2 Structure: ElementsElements: one type of atom Classification in the Periodic Table: Groups or Families: have similar characteristics Characteristics: Symbol: 2 letters: Capital and lower case Name: Atomic Number: # of protons Atomic Mass:# of protons + # of Neutrons Properties: metal, non-metal
3 Structure: ElementsElectron Shells: 2, 8, 8, 18 electron spaces (for our purposes) Drawing an atom Valance shell electrons: The electrons in the outer most shell. Generally these electrons are involved in bonding.
4 Structure: ElementsIsotopes: Have different versions of an element with different numbers of neutrons Atomic weight (revisited): Why a decimal number? Average weight of isotopes
5 Structure: Periodic Table Columns: Groups or FamiliesHave the same number of valance shell electronsFamilies can be referred to by name or numberRows: periodsIncreasing Atomic number
7 Structure: Groups/ Families Hydrogen H: all by itself!METALS (generally solids)Alkali Metals (group 1): 1 valance electron, very reactive, never found aloneAlkaline Earth Metals (group 2): 2 valance electrons, fairly reactive, never found aloneTransition Metals (groups 3-12) : familiar metals, hard shiny, less reactive, versatileMetalloids: (stair step) both metal and non metal propertiessome conduct electricity some do not depending on temperature, used in semi -conductors in electronics
8 Structure: Groups/ Families NON-METALS (generally gases )Carbon Group: 4 valance electrons- can gain or loose electrons to complete valance shellNitrogen Group: 5 valance electrons,Oxygen Group: 6 valance electronsHalogen Group: 7 valance electrons, very reactive, salt forming, when alone very dangerousNoble gases: full valance shell, very stable
9 Structure: Groups/ Families RARE EARTH METALS/ SYNTHETICThis group fits into the transition metals.Lanthanides: rare metals, all very similar, soft malleable metals, used in alloysActinides: rare metals, radioactive, most are synthetic (man-made in particle accelerators)