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Chapter 15 The First World War How and why were Canada and Newfoundland involved in the First World War?

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1 Chapter 15 The First World War How and why were Canada and Newfoundland involved in the First World War?

2 Before the War To understand World War 1, you need to understand the alliances that were in place before the war, and why they played a huge role. To understand World War 1, you need to understand the alliances that were in place before the war, and why they played a huge role. Alliances – Everyone agrees to stick together if in trouble or attacked Alliances – Everyone agrees to stick together if in trouble or attacked In 1914, there were two main alliances: In 1914, there were two main alliances: –Triple Entente (Allied Powers) - Britain, France, Russia –Triple Alliance (Central Powers) - Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy In 1915, Italy switched and joined the Triple Entente. In 1915, Italy switched and joined the Triple Entente. Other countries in the area joined one side or the other. Other countries in the area joined one side or the other.

3 Triple Entente: Triple Alliance: AlliancesAlliances Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Great Britain France Russia

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5 The Arms Race By 1914, England and Germany were in an Arms Race. They were competing to see who could build up the most weapons. By 1914, England and Germany were in an Arms Race. They were competing to see who could build up the most weapons. However, WWI didn’t start with England and Germany going to war. However, WWI didn’t start with England and Germany going to war.

6 Trouble in the Balkans The trouble really started in an area called the Balkans in southeast Europe. The trouble really started in an area called the Balkans in southeast Europe. In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over part of the Balkans called Bosnia-Herzegovina. In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over part of the Balkans called Bosnia-Herzegovina. This angered and worried the people in the Balkans. Many people felt that other areas of the Balkans were going to be taken over including Serbia. This angered and worried the people in the Balkans. Many people felt that other areas of the Balkans were going to be taken over including Serbia. People in Bosnia wanted their freedom from Austria- Hungary. People in Bosnia wanted their freedom from Austria- Hungary.

7 The Black Hand A group in Serbia called the "Black Hand" was formed. They were determined to not allow Austria-Hungary to take them over. A group in Serbia called the "Black Hand" was formed. They were determined to not allow Austria-Hungary to take them over. They also wanted to free Bosnia and many Bosnians also joined. They also wanted to free Bosnia and many Bosnians also joined.

8 Causes of WWI - Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28 th, 1914.

9 Assassination The event that set off the World War was the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophia. He was the heir to throne in Austria- Hungary. The event that set off the World War was the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophia. He was the heir to throne in Austria- Hungary. When the Black Hand found out that Ferdinand was planning a visit to Sarajevo in Bosnia, they threatened to kill him as a protest against Austria- Hungary. When the Black Hand found out that Ferdinand was planning a visit to Sarajevo in Bosnia, they threatened to kill him as a protest against Austria- Hungary. He went anyway on June 28, 1914 and a member of the Black Hand, Gavrilo Princip, shot both he and his wife. He went anyway on June 28, 1914 and a member of the Black Hand, Gavrilo Princip, shot both he and his wife.

10 Causes of WWI - A ssassination

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12 Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

13 Serbia The world was shocked by the assassination, and Austria-Hungary wanted justice. The world was shocked by the assassination, and Austria-Hungary wanted justice. Austria-Hungary accused the Serbian government of protecting and supporting the Black Hand; the Serbian Government denied that. Austria-Hungary accused the Serbian government of protecting and supporting the Black Hand; the Serbian Government denied that. Austria-Hungary wanted to come to Serbia to see for themselves; Serbia said no. Serbia felt that if Austria- Hungary came that they may try to take over Serbia. Austria-Hungary wanted to come to Serbia to see for themselves; Serbia said no. Serbia felt that if Austria- Hungary came that they may try to take over Serbia. On July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia – war escalated quickly because of alliances. On July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia – war escalated quickly because of alliances.

14 The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Germany pledged their support for Austria –Hungary (Triple Alliance) Serbia asked Russia for help and they prepared for war France got ready to help Russia (Triple Entente)

15 The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Germany declares war on Russia (felt danger in the middle of France and Russia who were preparing for war) Germany declares war on France Germany invades Belgium on the way to France Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany

16 World War I Allied Powers – Triple Entente Central Powers- Triple Alliance Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire

17 Canada and Newfoundland Join In Once Britain declared war, Canada was at war. It was expected that everyone in the British Empire would help out. Once Britain declared war, Canada was at war. It was expected that everyone in the British Empire would help out. Almost all Canadians and Newfoundlanders supported helping Britain in this instance and responded to the call for volunteers with great enthusiasm. Almost all Canadians and Newfoundlanders supported helping Britain in this instance and responded to the call for volunteers with great enthusiasm. By Sept. 10, 1914 30,000 Canadian soldiers, 8000 horses, and 1000 soldiers from Newfoundland were training for war. By Sept. 10, 1914 30,000 Canadian soldiers, 8000 horses, and 1000 soldiers from Newfoundland were training for war. 4000 Aboriginals joined Canadian forces during war. 4000 Aboriginals joined Canadian forces during war. Several thousand women became nurses and drivers. Several thousand women became nurses and drivers. More than 600,000 served by the end of 1918. More than 600,000 served by the end of 1918.

18 Regiments and Battalions Canadian army was called the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). Canadian army was called the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). Organized into battalions of about 1000 soldiers often from the same area in Canada. Organized into battalions of about 1000 soldiers often from the same area in Canada. 85 th Battalion from NS – NS Highlanders. 85 th Battalion from NS – NS Highlanders. Soldiers were loyal to their battalion. Soldiers were loyal to their battalion.

19 Who Enlisted? Eligibility: Eligibility: –male –British citizens –In good health –Between 18 and 45 years old RULES OFTEN IGNORED RULES OFTEN IGNORED

20 First Nations, Inuit, Métis Considered British subjects for enlistment but not considered Canadian citizens to vote. Considered British subjects for enlistment but not considered Canadian citizens to vote. 1 in 3 enlisted – 33% of those eligible 1 in 3 enlisted – 33% of those eligible Skilled marksman – gained respect Skilled marksman – gained respect Still faced discrimination by the government and military leaders. Still faced discrimination by the government and military leaders. After war, didn’t receive same veterans benefits as others. After war, didn’t receive same veterans benefits as others.

21 British-Canadian Volunteers Largest number of volunteers Largest number of volunteers 1 in 3 enlisted or 31% of those eligible 1 in 3 enlisted or 31% of those eligible British Canadians were the largest % of the Canadian population British Canadians were the largest % of the Canadian population

22 French Canadian Volunteers Weren’t as sure about Canadian participation in war. Weren’t as sure about Canadian participation in war. Government at first wouldn’t allow French language battalions. Government at first wouldn’t allow French language battalions. Also faced discrimination when enlisting. Also faced discrimination when enlisting. Only 15% of eligible volunteers enlisted. Only 15% of eligible volunteers enlisted. Well known and well-respected regiment known as the “Van Doos” was the Royal 22e Regiment. Well known and well-respected regiment known as the “Van Doos” was the Royal 22e Regiment.

23 African Canadians Racist policies made it impossible for them to join CEF. Racist policies made it impossible for them to join CEF. Considered an “insult” to white soldiers. Considered an “insult” to white soldiers. Allowed entrance to war if formed all black battalions still led by white commanders. Allowed entrance to war if formed all black battalions still led by white commanders. 1916 – All Black #2 Construction Battalion did logging and milling work. 1916 – All Black #2 Construction Battalion did logging and milling work. Made duckboards (floor sections from wood slats to transfer troops/supplies over the “sea of mud” battlefields). Made duckboards (floor sections from wood slats to transfer troops/supplies over the “sea of mud” battlefields).

24 Volunteers from Newfoundland 35% of all Newfoundland men between the ages of 19 and 35 joined. 35% of all Newfoundland men between the ages of 19 and 35 joined. Did similar work as the Number 2 Construction Battalion. Did similar work as the Number 2 Construction Battalion.

25 Advancing on the Enemy – Weapons and Methods of War Soldiers went into war thinking they could force Germans out of Britain and France in a couple of months. Soldiers went into war thinking they could force Germans out of Britain and France in a couple of months. Germans took control of strategic locations – easy to stop others from passing through and hard to be attacked. Germans took control of strategic locations – easy to stop others from passing through and hard to be attacked. Each side had a front line – edge of land taken so far. Each side had a front line – edge of land taken so far. No man’s land – space between two front lines, several km long and filled with barbed wire and landmines. No man’s land – space between two front lines, several km long and filled with barbed wire and landmines. Trenches dug to protect men on the front lines. Trenches dug to protect men on the front lines. Lived in trenches for weeks or months and then would take a break in field camps behind front lines. Lived in trenches for weeks or months and then would take a break in field camps behind front lines. Terrible conditions – wet, cold, filthy, crowded, disease spread quickly. Terrible conditions – wet, cold, filthy, crowded, disease spread quickly.

26 Western FrontWestern Front – over 400 miles of trenches across Belgium and France Western Front Most offenses resulted in heavy casualties but gained little territory.

27 Weapons and Methods of War – cont’d Over the top – only way to take ground from the enemy – enter no man’s land. Over the top – only way to take ground from the enemy – enter no man’s land. Other side stays in trenches and shoots at enemy out in the open with heavy artillery and/or machine guns - kill hundreds in minutes. Other side stays in trenches and shoots at enemy out in the open with heavy artillery and/or machine guns - kill hundreds in minutes. Those on attack had light weapons such as rifles that were known for jamming when mud got in them – a lot! Those on attack had light weapons such as rifles that were known for jamming when mud got in them – a lot! Stalemate – neither side could easily advance on the other so the war was not over quickly. Stalemate – neither side could easily advance on the other so the war was not over quickly.

28 Trench WarfareTrench Warfare – type of fighting during World War I in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbed wireTrench WarfareTrench Warfare Trench Warfare Cross-section of a front-line trench Cross-section of a front-line trench

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30 British trench, France, July 1916 (during the Battle of the Somme)

31 French soldiers firing over their own dead

32 An aerial photograph of the opposing trenches and no- man's land in Artois, France, July 22, 1917. German trenches are at the right and bottom, British trenches are at the top left. The vertical line to the left of centre indicates the course of a pre-war road.

33 Trench Rats Trench Rats "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." "I saw some rats running from under the dead men's greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat." Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats.Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats. Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches:

34 Officers walking through a flooded communication trench communication trench.

35 A photograph of a man suffering from trench foot.

36 British Vickers machine gun crew, western front, World War I.Vickers machine gun crewWorld War I

37 War in the Air Germans developed fighter planes with built-in machine guns. Germans developed fighter planes with built-in machine guns. In 1917, the Allies developed one as well. In 1917, the Allies developed one as well. Dogfight: met in air to fight it out. Dogfight: met in air to fight it out. The fight centered around two machines, which were maneuvering about each other like hostile eagles. Backwards and forwards, over the breathless trench lines they soared, each seeking to swoop upon the other from higher ground. Finally, “our man” got the advantage, opened his deadly machine-gun fire, and sent his opponent blazing to the ground where he landed with the sickening thud of a thunderbolt… Mary f. Gaudet, ed., A Stretcher Handle: The World War I Journal and Poems of Pte. Frank Walker, 2000.

38 War in the Air – cont’d Canada had no air force but flew with British Royal Air Force. Canada had no air force but flew with British Royal Air Force. Proved to be best fighter pilots in war. Proved to be best fighter pilots in war. Black Flight: Canadian group of fighter pilots who turned the war in the air against Germany Black Flight: Canadian group of fighter pilots who turned the war in the air against Germany –June 6, 1917: shot down 10 German planes in 1 day –Next 2 months, shot down 87 German planes –Only 2 Allied planes were lost

39 War at Sea Many Canadians joined the British Royal navy. Many Canadians joined the British Royal navy. At home – new ships were being built and pleasure boats and merchant boats were being converted to help in war effort. At home – new ships were being built and pleasure boats and merchant boats were being converted to help in war effort. Main role – get supplies to England. Main role – get supplies to England. German U-Boats: first small submarines that carried torpedoes. German U-Boats: first small submarines that carried torpedoes. 1917 – Germany started sinking ANY ship, not just warships, approaching Britain. 1917 – Germany started sinking ANY ship, not just warships, approaching Britain. Approx. 1000 Allied ships were sunk in 4 months and Britain needed supplies. Approx. 1000 Allied ships were sunk in 4 months and Britain needed supplies. Allies came up with the idea of convoys of ships where supply ships sailed in groups and the other boats acted as guards. Allies came up with the idea of convoys of ships where supply ships sailed in groups and the other boats acted as guards. This made it harder for U-Boats to sneak up. This made it harder for U-Boats to sneak up. System worked – supplies got in. System worked – supplies got in.

40 Into Battle: Second Battle of Ypres First battle of Ypres was fought in 1914 before Canadian soldiers arrived. First battle of Ypres was fought in 1914 before Canadian soldiers arrived. In 1915, Canadian soldiers joined British and French soldiers in a part of Belgium not yet invaded near the town of Ypres. In 1915, Canadian soldiers joined British and French soldiers in a part of Belgium not yet invaded near the town of Ypres. Stalemate for 3 weeks. Stalemate for 3 weeks. First time gas was used – thick, green, deadly gas caused the French part of the line to collapse and Germans advanced a little. First time gas was used – thick, green, deadly gas caused the French part of the line to collapse and Germans advanced a little. Thousands of Canadians died trying to close up the line but the survivors held on for the next day and night. Thousands of Canadians died trying to close up the line but the survivors held on for the next day and night.

41 Into Battle: Second Battle of Ypres cont’d Germans made another gas attack directly on the Canadians. Germans made another gas attack directly on the Canadians. Soldiers held ground by gasping for breath through handkerchiefs soaked in mud or urine. Soldiers held ground by gasping for breath through handkerchiefs soaked in mud or urine. Held line for 16 days. Held line for 16 days. Allied commanders congratulated the Canadian prime minister on Canada’s excellent soldiers. Allied commanders congratulated the Canadian prime minister on Canada’s excellent soldiers. 6035 Canadians died in two days – still considered a success. 6035 Canadians died in two days – still considered a success.

42 Soldiers digging trenches while protected against gas attacks

43 'Gassed'. Painting by John Singer Sargent, 1918/1919.

44 Ypres cont’d “In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields.” “In Flanders Field” written by Canadian, John McCrae – doctor with army at Ypres. “In Flanders Field” written by Canadian, John McCrae – doctor with army at Ypres.

45 The Battle of the Somme Learning from Ypres, soldiers now had gas masks and steel helmets. Learning from Ypres, soldiers now had gas masks and steel helmets. In 1916, the Allied commanders planned an attack to break through the German lines around the Somme River in Northern France and end a stalemate that existed in the trenches in Europe. In 1916, the Allied commanders planned an attack to break through the German lines around the Somme River in Northern France and end a stalemate that existed in the trenches in Europe. France was caught in another battle so the British and Canadian forces had to make the big attack on their own. France was caught in another battle so the British and Canadian forces had to make the big attack on their own. The Germans were well forewarned of the attack and ready to defend their line. The Germans were well forewarned of the attack and ready to defend their line.

46 The Battle of the Somme cont’d On the morning of July 1, 1916, 100,000 Allied troops came out of their trenches and advanced in broad daylight toward the German lines. On the morning of July 1, 1916, 100,000 Allied troops came out of their trenches and advanced in broad daylight toward the German lines. The soldiers staggered under the weight of 66 pounds of gear as they walked across a crater-filled "No Man's Land" in long orderly lines. The soldiers staggered under the weight of 66 pounds of gear as they walked across a crater-filled "No Man's Land" in long orderly lines. The Allied soldiers were easy targets for the Germans who mowed them down with machine gun fire. More than 20,000 allied soldiers lost their lives that day. The Allied soldiers were easy targets for the Germans who mowed them down with machine gun fire. More than 20,000 allied soldiers lost their lives that day. Near the town of Beaumont Hamel, Newfoundland regiment almost wiped out. Near the town of Beaumont Hamel, Newfoundland regiment almost wiped out. 801 went into battle, 68 could answer roll call the next day. 801 went into battle, 68 could answer roll call the next day.

47 The Battle of the Somme cont’d Battle continued and the strategy did not change even after the loss of life in the beginning assault – men to push forward into no man’s land. Battle continued and the strategy did not change even after the loss of life in the beginning assault – men to push forward into no man’s land. Tanks now invented but useless due to mud. Tanks now invented but useless due to mud. Battle went on for 141 days. Battle went on for 141 days. Allies advanced the front only 11km. Allies advanced the front only 11km. In total, 200,000 Allied soldiers were killed and approx. 8000 Canadians. In total, 200,000 Allied soldiers were killed and approx. 8000 Canadians. Approx. 200,000 Central Powers soldiers were also killed. Approx. 200,000 Central Powers soldiers were also killed. Canadians recognized by British for bravery. Canadians recognized by British for bravery.

48 The Battle of Vimy Ridge Early 1917 – Allies decide to try and push through the Western Front again with a major attack. Early 1917 – Allies decide to try and push through the Western Front again with a major attack. First time all Canadian battalions fought together in one place as they were to take over Vimy Ridge in northern France. First time all Canadian battalions fought together in one place as they were to take over Vimy Ridge in northern France. Vimy Ridge: hill Germans built up to be well- protected and well-supplied. Vimy Ridge: hill Germans built up to be well- protected and well-supplied. –Network of trenches, tunnels protected by barbed wire, machine guns on ridge, electric lights, and a small railway to bring in supplies.

49 The Battle of Vimy Ridge cont’d British and French troops tried to take Vimy before but failed. British and French troops tried to take Vimy before but failed. Wanted to avoid direct attack disaster of the Somme. Wanted to avoid direct attack disaster of the Somme. Built model of Ridge to practice battle plan. Built model of Ridge to practice battle plan. Made a surprise attack on April 9, 1917 in a blinding sleet storm surprising Germans in their trenches. Made a surprise attack on April 9, 1917 in a blinding sleet storm surprising Germans in their trenches. Ridge taken in a few hours. Ridge taken in a few hours. More ground, guns, and German prisoners taken in this one day than in all earlier years of the war. More ground, guns, and German prisoners taken in this one day than in all earlier years of the war. 3598 Canadian soldiers killed and approx. 6000 wounded. 3598 Canadian soldiers killed and approx. 6000 wounded.

50 The Battle of Vimy Ridge Retuning from the victory at Vimy Ridge. Why do many historians say this was the most important battle for Canada in the First World War?


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