Reality of WarSoldiers’ lives were filled with boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, and horrorDaily drills, bad food, marches, and rainMedical facilities were overwhelmedRebels also suffered from starvation
67Women and the WarWomen became teachers, office workers, nurses, and spiesClara Barton- famous for her work with wounded soldiersDorothea Dix- organized women to serve as military nursesThey did jobs to help troopsRolled bandages, wove blankets, made ammunition, collected food/clothing/medicine, and raised money
70Marching Soldiers Where do they sleep? What do they eat? How do they stay warm and dry?
71Army Food—Yum? No—Yuck! Southern army ate “sloosh” Fried bacon and then cornmeal dough wetted by bacon grease, which was then cooked around their ramrods over a campfire.Northern army had water, soft bread, flour, coffee, bacon, and a heavy cracker called “hardtack”
72Life at Home Northern families saw war from a distance Everyday life in the North suffered little disruptionSouthern life was dramatically changedLost crops, homes, shortage in food and everyday clothing, medicine, and amenitiesNorthern soldiers burned abandoned houses, stole, destroyed railroads, burned crops, and destroyed citiesEconomy of the South suffered immensely due to destruction of crops along with railways and ports being blocked (no exports)Leads to inflation-increase in prices to make money
76Draft Laws Volunteers for the Union and Confederacy were decreasing The Confederate Congress passed a draft lawDraft law: required men between 18 and 35 to serve in the army for three yearsA male could substitute someone in his place if he was draftedThe Union encouraged enlistment by offering bounties (payments to encourage volunteers)This method fails so they too draft men, but from the ages 20-45
78The First Modern WarCivil War is called the first “modern” war because it required the total commitment of resources
79Section 5: The Way to Victory Main Idea 1: After Confederate victories in Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, a turning point occurred when Union forces won in Gettysburg and Vicksburg.Main Idea 2: The end of the war in sight with Sherman’s capture of Atlanta and Grant’s pursuit of the Confederates in Virginia.Main Idea 3: After four years of war that claimed the lives of more than 600,000 Americans, the Northern forces defeated the Southern forces.
81Victories and Failures Union General Burnside fails to take Rebels in the Battle of Fredericksburg, so Burnside resigns and is replaced by General Joseph HookerHooker disobeys Lincoln so he is replaced by General George MeadeGeneral Lee also defeats Yankees at the Battle of Chancellorsville, but Rebel General Stonewall Jackson is killed
82Total War:Union troops took what food they needed and tore up railroad lines and fields on purpose in an effort to destroy anything useful to the South.The Union also hoped this would destroy the moral of the Southerners and they’d stop supporting the warTheir destruction was about 50 miles wide
83The Battle of Gettysburg Yankees and Rebels met by accident in 1863 and head into a three day battle.(Lee was marching to the North hoping to fight Yankees on their home ground to know the pain they’ve caused the South).Lee decided to create a panic of overwhelming numbers marching toward the Yanks and fire off canons for a consistent two hours, which would destroy the Union armyLee loses because Union troops were hidden behind a ridge and shot down over half of the exposed Confederate soldiers
87Abe Is Disobeyed AgainAbe orders an attack on Lee’s retreating army to finish them off and end the warGeneral Meade was too cautious like General McClellan and didn’t act“We had them in our grasp. We had only to stretch forth our hands and they were ours,” stated Lincoln.
88Victory at Vicksburg Yankees capture Vicksburg in 1863 This allows Yankees to have the entire control of the Mississippi River** Victories atGettysburg andVicksburg becomethe climax ofthe Civil War
89Lincoln at GettysburgLincoln dedicates a cemetery for all soldiers both Union and Confederate lost at GettysburgHe writes a beautiful speech called the “Gettysburg Address”“…It is for us the living…that this dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government, of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” ~Abraham Lincoln
91The Election of 1864Lincoln battles for presidency with McClellan and the odds were not in his favorAbraham Lincoln gets reelected as president after Union restored faith in him by his order of taking control of the Gulf of Mexico, which was a successLincoln stresses peace with all nations in his Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865
92Surrender at Appomattox Union army blocks Confederates of any escape“There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I [would] rather die a thousand deaths,” General Lee.On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrender at the Appomattox Court HouseGeneral Grant allows Confederates to go home, keep their horses, and three days worth of food to all the Conf. hungry troopsTHE CIVIL WAR IS OVER
95Tragedy StrikesPresident Lincoln does not live to see the end of the warOn April 15, 1865 (five days after Lee’s surrender) he was assassinated by John Wilkes BoothThis was a tragedy for both the North and South because he was the only person who could mend the country back togetherIt was the “heaviest blow which has ever fallen upon the people of the South,” a Richmond newspaper stated.
100Results of the War More than 600,000 soldiers died Caused the U.S. billions of dollars in damageSouth’s economy was in total state of collapse2/3rds of transportation systems lay in ruinsBitter feelings among Southerners that lasted for generations to comeNorth’s victory saved the UnionFederal government was strengthened and more powerful than the states
101Results of the War Freedom of millions of African American 13th Amendment 1865: no slaves in ALL U.S.14th Amendment 1868: equal protection of the law to ALL Americans15th Amendment 1870: all citizens have the right to vote (didn’t specify if women were citizens so they couldn’t vote still)
103New QuestionsHow do does the Union bring Southern states back into the Union?How do now free African Americans coincide with white Americans in the South?We now try to answer these questions in the period now as the Reconstruction.