Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Wellness"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrition and Wellness Unit 4Your Active LifestyleTonja BoldingLakeside High SchoolRevised Frameworks 2008
2 4.1 Define terms related to physical fitness 1. aerobic activity – physical activity that works your heart and lungs2. anabolic steroid -an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body3. anaerobic activity -an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it4. balance -being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body; same as coordination5. body composition –the percentage of different types of tissues in the body such as fat, muscle and bone6. Body Mass Index (BMI) – a calculation of body weight and height used to define if one is underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese7. carbohydrate loading – a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy
3 8. cardio-respiratory endurance – how well your heart and lungs can keep up with your activity 9. coordination – being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves the body; same as balance 10. electrolytes – sodium, chloride, and potassium which work together to help maintain your body’s fluid balance 11. endurance – the ability to keep working your muscles without becoming overly tired 12. energy balance – the point at which the energy from the food you eat equals the energy your body uses 13. fad diets – weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and often are based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promise immediate weight loss 14. flexibility – the ability to move your muscles and joints through their full range of motion
4 15. intensity – the speed and power of movement during physical activities 16. physical activity – using your muscles to move your body17. physical fitness – having all the energy and ability to do everything you want and need to do in daily life18. sedentary – being physically inactive19. strength – power to work your muscles against resistance20. target heart rate – the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscles receive the best workout;60-90% of maximum heart rate
5 4.2 Explain the six components of physical fitness (having all the energy and ability to do everything you want and need to do in daily life)1. Body composition (the percentage of different types of tissues in the body such as fat, muscle and bone)body fat percentagemuscle massbone densityAlong with a low fat diet, exercise is a key factor in achieving and maintaining a healthy body composition.
6 2. Cardio-respiratory endurance (is how well your heart and lungs can keep up with your activity)Aerobic activity (physical activity that works your heart and lungs) is especially good for building cardio respiratory fitness.The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase your heart and breathing rate to safe levels for an extended time.Most experts recommend holding these raised levels for minutes.walking, jogging, in-line skating, bicycling,swimming laps
7 3. Balance/Coordination (being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body) A good sense of balance can help avoid falls.Activities include: ice skating, roller skating, bicycling, pilates, yoga
8 4. Flexibility (is the ability to move muscles and joints through their full range of motion) A high degree of flexibility helps prevent injury to muscles that control movement of the jointsFemales generally have the potential for greater flexibility than males.Stretching exercises can helpincrease flexibility.
9 5. Muscle endurance (the ability to keep working the muscles without becoming overly tired)It is important to develop all your muscle groups.Muscle burns fat.Muscular strength (power to work your muscles againstresistance)usually measured in terms of how much weight you can liftstrong muscles allow you to move more efficientlyweight training develops strength and lean musclescan help you avoid some sport related injuries
10 Anaerobic activities (an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it) build muscles need to perform tasks such as lifting and running.Helps with symptoms of arthritis and osteoporosisThey cannot be sustained long enough to help increase cardio respiratory fitness.They are used to build power and speed.heavy weight-lifting, sprints, jumping rope
11 Get fit with F.I.T. Gaining physical fitness involves 3 key factors: Frequency-how often you exercisestart 3 days a weekincrease to 5-7 days a weekIntensity- (the speed and power of movement) how hard you exercisein the beginning keep your pulse at about 60% of your maximum heart ratebuild up your heart rate to 70-80% of your maxTime (duration)-how long the exercise sessions lastabout 20 minutes when beginningwork up to 60 minutes
12 4.3 Describe how physical activity (using your muscles to move your body) promotes fitness Most experts agree physical activity plays a key role in achieving and maintaining good health.Exercise can affect your appearance by altering your posture, movement and weight.Exercise can help reduce the risk of developing several diseases including osteoporosis, some cancers, diabetes and stroke.Teens who exercise have improved self-control, self-esteem and body image, greater alertness and better school performance.Worksheet-Assessing Activity Goals
13 4.4 Identify different types physical activity as aerobic or anaerobic swimmingjumping ropebasketballfootballpush upssit upsbaseballtennisaerobicwalkingrunningweight liftingsprintspower liftingbicyclingskatingvolleyballaerobicanaerobicaerobicanaerobicaerobicaerobicanaerobicanaerobicanaerobicanaerobicaerobicaerobicaerobicaerobicaerobicWorksheet-Physical Activity for Physical Fitness
14 Excuse: no time/too busy 4.5 Describe excuses people give for being sedentary (being physically inactive)Excuse: no time/too busySolution: find a convenient time, work into scheduleExcuse: gym too expensiveSolution: slowly acquire home gym equipment, walk, run, ride bikeExcuse: no room for home gym equipmentSolution: community resources-church, work, schoolExcuse: too tiredSolution: exercise will provide energy, get more sleepExcuse: hate exerciseSolution: do something you like
15 4.6 Describe factors to consider when choosing physical activities 1.Types of activitiesoutdoor recreation: biking, in-line skating, running, walking, hiking, canoeingindoor recreation: dancing, stair climbing, videos and classes, jump ropeteam sports: football, basketball, volleyballindividual and partner sports: tennis, handball, racquetball, swimming, rowinglifestyle activities: walking to work or school, mowing the lawn, vacuuming, raking leaves
16 2. AgeWeight lifting is not recommended for younger teens because it can damage the growing bones.Muscle strength and endurance can be achieved by using your own weight as resistance. Ex. push ups
17 3. Fitness LevelBefore you begin an exercise program, measure your level of fitness in each of the health components.You should consult your physician before beginning a strenuous activity.Target heart rate (the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscles receive the best workout;60-90% of maximum heart rate) let you measure your initial fitness level and monitor your progress in a fitness program.
18 Finding Your Target Heart Rate 1. Use the formula to calculate your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR), which is the highest speed at which your heart muscles are able to contract:220 minus your age= maximum heart rateYou should never try to reach your MHR.
19 2. Use this formula to determine your target heart rate: MHR times .6 (60%)=_____ beats per minuteMHR times .9 (90%)=_____ beats per minuteThis is the range will help you to maintain physical fitness.
20 Measuring Your Heart Rate/Pulse Your heart rate or pulse is the number of times your heart beats per minute.Find your pulse with your index finger.Count the beats for 15 seconds.Multiply this number by 4This is your resting heart rate.An average resting heart rate for a moderately fit teen or adult is about 70 beats per minute.Someone who has been training for several months may have a resting heart rate of about 60 beats per minute
21 4.7 Summarize ways to fit physical activity into your daily life 1. Choose activities you enjoy.You will be more likely to stick to your exercise program if you enjoy it.Variety can help keep an exercise program enjoyable.Different activities also help develop different components of fitness.2. Choose a convenient time.This will increase your likelihood of following through with your exercise program.Make it a part of your daily schedule.Worksheets-I’d Like to be more ActiveWorksheet-Words to Exercise By
22 4.8 Identify ways to keep physical activity safe and healthy Your exercise program should include 3 phases for each session.1. Warm-up: prepares the muscles and increases the heart ratelasts 5-10 minutesgradually increase your heart rateex. stretching, walking
23 2. Work-out: the main part of the activity Should last at least 20 minutesVary so you don’t get bored3. Cool down: helps the body get ready to stop exercisinglast about 20 minutesstretching can increase flexibility and prevent stiffness and sorenessallows the heart rate to slow downallows the muscles to push more blood toward the heart to prevent dizziness
24 Nearly everyone can be at least moderately active, regardless of age orphysical limitations.Many activities that promote good health are free and require no special equipment.To achieve good health in the teen yearstry to accumulate at least 60 minutes ofmoderate activity daily.
25 You don’t have to set aside a 60 minutes exercise period. 4-15 minute time slotsride your bike, shoot baskets, sweep, mop,rake leavesOnce you start feeling the benefits you will want to be more active.You can change your goal to try to achieve total fitness which includes and exercise program, eating nutritious foodsand healthful lifestyle behaviors.
26 4.9 Describe how physical activity affects nutrient needs Most athletes can meet their energy needs by eating extra calories from a wide selection of nutritious foods.50-60% of calories from carbohydratesno more than 30% of calories from fatthe remaining 10-15% from proteinAn athlete who burns more calories through exercise than he or she takes in through food will lose weight.It is important for athletes to maintain an energy balance (the point at which the energy from the food you eat equals the energy your body uses)
27 Maintain Current Weight food intakephysical activity
29 Lose Weight food intake physical activity Worksheet-Calorie Counting Worksheet-Keep Energy Intake and Output in Balance
30 4.10 Discuss food and beverage strategies for peak performance Video- Eat to Win: Nutrition for AthletesFoods:Athletes need to choose foods high in carbohydrates, moderate in protein and low in fat.bagelbananapeanut butterorange & apple juicelow fat milk, cheese, yogurtfruit saladwheat toast w/jellygrilled cheese sandwichbaked potato w/ broccoli and cheese
31 Some athletes need more energy than they can comfortably take in though food. Some try carbohydrate loading (a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy)Athletes eat a diet moderate in carbohydrates for a few days. During the 3 days prior to an event a high carbohydrate diet is consumed coupled with a decrease in training intensity.Problems such as water retention, digestion distress, muscle stiffness and sluggishness are common with this practice.
32 Athletes that are diabetic are especially likely to have problems. For most athletes, attempts to increase glycogen stores are NOT needed.The best advise is to continue daily vigorous exercise, eat carbohydrate rich foods, and include a rest day now and then.The rest will help build up the glycogen you need.
33 BeveragesDrinking enough liquid may be the most important critical aspect of sports nutrition.Dehydration can cause increases in body temperature and heart rate.Performing athletes may not feel thirsty because exercise masks the sense of thirst.Sweating during moderate exercise causes you to lose 1 quart of water per hour.Vigorous workouts can cause a 2-3 quart loss of water per hour.
34 Athletes should drink even if they are not thirsty. To avoid dehydration, drink water before, during and after an event.The American Dietetics Association suggests the following plan for fluid intake:2 hrs. before event: 3 c (24 oz) water10-15 min. before: 1-2 c (8-16 oz) water10-15 min. intervals during: ½-1 c (4-8 oz) waterafter the event: 2 c (16 oz) water for every pound of body weight lost during the event
35 Water is the preferred liquid for fluid replacement. Cold water (40%) helps lower body temp and empties from the stomach more quickly.The carbohydrates in some sweetened drinks can pull water from the body into he digestive tract, causing cramps.The carbohydrates in most sports drinks are designed to be easily absorbed to prevent such cramping.Caffeine and alcohol increase body water loss and should be avoided.
36 In addition to water, athletes lose sodium when they sweat. Athletes that compete in events lasting 4 or more hours may benefit from sports drinks that contain electrolytes (sodium, chloride, and potassium which work together to help maintain your body’s fluid balance)Salt tablets are not recommended because they worsen dehydration, impair performance, irritate the stomach and may cause severe vomitingWorksheet-Power for PerformanceWorksheet-Ready for Anything
37 4.11 Distinguish between facts and myths about sports nutrition Myth: Special foods, drinks and pills will safely make an athlete stronger and/or faster.Fact: A balanced diet and healthy lifestyle can make an athlete stronger and/or faster.Myth: Anabolic steroids (an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body) are safe to use to add muscle mass.Fact: There is no fast, safe “quick fix” to add muscle mass.Myth: Caffeine increases endurance during exercise.Fact: It increases fluid loss and heart rate, can cause headache insomnia and nervous irritability.Myth: Vitamin B15 will improve efficient use of oxygen in aerobic exercise.Fact: Ruled illegal by the FDA, unsafe for human use.Worksheet-Myths That Can Lose the Game
38 4.12 Explain why suggested body weight varies for individuals There are several ways to determine whether your weight is healthy:1. Body Mass Index (BMI) (a calculation of body weight and height used to define if one is underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese)BMI does not measure bone, fat or muscleUnderweight BMI under 18.5Healthy Weight BMIOverweight BMIObese BMI 30+
39 2. Skin fold test uses calipers to measure the thickness of folds ofskins on various places of the body.thickness in mm Age 16-294thickness in mm Age 16-29
40 3. Bioelectrical impedance measures the body’s resistance to a low energyelectrical current.Lean tissue conducts electrical energy fat does not.The measure of resistance is then converted to a % of body fat.
41 American College of Sports Medicine Body Fat Chart Female (under 40)16%-28% Fitness20%-35% HealthMale (under 40)5%-15% Fitness8%-22% HealthFemale (over 40)16%-33% Fitness20%-38% HealthMale (over 40)5%-18% Fitness8%-25% Health►If a person falls above these guidelines, he or shewould be considered obese.
42 FAT FACTSYou can start seeing the upper row of abdominal muscles with a body fat percentage of 15%.To have “6-pack abs,” one must have a body fat percentage no higher than 9.8%.Men need to maintain a body fat percentage of at least 5% for health reasons.A layer of fat surrounds all the body’s organs in order to protect them. Without this fat, the organs become susceptible to impact injuries.Women need a body fat percentage of 15% to maintain a healthy menstrual cycle.The longer a woman is lower than 15% body fat percentage the less likely it is that she can become pregnant.The hormonal imbalances can cause psychological diseases such as anorexia and bulimia.
43 4. Waist to Hip Ratio:waist measurement divided by hip measurement=ratioAdult women ratio should be no higher than 0.08Adult men ratio should have no higher than 0.95Fat stored in the abdomen seems to pose a greater risk than fat stored in the buttock, hips and thighs.Men and older women are more likely toaccumulate fat in the abdominal area.“apple shaped” bodyYounger women more often storeexcess fat in the hips and thighs.“pear shaped” bodyWorksheet-Personal ProfileWorksheet-Evaluate Your Weight
44 Stay active Vary food choices Remember to change up your workout 4.13 Describe healthy ways to achieve and maintain appropriate body weightStay activeRemember to change up your workoutperiodically to prevent boredomVary food choicesMake wise and healthy food choicesModeration is the key
45 Avoid crash or fad diets (weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and often are based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promise immediate weight loss)AtkinsGrapefruit DietHollywood Diet3 DayThe Zone DietCabbage SoupLA Weight LossMayo Clinic Diet►“If it sounds to good to be true, it probably is.”
46 Ten Signs of a Fad DietPromises a large or fast weight loss (more than 1-2 lbs/week)Does not include suggestions to consult with your doctor or a registered dietitianEncourages you to eliminate food groups (such as grains) or eat from a limited selection of foodsOffers rigid menus that don't consider your likes, dislikes and lifestylesNeglects active living or lifestyle changesProvides far fewer calories than what is needed for an energized, healthy lifestyleContradicts what most trusted health professionals sayDepends on special products, supplements or treatmentsHas miraculous claimsRelies on testimonials and anecdotes rather than scientific evidence