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Grade 8 Science Unit 1: Water Systems on Earth Chapter 2
Oceans are important Primary water source for the water cycle 2. Control weather 3. Support diverse life 4. Provides humans with food, minerals, and resources
The Origin of the Oceans 1. Tectonic Plates 2. Volcanic action 3. Erosion 4. Glaciation
Tectonic Plates Has helped determine where ocean basins are located. Tectonic plates move changing the position of the continents.
Panthalassa... Oceans then
Volcanic Action Has built ocean floor along mid-ocean ridges in areas where plates separate. Has helped build continental divides in areas where plates have collided and mountain building occurs.
Water trapped in volcanic materials were released as vapour. It cooled, condensed and fell back to the earth. This water collected in the lowest parts of the Earth’s surface... The ocean basins.
Erosion Has aided the further development of continental drainage systems as material is removed and deposited into the ocean basins.
Glaciation A force of erosion in the development of continental drainage systems. Glaciers move materials towards the oceans.
Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario
Researching the Ocean Floor Technologies include Sonar 2. Satellites 3. Core sampling 4. Underwater photography/ videography
5. Deep sea submersibles 6. Diving Refer to pages
“UNDERSEA ADVENTURE” CORE STSE
Underwater explorations Shipwrecks Ex. The Titanic Discovered in 1985
Technologies: Past & Present DivingSubmersibles
Wire line depth probe Sonar
“GETTING TO KNOW THE OCEAN FLOOR” Activity 2-2 page 50-51
Continental shelf: the submerged part of the continent between the coast and the edge of the basin.
Continental slope: continental shelves slope gradually away from the land before dropping drastically.
Abyssal plain: Wide, open features of the sea. Formed of thick deposits of sediments. Where do these sediments come from?
Mid-Ocean ridge: Long, undersea mountain chains formed from volcanic eruptions.
Canadian Organizations involved in Ocean Research 1. Environment Canada 2. Federal Fisheries 3. Ocean Science Centre 4. Centre for Cold Ocean Research (C-CORE at MUN)
Ocean Currents... A large amount of ocean water that moves in a particular and unchanging direction.
2 Types of Ocean Currents Surface currents Flow in the top m 2. Deep currents Flow below 200 m
Surface Currents Factors that influence surface currents are: 1. Wind 2. Earth rotation 3. Shape of the Earth’s continents
Wind Air movement caused by uneven heating. The energy of the moving air is transferred by friction to the water molecules causing it to move.
Earth Rotation The Earth spins counter- clockwise. This spinning body deflects winds and currents depending on what side the equator they are on.
This alteration of direction is called the Coriolis effect. Clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and Counter clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
Shape of Continent Moving currents are forced to turn when they meet a solid surface.
Deep Water Currents The most important influences are: 1. Water temperature 2. Salinity
Water Temperature Not the same at every depth. *Cold water is also more dense than warmer water.
Salinity Seawater is less salty at the mouths of large rivers due to the fresh water entering the ocean. Fresh water also enters where glaciers and icebergs melt and areas of high precipitation.
High amounts of evaporation increases salinity as well as freezing.
Local Ocean Currents Labrador Current cold water 2. Gulf Stream warm water Refer to map p. 54
Waves... Large ripples set in motion by steady winds. Waves on the surface of water are the result of a transfer of energy from moving air to the water.
Common Wave Features: *As a wave approaches a shoreline, the wavelength decreases and the wave height increases.
2 Types of Waves: 1. Swells Smooth waves caused by wind and storms far out in the ocean.
2. Breakers The tumble of water when a wave collapses onshore.
Tsunamis Giant waves that can be sent in motion by earthquakes on the ocean floor, landslides or volcanic eruptions near the shoreline.
Can be very destructive. November 18, 1929 South Coast of NL
Tides... The slow rise and fall of the ocean. The upper and lower edges of a beach are determined by the high- and low- tide mark.
Tides are connected to the motion of the moon and the spinning of the Earth. The moon exerts a greater force of pull than the sun due to its closer proximity to Earth.
High Tide Low Tide
2 Types of Tides: 1. Spring Tide: Occur when the Earth, Sun and Moon are in a line. Causes extra high and low tides.
2. Neap Tides: Occur when the Sun and the Moon are at right angles to one another. Causes the smallest tidal movements. There is little difference between low and high tides.
Tidal Range: The difference in level between a high and a low tide.
Shaping Our Shorelines... Waves have the power to erode and deposit sediments on the shore. Tides work with waves to determine the range of shoreline that can be affected by wave action.
Factors that affect the interaction of waves and tides on the shorelines are: 1. Slope of the shoreline 2. Shape of the shoreline 3. Type of rock material 4. Wave energy
Shoreline Features... Wave energy is concentrated on headlands and spreads out as it reaches bays.
Sand bar or Shoal
Think-Pair-Share... How can coastal communities minimize the damage to shoreline property due to waves and tides?
Shorelines can change quickly Example... Intense wave action during: winter storms hurricanes Etc.
Technologies to prevent/ reduce the effects of wave action near human development include: 1.Breakwaters 2.Jetties/ wharves 3.Vegetation 4.Sea walls 5.Coastal reconfiguration
Brandon Pretty. Oceans Are Important... Primary water source for the water cycle Control weather Support diverse life Provides humans with food, minerals,
Grade 8 Science Unit 1: Wa ter Systems on Earth Chapter 2.
Grade 8 Science Water Systems on Earth The Ocean Addition!
WAVES and TIDES Section 2.3 page 64 WAVES Large ripples set in motion by steady winds Waves on the surface of water are the result of a transfer of energy.
C HAPTER 2 O CEANS C ONTROL THE W ATER C YCLE Section 2.1: Ocean Basins Section 2.2: Ocean Currents Section 2.3: Waves and Tides.
Fresh and Saltwater Systems Topic 4: The Oceans. Ocean Water is Salty 1 Kg of sea water contains 35 g of dissolved salts. This works out to 3.5% of ocean.
Topic #4 The Oceans. Agenda Check in Review last days Topic 4-The Oceans!
The Oceans Chapters 13 & 14 - The Oceans, Waves, Tides & Currents More than 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by water. Pacific – largest & deepest Atlantic.
Oceanography. How much of the Earth’s surface is water?
(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson Ocean Currents There are more than 20 major currents which move large amounts of water predictably around the oceans.
Plate techtonics See p. 41 Ocean currents.
Unit 1: Water Systems on Earth Chapter 2: Oceans Section 2.1: Ocean Basins Slide Show #4.
Oceanography Jeopardy! -Review for Unit Test. What is the smooth, nearly flat region of the ocean floor? A) Continental Slope B) Trench C) Abyssal Plain.
Chapter 4. Wave Action A wave is the movement of energy through a body of water. Most waves form when winds blowing across the water’s surface transmit.
Chapter 8 Test Prep Game. 1)What causes a surface current? a) Earth’s Orbit b) Wind c) Earth’s Rotation d) Temperature.
LANDFORMS AND OCEANS Science Standard 5-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth's land and oceans.
Earth’s Oceans Part II Source: CK12.org Earth Science Chapter 14 Author: Robert G. Smith.
The Movement of Ocean Water Chapter 20. Sections Currents Currents Waves Waves Tides Tides.
Chapter 21. Ocean Currents Ocean water moves in giant streams called CURRENTS. Two categories: Surface & Deep Currents.
Earth’s Oceans ~ James Gillen, Julia Dunn, Taylor Schellhorn, Brett Ackerman ~
Ocean Waves, Currents, and Tides Mr. Woodham 6 th Grade Earth Science Marshall Middle School.
Chapter 21 Ocean Currents Review Aimee Thompson. Global Wind Belts Trade Winds – located just north and south of the equator. In Northern Hemisphere,
Ocean Currents Chapter 5 Notes. Ocean Currents Movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern Movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern.
Ch. 22 Ocean Currents. Ocean Currents Movements of the ocean’s waters in giant “streams” 2 Major Currents: – Surface Currents – Deep Currents.
Grade Eight Science Chapter Two. An ocean current is a large mass of moving water in the ocean. A current moves in one, unchanging direction. There are.
Oceans Water, Motion, Exploration, and Life Origin of Oceans Earth was not always a blue planet. About 4 billion years ago, Earth’s volcanoes began releasing.
Bellringer: Copy the standard and Essential Question. S6E3d- Explain the causes of waves, currents and tides. Essential Question- How do currents, waves.
Chapter 16 The Dynamic Ocean OCEAN CIRCULATION.
Oceans Review. Wave Action A wave is the movement of ________ through a body of water.
Chapter 18 Ocean Motion Chapter 19 Oceanography Chapter 18.3 and 19.1 Notes Guide.
The Movement of Ocean Water Carin Miranda Smyrna Middle School
S6E3d- Explain the causes of waves, currents and tides. Essential Question- How do currents, waves and tides affect climate?
Ocean Motion. Waves are..... Wave height will change if the wind.... Waves are caused by.... Types of waves Waves cause erosion of the shoreline.
Oceanography Does water pressure increase of decrease with depth? Why is the surface temperature of oceans more variable than the water near the ocean.
WATER UNIT. WATER ON EARTH Most of Earth's water—roughly 97 percent—is salt water that is found in the oceans. Only 3 percent is fresh water. Of that.
Chapter 14 – The Movement of Ocean Water Ocean Currents – The stream like movement of water in the oceans that are influenced by many factors. Thor Heyerdahl.
Chapter 1 - Lesson 2 Earth’s Ocean and The Water We Drink Chapter 1 The Earth’s Bodies of Water.
Movements of the Ocean Chapter 21. Ocean Currents Current: a horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern, such as a river or stream. 1. Surface.
Movements of the Ocean 22.1 Ocean Currents How do we track currents? It’s not like we can follow a piece of water...
Unit 2 Oceanography Lesson 1 Earth’s Ocean and the Ocean Floor Lesson 2 Ocean Waves Lesson 3 Ocean Currents.
The Earth’s Oceans A Dynamic System where many physical and chemical changes are taking place!
Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink. - Samuel Taylor Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient.
The oceans are a connected system. Section 3.1C. Ocean water covers most of Earth. Different sections of the ocean have different names; however, all.
11/19/2010. Oceanography percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water. 2. The four major oceans are: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic.
Bellringer: Take out your power point questions from last week. Prepare to answer questions 10 and 11 and copy HW. S6E3d- Explain the causes of waves,
Plan Waves -What are they -How do they happen -What do they do Tides -What they are -How they happen -Tide mapping assignment (different beaches)
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