# Cartography.

## Presentation on theme: "Cartography."— Presentation transcript:

Cartography

Map Making What is the art of making maps called?
Cartography – the art of making maps

What is a Map ? A map is a drawing or a picture of the earths surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction and size.

Lagrange Middle School

Uses of Maps What do we use Maps for?
Maps are used for: Navigation : To find places Direction to travel Determine distance Determine Size Visually display data

Different types of maps
Topographic map – Shows elevation of the land Shows 3 dimensional ups and downs on 2 dimensional surface Population density – How many people live in an area (crowdedness). Road maps, School Maps, Weather Maps, Etc…

What is on a proper map? What is on a Proper Map? Title – Key / Legend
Tells what map you are looking at. Key / Legend Shows representations of objects on the map. Scale – Shows distance on a map.

What is on a proper map? Compass – Landmarks/features –
gives direction (N,S,E,W) WE not EW to get out of the woods. Landmarks/features – objects such as mountains, buildings, parking lots ect. Roads with names – roads are labeled to clarify which roads you are looking at Latitude and longitude For navigation

Latitude and Longitude
How do we tell which is which? Latitude – Ladder – “ladder-tude” Longitude – “long” all the lines are long or “great circles” Great circles are the longest circles that can be drawn in a sphere Great circles also create 2 equal hemispheres Planes fly in great circles

What is Latitude? Latitude is the Measure of distance north and south of the equator. (Laddertude, Flatitude) What is its range? Latitude range = 0° – 90° N or S What are lines of equal latitude? Parallels are lines of the same latitude running East and West on a map Parallel to the Equator What is 0 Degrees Latitude? Equator - 0° latitude Halfway between North and South pole Latitude (shown as a horizontal line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator. Lines of latitude are often referred to as parallels.

Other notable Latitudes
North Pole: 90° N Arctic Circle: 66.5° N Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N Equator: 0° Latitude Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S South Pole: 90° S All #’s relate to 23.5 Earths Tilt The Arctic (Antarctic) Circle marks the southern (northern) extremity of the polar day (24-hour sunlit day, often referred to as the "midnight sun") and polar night (24-hour sunless night). The Tropic of Cancer (Capricorn), also referred to as the Northern (Southern) tropic, is the circle of latitude on the Earth that marks the most northerly (Southernly) position at which the Sun may appear directly overhead at its zenith

Longitude Longitude is the measure of distance east and west
of the prime meridian Longitude Range? Longitude Range 0° - 180° E or W Can only go half way around a circle Lines of equal Longitude? Meridian - Lines of equal Longitude. Run between North and South Pole Zero Degrees Longitude Prime Meridian – 0° longitude Runs through Greenwich, England What is the name for 180° The International Date Line is 180 Deg. Longitude Longitude (shown as a vertical line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. Lines of longitude are often referred to as meridians. Since the Earth rotates at a steady rate of 360° per day, or 15° per hour (in sidereal time), there is a direct relationship between time and longitude. If the navigator knew the time at a fixed reference point when some event occurred at the ship's location, the difference between the reference time and the apparent local time would give the ship's position relative to the fixed location. Finding apparent local time is relatively easy. The problem, ultimately, was how to determine the time at a distant reference point while on a ship. Distance between Lines If you divide the circumference of the earth (approximately 25,000 miles) by 360 degrees, the distance on the earth's surface for each one degree of latitude or longitude is just over 69 miles, or 111 km. Note: As you move north or south of the equator, the distance between the lines of longitude gets shorter until they actually meet at the poles. At 45 degrees N or S of the equator, one degree of longitude is about 49 miles. Minutes and Seconds For precision purposes, degrees of longitude and latitude have been divided into minutes (') and seconds ("). There are 60 minutes in each degree. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths. The International Meridian Conference was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States to determine the Prime Meridian of the world. The conference was held at the request of U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. The subject to discuss was the choice of «a meridian to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the world» (Proceedings of the 1884 International Meridian Conference, page 7)

Why did we start using Lat / Long?
We started using Latitude / Longitude For ship navigation In order to avoid problems with not knowing one's position accurately, navigators have, where possible, relied on taking advantage of their knowledge of latitude. They would sail to the latitude of their destination, turn toward their destination and follow a line of constant latitude. This was known as running down a westing (if westbound, easting otherwise).[3] This prevented a ship from taking the most direct route (a great circle) or a route with the most favourable winds and currents, extending the voyage by days or even weeks. This increased the likelihood of short rations,[4] which could lead to poor health or even death for members of the crew due to scurvy or starvation, with resultant risk to the ship. Poor navigation = Bad Day

Our Latitude / Longitude
Latitude / Longitude for Lagrangeville, NY? Lat / Long for Lagrangeville, NY 41 Deg. North / 74 Deg. West Use globe ball to show lines and get them interested

To Review Latitude first, must always include N or S
Longitude second, must always include E or W Start at equator and go N or S the number of degree Start at the Prime meridian and go E or W the number of degrees The intersection of the two lines is your location

Find these Coordinates
40° N 3° W Madrid, Spain 36° N 112° W Grand Canyon National Park 0°N 36° E Nairobi, Kenya 33° S 70° E Santiago, Chile 28° N 81° W Disney World - Orlando, Florida

Time Zones

Why do we have Time Zones?
Time zones - Longitudinal belt in which all areas have the same local time Why do we have time zones? Since the Earth rotates, not all places are in daylight at the same time. To accommodate for this, different places are set to different times

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Where is the starting point for time zones? The 0 point for time is 0° Longitude or the prime meridian (Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). How far apart is each time zone? Every time zone is 15 Deg. Apart. 360° / 24 hours = 15° / hour What happens to time when we move to the West? Every 15 deg. you move West we subtract 1 hr (Lazy Californians) What happens when we move to the East? Every 15 degrees to the East we add 1 hour (Busy NYC) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was established in 1884 at the International Meridian Conference, when it was decided to the place the Prime Meridian at Greenwich, England. How many time zones are there? The world is divided up into 24 time zones One for each hour, so they are one hour apart Each zone is approximately 15 degrees of longitude wide. All clocks in each zone are set to same time 6 zones in US (4 major, 2 for Alaska and Hawaii) Boundaries determined by geographic and political borders

International Date Line
Can we go back multiple days in time? To stop us from going to far back or forward in time, the International Date line resets the day. What happens when we cross it? Crossing to the west we add one day. Crossing it to the east we subtract one day It is the opposite of time zones! Why is the line not straight with the 180 deg meridian? The line does not run perfectly North and South, it bends around islands in its path

Time Zones in the United States
US time zones: Eastern Standard Time Central Standard Time Mountain Standard Time Pacific Standard Time Alaska and Hawaii

Mapping the Earth What is the best representation of the Earth?
The best representation of the Earth is a Globe. What happens when we try to make a map the Earth? When the round surface of the Earth is projected on a flat surface changes occur that distort the size and shape of land and oceans

Mercator Projection Mercator Maps show correct shape of coastline
Distorts the size of land and water areas far from the equator Greenland is made much larger then it really is. Greenland takes as much area on the map as Africa, when in fact Africa's area is approximately 14 times greater than Greenland. Alaska takes as much area on the map as Brazil, when Brazil's area is actually more than 5 times that of Alaska. All lines are at 90 degree angles Simplest to read Accurate direction Distorted size, distance, shape

Equal Area Projection Equal Area Maps shows area correctly
Distorts the shapes

How to write a lab – cover page (G)

How to write a lab– Purpose/Procedure (G)

How to write a lab – data (G)

How to write a lab – conclusion (G)

Map lab Conclusion (G) 1.) What is a map? 2.) What is the study of maps known as? 3.) Name and explain 3 kinds of maps people would use? 4.) What are 8 important features on a map (define) 5.) What changed from your first map to your final map? (Meaning did you add or change anything.) 6.) Explain 2 types of maps that try to fix the problem of distortion.

Lab # Latitude Longitude 1 60 N 80 W 2 40 W 3 30 N 4 5 10 N 6 70 W 7
9 30 S 10

H.I. Lab (G) / Secret Code Lab (R)
Conclusion: Define Latitude ? Define parallels ? (in terms of latitude) What is the zero point for Latitude ? Define Longitude ? Define Meridian ? (in terms of Longitude) What is the zero point for Longitude ? What are time zones, Why do we have them and how many degrees are between them? What is the International Date Line, where is it and why do we have it ?