2Curriculum Outcomes2.0 – Students are expected to explain human-environmental interactions within ecozones.2.1 – Explain the concept of ecozones.2.2 – Identify and describe human environmental interactions in selected ecozones.2.3 – Respond to issues influencing human environmental interactions in a selected ecozone.
3What is an Ecozone?A geographical region that shares similar natural and human characteristicsWhat type of characteristics are we talking about???
4Characteristics of Ecozones HumansLandformsWaterClimateSoilNatural VegetationWildlifeGeology
5Biodiversity in Ecozones All Ecozones vary in BiodiversityBiodiversity ->Bio – living thingsDiversity – a large varietyBiodiversity is the variety of living thingsAll ecozones vary in the different species that live there
6Ecozones of Canada The Ecozones of Canada are divided into two parts. 5 Marine (water) EcozonesThis Ecozone will be covered in another chapter.15 Terrestrial (land) EcozonesWe will cover four of the fifteen ecozones
8Boreal ShieldThe boreal, which means forest is the largest biome and natural ecosystem in the world.A biome is a large region on the Earth, such as a rainforest or desert, which is named for the distinct characteristics of the plants that live within it.A ecosystem is a community of plants and animals that interact with one another and with their physical environment.
9Boreal Shield (Big Wild) The Boreal Shield is a combination of two important natural features:The rocky Canadian Shield.The coniferous northern forest.
10Boreal Shield Landscape Glaciation developed thinned soils, exposed ancient granite bedrock, and many depressions.These depressions filled with water, forming lakes, swamps and bogs.It has a rich biodiversity of plants and animals.
11Boreal Shield Vegetation Black spruce is the most common type of tree.Hardy deciduous trees, such as birch and poplar found on the southern edge.Lichens and shrubs like blueberry bushes provide food for the moose and black bear.
12Boreal Shield Wildlife Larger mammals like black bear, lynx, coyote, timber wolf and moose.Smaller mammals like beaver, fox, marten, otter, red squirrel and snowshoe hare, as well fish and amphibians.230 different types of birds
13Boreal Shield Wildlife con’t Newfoundland Labrador supports aquatic animals like seals, whales, northern pike, pickerel, trout, and smallmouth bass.Bugs, included beetles, dragonflies, mosquitoes, etc. provided food for birds, fish and frogs.
14Boreal Shield ClimateContinential Climate A climate type with a wide annual range of temperature and low precipitation influenced by its location away from the moderating influence of an ocean.Maritime Climate A wet, moderate climate type that is influenced by the closeness of an ocean.
15Boreal Shield PeopleThe Scattered communities support about 4 million people.Aboriginals, as well as others, rely on the resources like minerals, forestry, fishing, farming and hunting.People are also dependent on businesses in construction and tourism.
16Boreal ShieldTurn to page 121 and do questions 1-4.
17Case Study -> Moose in Gros Morne National Park Complete the following questionsWhat is the problem addressed in this case study?Describe THREE reasons why the moose population has grown so much in the park.Choose THREE stakeholders from the final page and describe how you think these people would feel about this situationWhat is your opinion on how this situation should be handled? Explain
19Mixedwood PlainsThis is the smallest ecozone covering only 9% of Canada’s total land area.More than 60% of the total Canadain population and is home 50% of Canada’s endangered species.
20Mixedwood PlainsBorders three of the five Great Lakes and extends alond the St. Lawrence Seaway to Quebec City.Next door to its most important trading partner-USA, which is convenient for the transportation of people and goods.
21Mixedwood Plains Climate, Soil, etc. Relatively warm and moderate climate.Mainly flat land with rich fertile soils to support agriculture and food-processing industries.Produce such as fruits, vegetables and wines.
22Mixedwood Plains con’t This region is called the Canadian Heartland and an Industrial Powerhouse, where two-thirds of the country’s goods are produced.Around the area of Lake Ontario (Greater Golder Horseshoe) is a dense concentration of industries and commerce.The larger region is known as the Windsor-Quebec Corridor; industrial parks, heavy industry (oil refineries) and rows of hydroelectric power lines.
23Mixwood Plains con’tTourism and recreation are important part of this regions diverse economy.Niagara Falls, Ontario Science Centre, CN Tower, Royal Ontario Museum and old Quebec City.Hockey, Baseball, Basketball, Football and Lacrosse.
24Mixedwood Plains con’t 100 people per square kilometre – ten times denser than anywhere else in Canada.Ontario has 12.8 million residents with 90% living in Mixedwood Plains.Quebec has 8 million with 80% living in Montreal, Quebec City and Trois-Rivieres.
25Mixedwood PlainsArgriculture, logging and the growth of cities have completely changed this ecosystem.More than 90% of the original wetlands have been drained for farming and urban development.This ecosystem originally consisted of thick, green forest cover with a mix of coniferous trees (eastern pine, red pine and hemlock).
26Mixedwood PlainsThis region also included abundance of deciduous (sugar maple, red oak, and white elm).Most species have disappeared with the exception of white-tailed deer, foxes, and grey and black squirrels.Some species have adapted including coyotes, raccoons, mice, and groundhogs.Living within cities (nuissance)
27Mixedwood PlainsTurn to page 149 and do questions 1 & 2.
28Montane CordilleraMost of this ecozone lies in British Columbia with about 10% in Alberta.Rows of mountains are separated by wide valleys, and a plateau, which is an area of elevated, flat land.
29Montane CordilleraNatural vegetation depends on its location on the mountains or in the valleys.Windward (west) side of a mountain recieves orographic precipitation creating dense coniferous forest.Alpine tundra is found on the top of the mountain where it is too cold and wind swept for tree to grow.
31Montane CordilleraLeeward (east) side of the mountain do not receive as much precipitation and are protected from the westerly winds.Grasses and sagebrush grow in the valleys of these dry regions.
32Montane CordilleraThe beauti of watersheds, mountains and forests provides an excellent opportunity for tourism and recreation.Forestry is also an important industry in this region providing many jobs.The soils is ideal for fruit farming and vineyards.Coal deposits have resulted in many mines.
33Montane Cordillera Two major challenges: 1. Only 5% of the land is suitable for agriculture.2. Urban growth, industrialization, and increasing tourism are causing increasing pressure on the fresh water supply of the ecozone.
34Montane CordilleraTurn to page 127 and do questions 1-4.
35PrairieAppears flat, but has many potholes and slough (pronounced sloo) can be seen due to glaciation.Many depressions are filled with water supporting a wide variety of plants and wildlife.During period of dry weather this region experiences drought.
36PrairieRiver valleys with many small tributaries can be seen flowing across Prairie land.The area includes many hills and eroded badlands created by the erosion of sedimentary rock.Gently rolling grasslands gives way to trees, mainly aspen and poplar.
37PrairieA continental climate can be found in this region, dry with extreme range in temperature, winters are cold and summers are hot.Climate is caused by: centre of continent, Rocky Mountains is a barrier to rain-bearing winds, dry arctic air making winters long and cold, long distance from any large bodies of water.
38Prairie Extreme summer thunderstorms and in some case tornadoes. Lowest rainfall in Canada ranging from millimeters.Many farmers build shelterbelts and windbreaks to protect farms from chinook winds.
39PrairieGrows many crops such as, wheat, barley, canola, peas and lentils.Livestock operations such as, beef, dairy cattle and hogs.Soil has a thick layer of topsoil providing rich, fertile organic materal known as humus.
40PrairieFactors such as pesticides, over farming, drought and over grazing by animals can be determental to this ecozone.The economy for this region is the oil and gas industry, agriculture and mining.
42Protecting The Ecozones United Nations guidelines suggested each Country protect 12% of total land use.All people involved with the use and protection are called Stakeholders.Stewardships involve taking care of private land or donating land for protection.