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Organic Compounds All living things are made of organic compounds.Contain the element Carbon Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates Monomer- monosaccharideFunction- energy source and structure Tests: glucose-Benedicts starch- Iodine fructose Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch
Lipids Made of fatty acids and glycerolFunction- energy storage and insulation Tests: brown paper test Examples: fats and steroids Lipid vs. water
Nucleic Acids Monomer- nucleotide Function- carry genetic informationEx. DNA and RNA
Proteins Monomer- amino acidsFunction- building and repairing cells, communication, transport, and regulation Tests- Biurets Examples: enzymes, hemoglobin
Enzymes Catalysts in living things Specific to a particular substrateReusable Affected by temperature and pH
Cells Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Simple, no membrane bound organellesBacteria only One circular chromosome Includes: chromosome, ribosomes, and plasma membrane Eukaryotes Membrane bound organelles Plants and Animals True nucleus containing chromosomes
Nucleus “Control Center” Contains chromosomes
Mitochondria Singular: Mitochondrion“Powerhouse” of the cell Produces energy in the form of ATP Site of Aerobic respiration
Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis Plant cells ONLYContains the pigment chlorophyll
Vacuole Storage of excess materialsPlant cells usually contain one large vacuole
Ribosomes Proteins are synthesizedFound in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Plasma Membrane aka: Cell MembraneSurrounds the cell Regulates what enters/leaves the cell Helps maintain homeostasis Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins
Cell Wall Plant cells ONLYSurrounds cell and provides support and protection. Made of cellulose
Eukaryotes Plant Animal Cell wall Chloroplast Large central vacuole
Diffusion Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY NEEDED) across a membrane Solutes move from high concentration to low concentration
Osmosis Diffusion of water (also passive transport)
Active Transport Particles moving against the concentration gradient which REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP) Low concentration to high concentration
Photosynthesis Water and Carbon Dioxide used to produce Glucose and Oxygen H2O+CO2C6H12O6+O2 Occurs in the chloroplast
Aerobic Respiration Used to release energy (ATP) for cellular useC6H12O6+O2H2O+CO2 Occurs in the mitochondria
Autotroph vs. HeterotrophObtain energy from the environment Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis “Producers” Obtain energy from other living things “Consumers”
Antibiotic and Pesticide ResistancePopulations will eventually become resistant to pesticides and antibiotics with overuse
Viruses Not considered living thingsPathogens that can mutate to resist vaccines Ex. HIV, Influenza, Smallpox
Goal 2 The learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical, and cellular basis of life.
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Question 1 All organic compounds contain what element? Carbon
Physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.
Physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.. Contain carbon Molecules of living things Make up all living things Examples: Humans, Trees, Bees, Fungi,
All organic compounds contain what element? Carbon What are the two other elements most commonly found in organic compounds? Hydrogen and Oxygen Nitrogen.
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Biochemistry Identify the four basic macromolecules Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids.
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Organic Compounds All living things are made of organic compounds. Contain the element Carbon Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids.
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Answers to Reviewer. Requires energy Grows Reproduces Contains genetic material Reacts to the environment.
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